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CS2943: Distributed Service Architectures in Converged Networks

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Title: CS2943: Distributed Service Architectures in Converged Networks


1
CS294-3 Distributed Service Architectures in
Converged Networks
  • Randy H. Katz
  • Computer Science Division
  • Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
    Department
  • University of California
  • Berkeley, CA 94720-1776

2
Outline
  • What is this Course About?
  • Technology Trends
  • Evolution of the Internet
  • Business Trends
  • Implications and Issues
  • Summary and Conclusions

3
Outline
  • What is this Course About?
  • Technology Trends
  • Evolution of the Internet
  • Business Trends
  • Implications and Issues
  • Summary and Conclusions

4
Traditional Networking Course
  • All about protocols and the OSI seven layers
  • Protocol details link-state vs. distance vector,
    TCP
  • Protocol layering
  • Multiaccess technology
  • Switching and routing
  • Naming
  • Error control
  • Flow control scheduling
  • Special topics like multicast and mobility

5
What is New?
  • New things you can do inside the network
  • Connecting end-points to services with
    processing embedded in the network fabric
  • Not protocols but agents, executing in places
    in the network
  • Location-aware, data format aware
  • Controlled violation of layering necessary!
  • Distributed architecture aware of network
    topology
  • No single technical architecture likely to
    dominate think overlays, system of systems

6
Definition of Terms
  • Converged Networks
  • Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
  • Internet/Public Switched Data Network (PSDN)
  • Mobile Internet
  • Converged Structure?
  • Distributed Service Architecture
  • Services
  • -Ility connectivity
  • New call features
  • Infrastructure services
  • Enables distributed applications

7
What is this Course About?
  • Emerging, yet still developing, view of a new
    kind of communications-oriented service
    architecture in a highly heterogeneous
    environment
  • Rapid development/deployment of new services
    apps
  • Delivered to radically different end devices
    (phone, computer, info appliance) over diverse
    access networks (PSTN, LAN, Wireless, Cellular,
    DSL, Cable, Satellite)
  • Exploiting Internet-based technology core
    clients/server, applications level routers,
    TCP/IP protocols, Web/XML formats
  • Beyond traditional call processing model
    client-proxy-server plus application-level
    partitioning
  • Built upon a new business model being driven by
    the evolution of the Internet traditional
    managed networks and services versus emerging
    overlay networks and services structured on top
    of and outside of the above

8
Course Structure
  • Seminar! We learn from each other!
  • Avoid traditional lecture-oriented course
  • More student-led presentations, discussions
  • Project will be the group design and evaluation
    of a distributed service architecture
  • 2 Units/2 Hours per week
  • Every student will develop materials and lead one
    hour discussion on a selected area of technology
    to be written up by mid-semester as a term
    paper
  • Project depending on class size, we will have
    collaborating and competing teams develop a
    design and evaluation for future converged
    network service architecture
  • 20 Term Paper
  • 30 Class Discussion/Presentation
  • 50 Class Project

9
Relevant Technologies(Partial List!)
  • SIP Instant Messaging Presence Leveraging
  • Mobile Location Services
  • WAP
  • Radius/Diameter/Single Sign On
  • BGP
  • MPLS
  • Core vs. Access Networking Technologies
  • Mobey Formum
  • Operator Wireless LAN
  • DRM, PKI
  • SCPTP/IETF Sigtran
  • Architecture of Internet Data Centers and NAPs
  • PSTN architecture AIN, SS-7
  • SLAs
  • 3GPP/GPRS/Edge
  • Voice over IP with SIP
  • Internet Multimedia Architecture (RTSP, SIP, SAP,
    RTP/RTCP, IPv6, IP Mobility, DiffServ, Multicast)
  • SyncML
  • Parlay, JTAPI
  • WAP
  • Symbian/Embedded OS
  • Sun ONE, .Net, Corba, TINA
  • SMS/MMS Other Messaging Platforms
  • MGCP

10
Nokias Mobile World View
NetworkEnvironment
Internet Intranet 2G/3G
Messaging Browsing Rich Call
Interaction
URL Email Phone
Identity/ Addressing
11
Nokias Mobile Service Matrix
12
Nokias Mobile Internet Business Architecture
End Users
Developers
Content Providers
Service Providers
Consumption User Interface Applications Rich
Call Browsing Msg Middleware OS
Network Hardware
Connection Application Gateways Rich Call
Browsing Msg Middleware OS
Network Hardware
Consumption Applications Rich Call Browsing
Msg Middleware OS Network Hardware
13
Application Layer
Other and 3rd Party Applications
Browser App
Email App
Phone App
Instant Messaging Application
Streaming App
Application Programming Interface
Browser Support
Msg Support
Rich Call Support
Application Development Interfaces
Mobile Internet Layer
App Framework and UI Support
App Protocols
SDK Interfaces
Network Interface
Network Protocols
SDK Libraries
Platform Applications Interfaces
Platform Layer
I/O Drivers
OS Core
Link Layer Drivers
I/O Hardware
Processors Memory
Network Hardware
14
Nokias mPlatform Architecture
Application Interface
15
One Operators Viewpoint
Pricing Structure
Distribution
Marketing Sales
Packaging
CustomerService
Billing
Apps
Charging
HLR
3rd PartyApps
Service Domain
Support Systems
Services
Content
Data Center
Data Storage
Processing Cap
Local RadioAccess
BS
Radio AccessNetwork
Core Network
BS
Spectrum
CapacityOn-Demand
QoS Cap
Transport
CapacityOn-Demand
16
ICEBERG Architecture
Access Network Plane
ICEBERG Network Plane
Clearing House
ISP Plane
ISP1
ISP2
ISP3
17
Possible High Level Layered View of Service
Architecture
Prototype Applications Universal In-Box,
Context-Aware UI, Group Collaboration
Context-Awareness Services Activity
Tracking/Coordination,Preferences
Specification/Interpretation
Adaptation Services Introspection, Tacit
Information Extraction/Organization
Wide-Area Services Discovery, Mobility, Trust,
Availability
Performance Measurement and Monitoring
Core Wide-Area Network
Edge/Access Networks
18
Outline
  • What is this Course About?
  • Technology Trends
  • Evolution of the Internet
  • Business Trends
  • Implications and Issues
  • Summary and Conclusions

19
Technology Trends
  • Computing
  • Convergence, Divergence, Scale
  • Networks
  • Internet vs. Telephone Network
  • Wireless/Mobile Access
  • Services
  • E-commerce, M-commerce/M-transactions (iMode),
    Content
  • Messaging as a major application (P2P, P2M, M2M)
  • Architecture
  • Integrated (Closed) vs. Composed (Open)
    Content, Distribution, Access Architecture
  • Managed vs. Overlay Networks and Services
  • Competitive vs. Cooperative Service Providers

20
Internet Growth
The Industry Standard, 2 July 2001
21
Convergence?
Red Herring, 10/99
22
Divergence!
Proliferation of diverse end devices and access
networks
Red Herring, 10/99
23
X-Internet Beyond the PC
Forrester Research, May 2001
24
X-Internet Beyond the PC
Forrester Research, May 2001
25
The Shape of Things Now
  • Siemens SL45
  • A cellular phone with voice command, voice
    dialing, intelligent text for short messages
  • An MP3 player headset
  • A digital voice recorder
  • Supports Mobile Internet with a built-in WAP
    Browser
  • Can store
  • 45 minutes of music
  • 5 hours of voice notes
  • Unlimited addresses/phone numbers

26
The Shape of Things Now
  • Kyocera QCP 6035
  • Palm OS/CDMA
  • Palm PIM Applications
  • Supports Mobile Internet with a built-in WAP
    Browser
  • 8 MBytes

27
The Shape of Things to Come
  • Toyota Pod Concept Car
  • Co-designed with Sony
  • Detects drivers skill level and adjust
    suspension
  • Detects drivers mood (pulse rate, perspiration),
    compensates for road rage and incorporates a mood
    meter (happy vs. angry face)
  • Inter-pod wireless LAN to communicate intentions
    between vehicles, such as passing
  • Individual entertainment stations for each
    passenger

28
The iMode Story It is About Services
  • 27M Internet-capable cell phone sub-scribers
    (10/01) 50K iMode Web Sites
  • Worlds largest ISP, first to deploy 3GFreedom
    of Multimedia Access (FOMA)
  • Not just about Japanese teenagers

Applications Used
User Ages
Economist Magazine, 13 Oct 2001
29
After the PC True Convergence
  • Not just about gadgets or access technologies
  • About services and applications, and how the
    network can best support them
  • Increasing, not decreasing, diversity
  • Bottlenecks moving from core towards edge
  • Enabled by computing embedded in communications
    fabric wide-area, topology-aware, distributed
    computing

30
What is the Internet?Its the TCP/IP Protocol
Stack
Applications
  • Applications
  • Web
  • Email
  • Video/Audio
  • TCP/IP
  • Access Technologies
  • Ethernet (LAN)
  • Wireless (LMDS, WLAN, Cellular)
  • Cable
  • ADSL
  • Satellite

Middleware Services
Transport Services and Representation Standards
Narrow Waist
TCP/IP
Open Data Network Bearer Service
Network Technology Substrate
Access Technologies
31
Telephony Evolution
  • Mobility/Wireless driving end-to-end digitization
    of the telephony system
  • Shift towards IP-based infrastructure (Nokia
    All-IP Architecture)
  • Converged Services
  • ATT
  • Cell Phone, Telephone, ISP, Video on Demand
    (Cable)
  • Universal Billing Systems
  • Sprint 0.05/min local/long distance,
    wired/wireless
  • Computer-Telephony Integration
  • Call Centers, Software-based PBXs, PSTN By-Pass
  • Consumer-to-Business E-commerce (e.g., Lands End)
  • Speech-Enabled Services (e.g., Concierge)

32
Internet vs. Telephone Net
  • Strengths
  • Intelligence at ends
  • Decentralized control
  • Operates over heterogeneous access technologies
  • Weaknesses
  • No differential service
  • Variable performance delay
  • New functions difficult to add since end nodes
    must be upgraded
  • No trusted infrastructure
  • Strengths
  • No end-point intelligence
  • Heterogeneous devices
  • Excellent voice performance
  • Weaknesses
  • Achieves performance by overallocating resources
  • Difficult to add new services to Intelligent
    Network due to complex call model
  • Expensive approach for reliability

33
Cellular Services Most Often Requested
After basic wireless telephony service
  • Call Forwarding 37
  • Paging 33
  • Internet/E-Mail 24
  • Traffic/Weather 15
  • Conference Calling 13
  • News 3

Source CTIA Web Page Peter D. Hart Research
Associates, March 1997
34
Services and ApplicationsE-Commerce
  • Consumer Services
  • Consumer-driven QoS improved Web access
    experience
  • Converged digital video web content (e.g.,
    HVML)
  • Unified billing pay-per-view movie plus
    ad-induced pizza purchase
  • Content delivery file mover/software
    upgrades/digital audio/video
  • Infrastructure storage back-up, photos, mp3s,
    videos, TV tapings
  • Consumer-to-Business Services
  • Web-based (IP-based) Telephone
  • New kinds of integrated call centers e.g., Lands
    End
  • M-Commerce
  • Location-sensitive ad insertion
  • Unified billing for telecom access purchases

35
Outline
  • What is this Course About?
  • Technology Trends
  • Evolution of the Internet
  • Business Trends
  • Implications and Issues
  • Summary and Conclusions

36
The ARPANet
  • Paul Baran
  • RAND Corp, early 1960s
  • Communications networks that would survive a
    major enemy attack
  • ARPANet Research vehicle for Resource Sharing
    Computer Networks
  • 2 September 1969 UCLA first node on the ARPANet
  • December 1969 4 nodes connected by phone lines

37
(No Transcript)
38
ARPANet Evolves into Internet
39
(No Transcript)
40
(No Transcript)
41
Parallel Backbones
42
(No Transcript)
43
Network Cloud
44
Regional Nets Backbone
Regional Net
Regional Net
Regional Net
Backbone
Regional Net
Regional Net
Regional Net
LAN
LAN
LAN
45
Backbones NAPs ISPs
ISP
ISP
ISP
NAP
ISP
NAP
Backbones
Business ISP
Consumer ISP
Dial-up
LAN
LAN
LAN
46
Core Networks Access Networks
DSLAlways on
Cable Head Ends
_at_home
Covad
Core Networks
ISP
NAP
Cingular
NAP
Satellite Fixed Wireless
Sprint
AOL
Cell
Cell
Cell
Dial-up
LAN
LAN
LAN
47
Computers Inside the Core
DSLAlways on
Cable Head Ends
_at_home
Covad
ISP
NAP
Cingular
NAP
Satellite Fixed Wireless
Sprint
AOL
Cell
Cell
Cell
Dial-up
LAN
LAN
LAN
48
Interconnected WorldAgile or Fragile?
  • Baltimore Tunnel Fire 18 July 2001
  • The fire also damaged fiber optic cables,
    slowing Internet service across the country,
  • Keynote Systems says the July 19 Internet
    slowdown was not caused by the spreading of Code
    Red. Rather, a train wreck in a Baltimore tunnel
    that knocked out a major UUNet cable caused it.
  • PSINet, Verizon, WorldCom and AboveNet were some
    of the bigger communications companies reporting
    service problems related to peering, methods
    used by Internet service providers to hand
    traffic off to others in the Web's
    infrastructure. Traffic slowdowns were also seen
    in Seattle, Los Angeles and Atlanta, possibly
    resulting from re-routing around the affected
    backbones.
  • The fire severed two OC-192 links between
    Vienna, VA and New York, NY as well as an OC-48
    link from, D.C. to Chicago. Metromedia routed
    traffic around the fiber break, relying heavily
    on switching centers in Chicago, Dallas, and
    D.C.

49
Service-Level Peering
  • Need common architecture for different vendors to
    create components and work with one another while
    still competing
  • Some Observations
  • IP originally designed for cooperative
    administrative environments
  • BGP recently retrofitted to architecture to
    manage administrative relationships
  • How to design in managed peering from first
    principles?
  • Solution Based on Redirection Above IP
  • Define the redirection architecture
  • New client/infrastructure protocol API (a la
    DNS)
  • Do so in backward compatible way

50
Application-Specific Overlays
  • E.g., solve the multicast management and peering
    problems by moving up the protocol stack

Isolated multicast clouds
Traditional unicast peering
Steve McCanne
51
Application-Level Servers/Routers
  • Solve the multicast management and peering
    problems by moving up the protocol stack

Steve McCanne
52
Outline
  • What is this Course About?
  • Technology Trends
  • Evolution of the Internet
  • Business Trends
  • Implications and Issues
  • Summary and Conclusions

53
Layerized Internet Service Business Model
54
A New Kind of Internet
Customer J
55
Open vs. Closed Access to Services
Access
Local Network Management
Routing Distribution
Content
  • Closed end-to-end pipe optimized performance
  • But companies developing compelling
    infrastructure technology that any content
    provider or ISP can adopt
  • Closed system cant benefit from these

56
From Network Management to Service Management
  • Server and site availability
  • Balanced server and site load
  • Rapid change
  • Network and application flexibility
  • Scalability
  • Complex site administration

Chris Morino, Resonate
57
Service Reliability is Critical
Chris Morino, Resonate
58
Competition vs. Cooperation
  • Internet Service Providers Competition
  • Peering for packet transport BGP protocol
  • Charging based on traffic volumes

ISP A
Hot Potato Routing
ISP B
59
Mobile Internet Might Be Different Than Wired
Internet
  • Wireless is a smarter pipe
  • Location-awareness
  • UI dictates need for personalization, mediation
  • Clear billing authority its the access provider
  • People actually do pay for transport
  • Reverse billing allows content provider to charge
    for service
  • Peering as a necessity
  • Operators provide local service
  • Roaming agreements provide basis for service
    peering
  • Well understood arrangements for settlements
  • New economies driving towards shared network
    deployment
  • Person-to-Person communications is a killer app
  • Microsofts non-monopoly

60
Cooperation and Peering
  • 3G Spectrum Auctions 150 billion ECUCapital
    outlays may match spectrum expenses, all before
    first revenue
  • New business models in Mobile Networks
  • Compelling services make the difference
  • Collaborate on deployment of physical network
  • Compete on provisioning of services
  • Peering For More Than Connectivity
  • Horizontal architecture of services on top of
    networks
  • Virtual Home Environments
  • Relationships between operators, billing
    agents,service providers

61
Any Way to Builda Network?
  • Partitioning of frequencies independent of actual
    subscriber density
  • Successful operator oversubscribe resources,
    while less popular providers retain excess
    capacity
  • Different flavor of roaming among
    collocated/competing service providing
  • Duplicate antenna sites
  • Serious problem given community resistance
  • Redundant backhaul networks
  • Limited economies of scale

62
The Case for Horizontal Architectures
  • The new rules for success will be to provide one
    part of the puzzle and to cooperate with other
    suppliers to create the complete solutions that
    customers require. ... Vertical integration
    breaks down when innovation speeds up. The big
    telecoms firms that will win back investor
    confidence soonest will be those with the courage
    to rip apart their monolithic structure along
    functional layers, to swap size for speed and to
    embrace rather than fear disruptive
    technologies.
  • The Economist Magazine, 16 December 2000

63
Feasible Alternative Horizontal Competition vs.
Vertical Integration
  • Service Operators own the customer, provide
    brand, issue/collect the bills
  • Independent Backhaul Operators
  • Independent Antenna Site Operators
  • Independent Owners of the Spectrum
  • Microscale auctions/leases of network resources
  • Emerging concept of Virtual Operators

64
Business as UsualVertical Integration
PBMS
Sprint
Access Network
Access Network
Backhaul Network
Backhaul Network
PSTN Network (Multiservice Provider today)
Internet (Multiservice Provider today)
  • Each operator owns own frequencies, cell sites,
    backhaul network

65
Business Unusual Horizontal Competition
Sprint leases frequencies from PBMS,
on-demand, based on the density of its subscribers
MomPop Cell Site Operators
Access Network
Access Network
Backhaul Network
Backhaul Network
PSTN Network
Internet
66
VirtualOperator
  • MVNO Virgin Mobile and One2One in UK
  • Distinguish based on marketing and billing plan
    innovations
  • VM competes for subscribers but uses One2Ones
    network
  • Operators without subscribers local premises
    deploy own access infrastructure
  • Better coverage/more rapid build out of network
  • Deployments in airports, hotels, conference
    centers, office buildings, campuses,
  • Overlay service provider (e.g., PBMS) vs.
    organizational service provider (e.g., UCB IST)
  • Single bill/settle with service participants
  • Operator Wireless LAN
  • Support for ensemble devices
  • Cell Phone Wall Camera Display

67
Outline
  • What is this Course About?
  • Technology Trends
  • Evolution of the Internet
  • Business Trends
  • Implications and Issues
  • Summary and Conclusions

68
What will be the Next Generation of Driving
Applications?
  • Location-aware/context-aware information delivery
    and presentation
  • Extends UniIn-Box loc-based, exploits calendar
    info
  • Mediation to translate formats
  • IP Telephony, Packet VoD, Teleconferencing
  • Streaming media, multicast-based
  • Bandwidth, latency, jitter, lose rate constraints
  • Clearinghouse provisioning
  • Event Delivery for Distributed Applications
  • Performance/reliability constrained messaging
  • Management of Content Delivery Networks,
    Distributed Service architecture?
  • Interactive Games? Distributed Storage
    (OceanStore)? Telemetry?

69
What Will Be the Next Generation Operational
Environment?
  • Virtual Operators/Service Provider (VOSP)
  • Provide service to end users with no
    server/network infrastructure of own
  • Independent Path providers (e.g., ISPs) and
    Server providers (e.g., Internet Data Centers)
  • Many-to-many relationship between VOSP and
    Path/Server Providers
  • Confederated Service Provider
  • Service-level peering sharing of paths and
    servers to deploy end-to-end service with
    performance and reliability constraints
  • Note Akamai runs the worlds largest service
    network without owning a network!

70
Alternative Operational Environments
  • Confederation Model
  • Providers share (limited) information about
    topology, server location, path performance
  • Cooperatively collect internal information and
    share
  • Overlay Model
  • Reverse-engineer topology and intra-cloud
    performance
  • Collection done by brokers outside of the cloud
  • SLAs, Verification, Maintenance of Trust
    Relationships different in the two models
  • Is there an operational/performance advantage to
    the Confederation Model?

71
Open Issues/Questions
  • Traditional Overlay Networks
  • Server (Application Level Router) Placement
  • For scaling, reliability, load balancing, latency
  • Where? Network topology discovery WAN Core,
    Metro/Regional, Access Networks
  • Choice of Inter-Server Paths
  • For server-to-server latency/bandwidth/loss rate
  • Predictable/verifiable network performance
    (intra-ISP SLA)
  • Redirection Mechanisms
  • Random, round-robin, load-informed redirection
  • Net vs. server as bottleneck

72
Open Issues/Questions
  • Performance-constrained Service Placement
  • Separation of Service, Server, Service Path
  • Assume Server Centers known, can be
    discovered (how does OceanStore deal with
    this?), or register with a Service Placement
    Service (SPS)
  • How is Service named, described, performance
    constraints expressed, and registered?
  • How is app/service-specific performance measured
    and made known to Service Placement Service?
  • Brokering between Server Centers and Service
    Creator, Path Provider and Service Creator
  • If core network bandwidth becomes infinite and
    free, does it matter where services are placed?
  • Latency reduction vs. economies of centralized
    management

73
Emerging Reference Architecture
Distributed Application
Constraint Specification
Marshal Resources Based on Economic Constraints
Adapt
Service Redirection
Service Registration
Service Placement Service
Pricing Service
Path Broker
Server Broker
Perf Measurement Service
Server Registration
Advertisement Registration
SLAs
Verify
Path Provider (ISP Cloud)
Path Provider (ISP Cloud)
Path Provider (ISP Cloud)
Path Provider (ISP Cloud)
Path Provider (ISP Cloud)
Server Center Provider
74
Methodological Framework
  • Problem performing scaled, wide-area networking
    studies in the current Internet environment
  • Possible Solution Wide-area Network Emulation
  • Virtual WAN (VWAN) on Large-scale Multicomputer
    Testbeds
  • Build operational model on top of VWAN
  • Traffic generation and measurement infrastructure
  • Build Confederation and Overlay operational
    models
  • What part of mechanisms for measurement,
    negotiation, registration, redirection, etc. the
    same and which are different?

75
Outline
  • What is this Course About?
  • Technology Trends
  • Evolution of the Internet
  • Business Trends
  • Implications and Issues
  • Summary and Conclusions

76
Connectivity and Processing
77
Challenges for Converged Networks
  • Services spanning access networks, to achieve
    high performance and manage diversity of end
    devices
  • Not about specific Information Appliances
  • Builds on the New Internet multiple
    application-specific overlay networks, with new
    kinds of service-level peering
  • Pervasive support for services within
    intelligent networks
  • Automatic replication
  • Document routing to caches
  • Compression mirroring
  • Data transformation

78
Managing Edge VersusCore Services
  • Wide-area bandwidth efficiency
  • Increasing b/w over access networks, but
    impedance mismatch between core and access nets
  • Fast response time (and more predictable)
  • Opportunity to untegrate localized content
  • Associated with client (actually ISP), not server
  • Examples
  • Caching exploits response time, b/w efficiency,
    high local b/w
  • Filtering form of local content transformation
  • Internet TV b/w efficiency, high local b/w,
    predictable response
  • Transformation adapt content for end
    user/diverse access devices
  • Software Rental sxploits high local b/w
  • Games, chat rooms, .

79
Yielding a New Research Agenda
  • New Definition of Quality of Service
  • Perceived quality depends on services in the
    network
  • Manage caches, redirection, NOT bandwidth
  • Enable incorporation of localized content
  • Bandwidth Issues
  • Tier 1 ISP backbones rapidly moving towards OC
    192 (9.6 gbs!)
  • Better interconnection hops across ASs
    decreasing over time
  • Emerging broadband access networks cable, DSL,
    ...
  • End-to-end latency/server load dominate
    performance
  • Supporting Old Services in the New Internet
  • IP Multicast, DNS,
  • Rethinking the End-to-End Principle
  • Service/content-level peering, just like
    routing-level peering
  • Secure end-to-end connection compatible with
    service model?
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