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Animal Science II-Small Animal

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Animal Science II-Small Animal Birds-Unit H Competency 19.00 Summarize the use of birds as pets. Objective 19.01 Summarize the characteristics of major birds used for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Science II-Small Animal


1
Animal Science II-Small Animal
  • Birds-Unit H

2
Competency 19.00
  • Summarize the use of birds as pets.

3
Objective 19.01
  • Summarize the characteristics of major birds used
    for pets.

4
Parrot Family
  • Contains some of the smartest birds.
  • Many species can be taught to talk, are
    affectionate, and make excellent pets.
  • Members of the parrot family are known for their
    large beaks, especially the Macaws.
  • Includes Cockatoos, Cockatiels, Conures, Macaws,
    Parrots, Parakeets, Lovebirds, Hanging Parakeets

5
Lories and Lorikeets (Parrot Family)
  • Brush-like tongues used to lap up nectar and
    pollen from flowers

6
Cockatoos (Parrot Family)
  • Crest or tuft of feathers on the top of the head
  • Ability to mimic words and sounds
  • Intelligent
  • Range in length from 13-30
  • Popular birds that make excellent pets
  • Tame easily

7
Cockatoos (Parrot Family)
8
Cockatiel (Parrot Family)
  • One of the most popular pet birds
  • About 12 long (the size of a small cockatoo)
  • Commonly found in pet stores at a reasonable
    price
  • Gray cockatiels are mostly available.
  • Ideal for beginners and youngsters
  • Easy to raise and affectionate

9
Cockatiel (Parrot Family)
10
Blue and Gold Macaw (Parrot Family)
  • Up to 30 long
  • Most alert and intelligent of all macaws
  • Very curious and mischievous
  • Prices usually range from 600-1000
  • This species is one of the more popular macaws
    and most commonly seen

11
Blue and Gold Macaw (Parrot Family)
12
Petz Conure (Parrot Family)
  • Sold as a dwarf parrot in the US
  • Primary color is green
  • Becomes very tame
  • Excellent pet

13
African Gray Parrot (Parrot Family)
  • 13 long
  • Primary color is gray
  • Very alert, intelligent and affectionate
  • Considered to be the best talker of all birds
  • Voice closely resembles a human voice

14
African Gray Parrot (Parrot Family)
15
Budgerigar-budgie (Parrot Family)
  • Most popular pet bird in the world
  • Australian bird that gets its name, which means
    good bird or good food, from the Aborigines
  • About 7 long with a primary color of
    yellowish-green
  • Can be taught to talk with proper training
  • Easy to care for, inexpensive pet
  • Eats food from floor of cage

16
Budgerigar-budgie (Parrot Family)
17
Indian Ringneck Parakeet (Parrot Family)
  • 17 long with tapering tail making up about half
    of its length
  • Pastel green color
  • Excellent pet and good talker
  • Price range from 150-500

18
Lovebirds (Parrot Family)
  • Hardy and long-lived birds that make excellent
    pets if obtained when very young
  • Sometimes have a harsh voice
  • Most common pet species is the Peach Faced
    Lovebird (Rosy-faced lovebird)

19
Lovebirds (Parrot Family)
20
Toucans (Woodpecker Family)
  • Fairly rare as pets
  • May cost 2500 or more
  • Very noisy birds
  • About the size of a macaw
  • Extremely large bill, which can be almost as long
    as the birds body

21
Toucans (Woodpecker Family)
22
Perching Birds
  • Largest family of birds
  • Almost 60 of all birds (5,100 of 9,000 bird
    species)
  • Good singers known as song birds

23
Starlings (Perching Family)
  • Talking Mynah bird is in this group. It is a
    black bird with an orange bill
  • Has the ability to mimic the human voice and
    other sounds
  • Require lots of care
  • Cages must be cleaned daily because Mynah birds
    have a diet of fruit
  • Prices range from 300 to 500

24
Starlings (Perching Family)
25
Canary (Perching Family)
  • Very important pet
  • Some are bred for their color
  • Others are bred for their singing ability
  • Some are bred to have a crested top (feathering
    on the top of the head)

26
Canary (Perching Family)
27
Whydah birds (Perching Family)
  • Pronounced Widow
  • Have bright colors for 6-8 months and then fade
    to dull colors

28
Finches (Perching Family)
  • Small birds that are sociable in nature
  • Bengalese Finch is the most social of all birds
  • Zebra Finch is the most widely kept and bred
    finch in captivity.

29
Finches (Perching Family)
30
Objective 19.02
  • Discuss the care and maintenance of pet birds.

31
Cages
  • For large parrot-type birds must be made of
    heavy-gauge metal
  • Size ranges from 26 long x 20 wide x 20 high
    for a single cockatiel to 6 x 3 x 3 for a
    mynah bird
  • Cockatoos, Conures, Macaws, and Parrots need
    larger cages

32
Cages
  • Canaries, lovebirds, and budgerigars like the
    company of other birds and should not be caged
    singly
  • Cages are usually smaller
  • 18 x 10 x 10 for a pair of
    canaries
  • 24 x 14 x 48 for a pair of
    budgies
  • 4 x 4 x 4 for a pair of lovebirds

33
Cages
  • Finches need a rectangular cage to allow long
    horizontal flight to imitate their natural flight
    and reduce stress from circular flight.
  • Finches need a larger cage than canaries and
    budgies.

34
Cages
  • Macaws need a cage 3 long x 2 wide x 3 ½
    high.
  • A cage for macaws can be constructed using 12- to
    14-gauge wire with a ½ x 3 wire mesh.
  • Smaller wire mesh is needed for outside cages to
    prevent mice, rats, and other birds from being a
    problem.

35
Perches
  • Size and style depend on the bird
  • Most store bought cages come with hard plastic
    perches which may be uncomfortable for birds.
  • If birds refuse to perch, replace plastic perches
    with wood perches that are more natural for birds.

36
Perches
  • Larger birds like larger perches, smaller birds
    like smaller perches
  • Finches/canaries- ½ round perch
  • Budgerigars- ½ oval perch
  • Parrots- 1 square perch

37
Perches
  • The perch for large parrot-type birds must be
    replaced as these birds destroy wood perches.
    However, the bird exercises its beak and stays
    busy in the process.

38
Perches
  • Limbs and tree branches make natural perches, but
    care must be taken to insure they are free of
    mold and pesticide residue.

39
Perches
  • Tapered perches work well because they give the
    bird a choice of most of the comfortable perching
    spot.

40
Water and Feed Containers
  • Water containers need to be hard and easy to
    clean materials like glass, ceramic, or stainless
    steel

41
Water and Feed Containers
  • Gravity-type waterers that hang outside the cage
    with a metal spout/tube extending into the cage
    work excellent.

42
Water and Feed Containers
  • Feed containers may be plastic for smaller birds,
    but parrot-type birds need the same kind of
    material used for watering containers

43
Toys
  • Prevent boredom
  • Large parrot-type birds need
    stainless-steel chains with bells
  • Smaller birds like canaries and finches can have
    mirrors, chains with bells, and ladders

44
Cage Location
  • Location of cage must be out of direct sunlight,
    free from drafts, in a place of constant
    temperature, and protected from hazards like
    poisonous plants and pets.

45
Feeding
  • Most birds eat one of three thingsseed, fruit,
    and/or nectar

46
Seed
  • The vast majority of birds have a diet of seed
  • Cereal seedshigher content of carbohydrates
    compared to oil
  • Canary seed, millet, corn, dehusked oat kernals
  • Oil seedshigher in fat content than cereal seed
    and lower in carbohydrates
  • Sunflower, peanuts, safflower, pine nuts, rape,
    maw niger, linseed

47
Seed
  • Usually bought in a commercial premixed ration of
    cereal and oil seed that is formulated for
    certain bird species and provides balance and
    variety
  • Should be dry and free of dust and dirt
  • Moldy seed should never be fed (peanuts are very
    susceptible)

48
Seed
  • May be soaked in warm water for 24 hours for
    young birds who may have difficulty cracking the
    seed with their beak or for birds during the
    breeding and molting season

49
Soaked Seeds
  • Soaking stimulates germination which causes a
    chemical change that increases the protein
    content of the seeds.
  • Before feeding, rinse in tap water and examine
    for mold or fungi
  • Discard any soaked seeds not consumed within a
    few hours and clean containers before feeding
    more soaked seeds

50
Fruit
  • Consumed by Mynah, lories, and lorikeets
  • Diet does not include seeds, grit, and cuttlefish
  • Soft bill pellets or foods from the pet store
  • Fruitapple slices, grapes, orange slices, and
    banana or dried fruit can be fed
  • Mealworms are live food that can be fed also

51
Nectar
  • Nectar and pollen are consumed by lories and
    lorikeets
  • Powdered nectar is available from a pet store to
    mix with water

52
Other Feed Options
  • Green plant material
  • Carrot tops, chickweed, dandelion leaves
  • Kale and spinach in moderation (too much green
    can cause diarrhea)
  • Avoid lettuce because it lacks nutritional value
  • Wash to remove any pesticide residue
  • Feed after it has warmed to room temperature

53
Other Feed Options
  • Grit aids in the ventriculus in grinding food up
    since birds have no teeth
  • Soluble-oyster shell breaks down and is a source
    of minerals
  • Insoluble-crushed granite provides the base for
    food to rub and work against to be ground up

54
Other Feed Options
  • Cuttlefish bone (marine mollusk)
  • Provides a source of calcium and will readily be
    eaten by larger birds
  • Smaller birds may need cuttlefish shaved or
    chipped
  • Particularly useful to female birds who need
    calcium for egg production

55
Handling and Training
  • Allow birds to adjust to new locations for 2 to 3
    days before any handling is attempted.
  • Offer a treat at regular intervals until it will
    take the treat through an open door cage
  • Press a stick perch up against the birds chest
    above the legs to encourage the bird to step up
    on it

56
Handling and Training
  • Once the bird is comfortable one may substitute a
    finger or hand for the bird to perch on
  • Leather gloves may be needed for larger birds
    that use their beak to climb to perch

57
Clipping Wings
  • Wings can be clipped to restrict their ability to
    fly and prevent escape
  • Painless
  • Primary and secondary flight feathers are cut
    just above the base of the feather shaft
  • Cutting into the feather shaft will result in
    injury and bleeding

58
Clipping Wings
  • The two outer primary flight feathers are left
    for aesthetic purposes

59
Teaching to Talk
  • Budgerigars, cockatiels, parrots, macaws and
    cockatoos can be taught to talk
  • Young males are usually the best learners and
    easiest to teach
  • Remove distractions such as mirrors, toys, and
    feed during lessons
  • The same person needs to work with a bird on a
    regular basis. Usually women and children are
    better trainers.

60
Teaching to Talk
  • Lessons should be given at the same time
    everyday.
  • Limit the length to about 15 minutes each day
  • Use short phrases and words and slowly repeat them

61
Competency 20.00
  • Use principles of bird management to create a
    healthy habitat for pet birds.

62
Objective 20.01
  • Discuss the major diseases and ailments of birds.

63
Internal Parasites
  • Rarely a problem with birds, however some are
    possible
  • Roundworms
  • Tapeworms

64
Roundworms
  • Contracted from ingesting worm eggs in
    contaminated feces, soil, or food.
  • Diagnosis is by observing feces for long, thin,
    white worms
  • Symptoms blockage of the intestines, poor
    plumage, weight loss, diarrhea
  • Several treatments are available

65
Tapeworms
  • Contracted by eating an intermediate host such as
    houseflies, fleas, ticks or earthworms
  • Diagnosed by observing small, rice-like segments
    in the feces
  • Proper cleaning and sanitation practices are best
    prevention
  • Treatment is with piprazine, nicotine sulfate and
    kamal powder

66
External Parasites
  • Red Mites
  • Feather Mites
  • Scaly leg mites

Red Mite
Feather Mite
Damage from Scaly Leg Mite
67
Red Mites
  • Appear as tiny red specks and feed on blood of
    infected birds at night
  • Causes restlessness, scratching, and picking at
    feathers
  • Spread through contact with infected birds
  • Adults may be dusted with a pyrethium powder
  • Clean and disinfect all cages and nest boxes

68
Feather Mites
  • Cause a bird to chew or pick its feathers
  • If feathers look chewed, or feathers are lost,
    look for small, gray-colored moving specks
  • Feed both night and day

69
Feather Mites
  • Symptoms restlessness, severe scratching,
    feather picking, skin irritation
  • Cages and equipment should be treated with
    nicotine sulfate, malathion, or coumaphos
  • Birds should be sprayed with mite spray

70
Scaly Leg Mites
  • Mites that tunnel under the scales on the legs of
    budgies, lovebirds, and canaries.
  • Have their entire life cycle on the bird
  • Symptoms White scaly deposits that become
    thickened, enlarged, and encrusted

71
Scaly Leg Mites
  • Treatment
  • Use Vaseline or mineral oil to kill the mites and
    loosen the deposits
  • This also plugs the air holes used by the mites
    and causes them to suffocate
  • Additional treatment is by cleaning cages,
    perches, and equipment

72
Bacterial Diseases-Parrot Fever
  • Also known as chlamydiosis or psittacosis
  • Affects the liver and spleen
  • Contracted mainly through feces and contaminated
    food and water
  • Symptoms nasal discharges, listlessness,
    appetite loss, weight loss, greenish-colored
    bacteria, labored breathing

73
Bacterial Diseases-Parrot Fever
  • Treatment birds should eat chlortetracycline-imp
    regnated seed for at least 21 days
  • Psittacosis can be transmitted to humans

74
Bacterial Diseases-Bumblefoot
  • A painful ailment associated with staphylococcal
    infections
  • Symptoms feet and joints become hot and swollen
    with a thick, grayish white fluid, and not
    walking or clasping onto the perch
  • Prevention suitable perches and sanitation
  • Treatment Antibiotics

75
Bacterial Diseases-Bumblefoot
76
Viral Disease-French Molt
  • Also known as Psittacine beak and feather disease
  • Attacks the immune system
  • Birds beak and nails may be soft, overgrown, and
    lose their pigment
  • Symptoms become evident at the first molt when
    new feathers do not emerge or are deformed and
    break off

77
Viral Disease-French Molt
  • Treatment is with vitamins, minerals, and control
    of secondary diseases through sanitation
  • There is no cure for this disease

78
Viral Disease-Newcastle
  • Respiratory difficulty (wheezing) is one of the
    first symptoms, followed by tremors, wing droop,
    and a twisted neck.
  • Imported birds are the main source of possible
    infections
  • Spreads rapidly with a high mortality rate
  • Should be vaccinated to prevent the disease

79
Nutritional Problems-Goiter
  • Swelling of the thyroid glands in the neck and
    interference with breathing
  • Major cause is iodine deficiency
  • Seems to be a special problem for Budgerigars

80
Nutritional Problems-Rickets
  • Osteomalacia
  • An imbalance or deficient amount of calcium,
    phosphorus, or Vitamin D3 that causes
    deterioration or softening of the bones
  • Symptoms lameness, stiff-legged gait, constant
    resting in the squatting position and decreased
    growth

81
Nutritional Problems-Rickets
  • Treatment Prevention is best through adequate
    oyster shell or coarse limestone in the diet
    along with vitamin D3 supplementation

82
Nutritional Problems-Obesity
  • Too much food, not enough activity, or seeds high
    in fat
  • Bird owners need to avoid feeding too many
    sunflower seed if obesity is a problem for their
    bird.

83
Other Problems-Overgrown Claws
  • Can result in injury if they become entangled in
    the cage
  • May be clipped with pet nail clippers
  • Care should be taken to avoid the pinkish streak
    in the center of the claw (blood vessel)

84
Other Problems-Feather Plucking
  • Due to boredom, bad diet, lack of bathing, or
    bird is in need of a mate
  • Birds living indoors need regular bathing or
    spraying to encourage preening and avoid feather
    plucking.
  • Preening is the process that a bird goes through
    in cleaning and trimming its feathers with its
    beak.

85
Bathing
  • Regular bathing and spraying reduces feather dust
    and dirt and cuts down on mites

86
Bathing
  • Small birds (budgerigars, canaries, finches,
    mynah birds, lories, cockatiels) prefer to bathe
    in a container.
  • A container may be placed in the cage at regular
    intervals for 30 minute time periods

87
Bathing
  • Larger birds need to be sprayed with a fine mist
    from a plant sprayer.
  • The mist should be allowed to filter down onto
    the bird rather than being sprayed directly on
    the animal.
  • The bird does not need to be saturated, but
    gently sprayed 2 or 3 times per week.

88
Symptoms of Problems
  • Sleeping on two legs may indicate the bird is
    uncomfortable or ailing. Birds normally sleep on
    only one leg.
  • A bird who fluffs its feathers out is usually
    chilled and trying to obtain body heat.
  • If feces is runny, a digestive ailment may be the
    problem.
  • Not flying around and lack of activity may
    indicate sickness.

89
Symptoms of Problems
  • Eye discharges or continually closed eyes are an
    indication of cold, etc.
  • Wheezing, noisy, or irregular breathing may be a
    sign of a respiratory problem.
  • Not eating or very little eating indicates a loss
    of appetite that is often associated with illness.

90
Prevention of Illness
  • Select a healthy bird.
  • Place bird in a dry, warm, draft-free place
  • Subject the bird to little stress
  • No other animals should be around
  • Quarantine and observation period of at least 3-4
    weeks before introducing to other birds.

91
Prevention of Illness
  • Sanitation is extremely importantshould provide
    fresh food and water.
  • Keep perches and cages clean.

Bird Cage Vacuum
92
At the First Signs of Illness
  • Cage temperature should be maintained between
    85-90 degrees F
  • Move the cage to a warmer location if needed
  • Adjust the temperature of the cage with a light
    bulb near the cage or a heating pad under the
    cage

93
At the First Signs of Illness
  • Provide 2 to 3 perches so that the bird can find
    the most comfortable temperature
  • Partially cover the cage to prevent drafts
  • Provide quick energy fluids like sugar water,
    honey water, or orange juice.
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