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Cold War

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Title: Cold War


1
Cold War
  • Democratic Capitalism
  • vs.
  • Totalitarian Communism

2
Yalta Conference
  • Feb. 1945
  • Big Three (Churchill, FDR, Stalin)
  • Agreement for WWII peace treaty
  • Divide Germany into zones of occupation
  • Germany to pay USSR reparations
  • Eastern European countries would have free
    elections Stalin did not want this but
    Churchill FDR out-voted him
  • Stalin agreed to help US in Pacific

3
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4
Creation of United Nations
  • June 1945
  • US, USSR 48 other nations
  • international organization
  • protect countries against aggression
  • General Assembly each nation sends 1
    representative to cast votes on issues
  • Security Council 11 members has real power to
    investigate issues settle disputes
  • 5 permanent members GB/China/France/US/USSR

5
Potsdam Conference
  • Truman finds out about successful testing of
    Atomic bomb in NM
  • Nuclear warfare ends war in Pacific
  • Hiroshima Nagasaki
  • Truman teases Stalin with news of a secret new
    weapon hostility between US USSR increases
  • Different visions of the post-war world
  • Nuclear arms race begins

6
Cold War facts
  • Lasted from 1945-1991
  • Leaders USA vs. USSR
  • conflict involved the whole world
  • First battle of Cold War Europe
  • USSR set up satellite (puppet) gvts
  • -Albania - Poland
  • -Bulgaria - Yugoslavia
  • - Hungary - Romania
  • - Czechoslovakia

7
Soviet sphere of influence
  • Eastern Europe
  • No free elections held
  • Dividing line Germany
  • East Germany USSR
  • West Germany US/GB/France
  • Iron Curtain by Winston Churchill
  • Imaginary wall dividing Eastern Europe
    (communist) from Western Europe (capitalist)
  • Tired of USSR being invaded from Eastern Europe
  • Wanted Soviet communism to influence rest of world

8
The Iron Curtain
9
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10
Why was the USSR determined to control Eastern
Europe?
  • Tired of Russia being invaded through Eastern
    Europe
  • Stalin wanted a buffer zone
  • Payback for WWII
  • Wanted Soviet influence in world
  • Some people embraced communism
  • Desperate for essentials of life
  • Scared of the far right (fascism)
  • Communist govts made promises of better
    lifestyles

11
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12
US policies during Cold War
  • Containment
  • Trumans policy of blocking Soviet influence to
    prevent spread of communism
  • Create alliances to help weak countries fight off
    Soviet influence
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Foreign aid () for countries that rejected
    communism
  • Controversial US aid to dictators? US not
    financially prepared to bankroll a global crusade
    against Communism, US should remain isolationist
  • Marshall Plan - to Western Europe

13
Marshall plan
  • Rebuild Western Europe after WWII
  • 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall
  • 12.5 billion in US aid to any country that
    needed it
  • Food, machines, raw materials, etc
  • Congress approved the Marshall Plan immediately
    after Stalin took control of Czechoslovakia
    USSR was denied aid
  • Later, countries following USSR were denied
    Marshall plan aid
  • Political economic reasons for aid

14
Berlin
  • West Berlin democratic
  • East Berlin - Soviet
  • 1948 Stalin decided to cut off all trains
    supplying West Berlin
  • President Harry Truman refused to let the Soviets
    take control of West Berlin

15
Berlin Airlift
  • 462 days - 5,000 tons per day
  • 2.5 million tons of supplies food, clothing,
    fuel
  • Major aviation political achievement
  • Successful W. Berlin remained free of Soviet
    control

16
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17
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18
Berlin Wall
  • Constructed by
  • East Germany after
  • failure to cut off W.
  • Berlin

19
Berlin Wall
  • A long barrier between W Berlin E Germany
  • Closed the border between East and West Berlin
    for a period of 28 years
  • Built to stop the drain of labor and economic
    output associated with the daily migration of
    huge numbers of professionals and skilled workers
    from East to West Berlin
  • It effectively decreased emigration (escapes -
    "Republikflucht" in German) from 2.5 million
    between 1949 and 1962 to 5,000 between 1962 and
    1989.

20
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21
Beginning conflicts of Cold War
  • Diplomatic hostility
  • Spying, propaganda, secrecy
  • Rival Alliance system
  • NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
  • 10 Western European nations/US/Canada
  • Each nation agreed to help the other nations if
    any were attacked by USSR
  • Warsaw Pact
  • USSR viewed NATO as a threat
  • Developed its own alliance USSR, E Germany,
    Poland, Czech, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania

22
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23
The Nuclear Threat
  • US already had atomic weapons
  • 1949 Soviets tested their 1st bomb
  • 1952 - US then developed an even deadlier atomic
    bomb the Hydrogen bomb
  • 1953 USSR develops H-bomb
  • 1953 Dwight D Eisenhower elected US president

24
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25
brinkmanship
  • US anti-communism policy US was willing to go
    to the brink of war to defend against spread of
    communism
  • The Nuclear Race
  • The Space Race
  • Led by Soviets
  • 1957 Soviets developed a rocket that could travel
    long distance
  • Intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM
  • Used powerful missile to propel a satellite into
    space

26
THINK PAIR SHARE
  • Think about the three US policies in regard to
    communism
  • Containment
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Marshall Plan
  • Think about one of the above policies and share
    with a partner what you know

27
Sputnik
  • Soviet satellite launched 1957
  • US felt like it had fallen behind the Communists
  • Result - more federal money spent on education,
    esp. science, math, foreign languages
  • Jan. 1958 US launched its 1st satellite

28
Launching of Sputnik I
29
open skies Policy
  • Pres. Eisenhower declared policy to allow US
    USSR to fly over each others territory to gather
    info prevent surprise nuclear attacks
  • USSR rejected policy
  • CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) authorized
    secret high-altitude spy flights over USSR in U-2s

30
U-2 incident
  • May 1960 U-2 plane shot down by Soviets
  • pilot captured
  • 19 months in Soviet prison

31
President Eisenhower 1953
  • Every gun that is made, every warship launched,
    every rocket fired signifies in the final sense,
    a theft from those who hunger and are not fed,
    those who are cold and are not clothed.The cost
    of one modern heavy bomber is this a modern
    brick school in more than 30 cities.

32
Give One Get Two
  • Think about the following Cold War incidents
    write everything you know
  • Containment Brinkmanship
  • Marshall Plan
  • the Space Race
  • Sputnik I
  • the U-2 incident
  • SHARE with 2 partner what you know about one of
    these

33
The Peoples Republic of China
  • Maos army guerrilla warfare
  • Peasant army inspired to fight for land
  • Oct 1949 Mao gained control of China
  • Declared the Peoples Republic of China
  • Chiang Nationalists retreated to island of
    Taiwan

34
Chiang and Mao
35

36
  • US becomes even more anti-communist after Maos
    victory in China
  • China USSR sign friendship treaty in 1950
  • Rise in feelings that communism was trying to
    take over the world

37
China expands
  • Mao sends Red Army to take control of Mongolia,
    Tibet
  • Maos goals
  • Rebuild China into a great nation after Western
    imperialism (Opium War) and Japanese occupation
    since 1931
  • Revamp economy
  • Redistribute land to peasants
  • Seized land from wealthy landowners those who
    resisted were killed (1 million)

38
Collectivization
  • Mao forced peasant farmers to join collective
    farms
  • Industry nationalized (state ownership)
  • 1953 5-year plan
  • High targets for industrial production
  • Successful
  • 1957 output of coal, cement, electricity had
    doubled steel quadrupled

39
Women in Communist China
  • Gained equality in the home workplace men
    expected to do half the work at home
  • Free state child care for all families

40
Great Leap Forward - 1958
  • Larger collective farms
  • 25,000 people in each
  • Strictly controlled community work in shifts
  • Ate in communal dining halls
  • Slept in communal dormitories
  • Children raised in communal nurseries
  • Owned nothing no incentive to work hard since
    state only profited

41
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42
Great Leap Forward - FAILS
  • Crop failures between 1958-61 famine killed 20
    million
  • Poor planning
  • Inefficient factories
  • Program was discontinued
  • in 1961

43
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44
THINK PAIR SHARE
  • Think about the following developments in China
    after WWII
  • Collectivization
  • Great Leap Forward
  • Women in Communist China
  • Share with a partner what you know about one of
    the above

45
China USSR split
  • Competition to be world leader in Communism
  • Shared long border - many territorial disputes
  • 1960 Soviets halted aid to China
  • Mao allowed other leaders to take charge
  • farm families allowed to live in separate housing
    sell individual crops grown
  • Factory workers could compete for wage increases
    bonuses

46
Maos Cultural Revolution
  • Mao disagreed with new economic policies
    undermined social equality among all Chinese
    people
  • Mao rallied high school and college students to
    start a new revolution Cultural Revolution
    change four olds
  • Old ideology Old thought
  • Old habits old customs
  • Students forced to leave school and join militias
    Red Guards carry out revolution in the
    cities country side

47
Equality vs. Sameness
  • US belief equal value of all human beings
    equal rights opportunities
  • Cultural Revolution belief everyone became
    equal by doing the same thing, having the same
    things, etc. Individual humans do not matter
    instead the good of the community is most
    important.

48

49
China The West pg. 551
  • Mao died 1976
  • Zhou Enlai premiere who tried to calm down the
    Cultural Revolution
  • 1971 ping-pong diplomacy Zhou invited US
    table tennis team to compete in China
  • 1971 US allowed Peoples Republic of China to
    join the United Nations
  • 1972 President Nixon became 1st US President to
    visit China

50
1980s - Deng Xiaoping
  • Survivor of Long March
  • Also wanted to reform economy
  • Four Modernizations agriculture, science,
    defense technology
  • Collective farms were broken up individual
    farmers were allowed to lease land - of crop
    went to govt remainder was sold for profit
  • Small businesses also allowed to operate

51
Result of reforms
  • Incomes increased
  • Chinese began buying consumer products TVs,
    stereos, etc
  • Chinese youth bought Levi jeans and starting
    listening to Western music
  • Hotels opened and foreigners were invited to
    vacation in China

52
Consequences of Reforms
  • Communist party officials also profited from
    economic reforms
  • Gap between rich poor grew
  • Lots of bribery corruption of govt leaders
  • Chinese students attended college in Europe or US
  • Chinese HS college students began to protest
    the lack of freedoms in China

53
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
  • A series of demonstrations over 2 weeks -
    students, intellectuals and labor activists
  • Demonstrators - govt corrupt repressive
  • Urban workers - economic reforms unsuccessful -
    inflation widespread unemployment
  • Large scale protests also occurred in cities
    throughout China, such as in Shanghai.
  • In Beijing, govt cracked down on the protestors
    army tanks moved into the Square
  • 2,000 - 3,000 civilians killed

54
Protesters chanted Down with corruption! Down
with dictatorship! Long live democracy!

55
China Today
  • Totalitarian government with some aspects of
    Communism, but an increasingly capitalistic
    economy
  • Citizens do not have basic rights pro democracy
    groups are routinely arrested, tortured,
    imprisoned
  • Weapons produced and sold to many developing
    nations
  • Nuclear power most likely sold nuclear
    technology to Pakistan
  • 2000 US Congress voted to normalize trade with
    China

56
THINK PAIR SHAREGIVE ONE, GET ONE
  • Think about the following developments in China
    during Cold War
  • Great Leap Forward
  • Collectivization
  • Split with USSR
  • Cultural Revolution
  • Share with a partner what you know about one of
    the above

57
Korean War
  • After WWII, Korea divided into 2 nations
  • 38th parallel
  • North Korea Communist
  • South Korea non-communist
  • 1949 US USSR troops out of Koreas
  • USSR thought US would not try to defend South
    Korea
  • USSR sent , arms, tanks, etc to North Korea so
    they could capture S.K.

58

59
  • June 25, 1950 North Korean troops crossed 38th
    parallel surprise attack on South Korea
  • US policy of CONTAINMENT
  • SK asked United Nations for assistance
  • UN agreed to send a coalition of troops under
    leadership of Douglas MacArthur
  • 15 nations sent soldiers most were US

60
  • Sept 1950, MacArthur launched surprise attack
  • By Nov UN troops pushed North Koreans up to
    Yalu River border w/China MacArthur wanted to
    invade China Truman said NO!
  • China sent 300,000 troops to help NK
  • Chinese troops pushed US troops out of North
    Korea pushed south to capture capital of SK -
    Seoul

61

62
End of the Korean War
  • 2 more years of fighting to drive Chinese NK
    back up to 38th Parallel
  • Cease fire agreement July 1953
  • 3 years of fighting 5 million deaths
  • Border had not changed significantly

63
Legacy of Korean War
  • 54,000 Americans dead
  • 1.4 million Chinese Korean soldiers
  • 2 million civilians dead
  • North Korea
  • Kim Il Sung dictator
  • Collective farms, heavy
  • industry
  • Kim Jong Il (son) 1994
  • Developed nuclear weapons
  • Shortages of food energy

64
THINK PAIR SHAREGIVE ONE, GET ONE
  • Think about the Korean War and share with a
    partner one of the following
  • 38th parallel
  • General MacArthur
  • Yalu River and Chinese intervention
  • Cease fire agreement

65
South Korea
  • Massive aid from US
  • Stable economy

66
Cuban Revolution
  • 1952 Former president Batista, supported by the
    army, seizes power.
  • November - Batista dissolves parliament and is
    elected constitutional president without
    opposition.
  • 1955 Fidel and Raúl Castro are introduced to Che
    Guevara in Mexico City.
  • Nov 1956 Fidel, Raúl Che Guevara set sail for
    Cuba.

67
26th of July guerrilla army
68
1958
  • March 13 - U.S. suspends shipments of arms to
    Batista's forces.
  • A general strike, organized by the 26th of July
    movement, is partially observed.
  • Batista sends an army of 10,000 to destroy
    Castro's 300 armed guerrillas.
  • Castro defeated the army captured a huge amount
    of arms.

69
Fidel Castro Che Guevara
70
1959
  • Jan. 1 President Batista resigns and flees the
    country. Fidel Castro enters capital - Santiago
    de Cuba.
  • Guevara his army arrive in Havana.
  • Jan. 5 Manuel Urrutia named President of Cuba
  • Feb. 16 Castro becomes Premier of Cuba - declares
    Cuba Communist

71
Castro in power
72
Think Pair Share - Write
  • You are a presidential advisor and there is now a
    Communist govt 90 miles off the coast of Florida.
  • What steps do you advise the President of the US
    to take in regard to this new threat.
  • Give at least 2 ideas for how to deal with this
    problem.

73
Cuban alliance with USSR
  • US EXTREMELY unnerved to have a Communist ally
    only 90 miles from the tip of Florida
  • U.S. imposed a complete diplomatic and commercial
    embargo on Cuba.
  • U.S. influence in Latin America was strong enough
    to make the embargo very effective and Cuba was
    forced to direct virtually all its trade to the
    Soviet Union and its allies.
  • Numerous assassination attempts by CIA

74
Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • April 1961
  • CIA Cuban exiles invade Cuba and attempt to
    overthrow Castros govt
  • Plan of Eisenhowers govt JFK inherits plan
    which called for illegal US Air Force bombing to
    support the invasion
  • Failure JFK refuses to send US Air Force
  • Castros response? Help from USSR

75
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • To protect Cuba from US, USSR sends intermediate
    range ballistic missiles
  • U-2 spy planes see missiles
  • JFK ordered Naval blockade around Cuba -
    threatened the Soviet Union with nuclear war
    unless the missiles were withdrawn.
  • Soviet naval vessel sailing for Cuba blockade
  • Finally Khrushchev backed down compromise w/
    JFK missiles out of Turkey.

76
Map of the crisis
77
The missiles on Cuba from U-2 photos JFK
announcing the crisis to the world
78
Foreign wars economy
  • 1970s, Castro became leading spokesperson for
    Third World anti-imperialist governments.
  • Military assistance to pro-Soviet forces in
    Angola, Ethiopia, Yemen and other African and
    Middle Eastern countries
  • Economy - dependent on sugar exports.
  • -Soviets forced to prop up Cuban economy by
    buying the entire Cuban sugar crop
  • Cuba exchanged sugar for fuel, since it could not
    import oil from any other source.

79
Human Rights in Cuba
  • Cuban government has been accused of numerous
    human rights abuses, including torture, arbitrary
    imprisonment, unfair trials, extra-judicial
    executions.
  • No freedom of press, assembly, speech, etc.
  • One party system (totalitarian)
  • Groups like Amnesty International and Human
    Rights Watch have issued reports on Cuban
    imprisonments.
  • The Cuban government denies the International Red
    Cross access to its prisons and many human rights
    groups including Amnesty International are denied
    entry to Cuba.

80
Other Cold War events
  • Soviet Invasion of Hungary
  • 1956 Hungarian citizens rioted against Communist
    govt demanding more rights
  • Threatened to return to parliamentary democracy
  • Khrushchev sent in Red Army rounded up
    protestors executed leaders
  • Hungarians pleaded with US for help
  • Pres. Eisenhower could not send troops
  • Hungarian uprising brutally crushed return of
    hard-line communist rule

81
Communist rebellions in Greece Turkey
Czechoslovakia
  • 1947 Truman Doctrine allowed US to send 400
    million in military aid to Greece Turkey to
    help them defeat Communist parties
  • 1968 Czechoslovakia rebelled against Communist
    rule from USSR demanded more freedoms Red
    Army sent in to end the protest
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