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Persuasion and Argumentation

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Persuasive Speech on a Question of Value Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that capital punishment is morally and legally wrong. Main ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Persuasion and Argumentation


1
Persuasion and Argumentation
  • From Latin (persuadere) and Greek (peíto)
    convincing, changing ones mind, inducing,
    enticing, impressing, seducing
  • Persuasive communication intends
  • (1) to change (adjust) audiences values,
    beliefs, and attitudes and
  • (2) to elicit action (a desired behavior).

2
The process of forwarding arguments is called
argumentation.
  • Argumentation is at once
  • advocacy of a particular belief, preference, or
    policy
  • the inquiry of finding the best answers to a
    problem or a controversy.
  • a debate a battle, a struggle between opinions
    and positions.

3
Methods of Persuasion
  • Logos the argument proper. Proper reasoning
    and good evidence
  • Ethos the character of the speaker
    (credibility)
  • Pathos producing the right attitude in the
    hearer (emotional/motivational appeals)
  • Also Cognitive dissonance theory, reactance
    theory

4
Elaboration Likelihood Model
  • What happens when a person receives a persuasive
    message?
  • Distinct routes of processing
  • Central route (Elaboration occurs)
  • Peripheral route (Nonelaboration)

5
Elaboration Likelihood Model
  • Central route
  • The strength of the argument
  • Peripheral
  • Credibility
  • Liking
  • Number of arguments

6
Conditioning
  • Classical (association).
  • Operant (reinforcement)
  • Positive reinforcement (favorable stimulus to
    cause/increase behavior)
  • Negative reinforcement (removal of aversive
    stimulus to cause behavior)
  • Positive punishment (aversive stimulus to
    decrease behavior)
  • Negative punishment (removal of favorable
    stimulus to decrease behavior)

7
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • Any two cognitive elements will have one of three
    kinds of relationships
  • Irrelevant (I like ice cream and I am aware of
    dangers of drunk driving)
  • Consonant (I like ice cream and I know that dairy
    products are good for the body)
  • Dissonant (I like ice cream and I am aware of the
    dangers of high cholesterol)

8
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
  • Inconsistency between two cognitins gives rise to
    the uncomfortable psychological state of
    cognitive dissonance
  • Because dissonance is so very uncomfortable to
    us, we will do almost anything to reduce the
    dissonance in order to achieve consonance

9
Three ways in which dissonance can be reduced
  • 1. One might change one or more of the
    cognitive elements
  • (a) change the original behavior stop eating
    ice cream or reduce frequency of eating ice cream
  • (b) or reject the new information it is not
    true that cholesterol is bad for you

10
Three ways in which dissonance can be reduced
  • 2. New elements might by added
  • Eating ice cream is extremely enjoyable
  • Ice cream alone is not that bad there are worse
    things with cholesterol
  • 3. One might come to see the elements as less
    important
  • The research on cholesterol is inconclusive.

11
Stereotyping
  • Cognitive frameworks consisting of knowledge and
    beliefs about specific social groups (suggesting
    that all members of a group possess certain
    traits)
  • Allow to make quick judgments
  • Self-confirming role
  • Prejudice, favoritism

12
Using Listeners Needs
  • Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • Physiological needs
  • Safety
  • Social
  • Self-esteem
  • Self-actualization

13
Understanding audiences
  • Target Audiences
  • General Public

14
War in Iraq Favor or Oppose How public opinion
changes quickly.
15
Marijuana should be legal
  • .

16
Learning about the U.S. in context of other
countries
17
Government has responsibility to reduce income
differences
UK US NL NZ CAN
Definitely yes 43 18 39 35 28
Probably yes 38 28 40 30 33
Probably not 10 25 13 15 20
Definitely no 7 27 6 18 17
18
Sexual relations before marriage
UK US NL DK CAN
Always wrong 11 30 7 6 12
Almost always wrong 7 11 3 3 7
Some-times 14 20 20 9 15
Not wrong at all 66 38 70 83 65
19
Same sex relations
F US NL
Always wrong 38 62 16
Almost always wrong 9 6 5
Some-times 17 7 12
Not wrong at all 36 24 67
20
There is hell
UK US NL DK JAP
YES 13 55 13 8 6
Maybe
NO 34 12 48 60 21

21
Believe in God
UK US NL DK JAP
NO 41 18 48 55 55
Some-times 14 5 8 11 32
YES with doubts 23 15 18 20 9
YES without a doubt 26 63 26 14 4
22
Europe vs. U.S. on death penalty
  • 1997 75 of Americans supported death penalty
  • 2011 60 of Americans support death penalty.
  • 2008 about 30 of Europeans support death
    penalty

23
Support for death penalty
Taiwan 80
Russia 67
The U.S. 63
Japan 58
UK 49
France 41
Mexico 38
Germany 27
Denmark 18
Spain 17
Norway 16
24
Divorce by areas
  • Area are or have been divorced
  • South 27
  • Midwest 27
  • West 26
  • Northeast 19

25
Divorces by religion
  • Religion have been divorced
  • Born-again Christians 27
  • Other Christians 24
  • Atheists, Agnostics 21

26
Marriage
  • How the best- and least-educated Americans
    approach marriage and child-rearing

27
Divorced in 10 years
College educated High school dropouts
Married in 1975-79 29 38
Married in 1990-94 16 46

Out-of-wedlock children 4 15

28
A person has the right to suicide if he/she is
tired of living
  • .

29
Types of propositions
30
Types of propositions
  • Propositions of fact assert that something is or
    exists
  • Propositions of value assert that something has a
    value (is good, right, correct, efficient,
    moral).
  • Propositions of policy assert that something
    should be done (that an action needs to be taken,
    policy enacted, etc.)

31
Persuasive Speech on a Question of Fact
  • Specific Purpose To persuade my audience that
    another major earthquake will hit
    California by the year 2025.
  • Main Points
  • I. Many geological signs indicate
    that a major earthquake may happen soon.
  • II. Experts agree that a major
    earthquake could hit California any day.

32
Persuasive Speech on a Question of Value
  • Specific Purpose To persuade my audience
    that capital punishment is morally
    and legally wrong.
  • Main Points I. Capital punishment is
    immoral
  • II. Capital punishment violates the
    constitutional ban on cruel and
    unusual punishment.

33
Challenges in arguing values
  • What are the criteria for the values?
  • Can you convince the audience that the audience
    should accept your criteria?
  • For example
  • What are the criteria for cruel and unusual?
  • What are the criteria for moral?

34
Persuasive Speech on a Question of Policy
  • Specific Purpose To persuade my audience
    that action should be taken now to solve
    the nations shortage of nurses.
  • Main Points I. The shortage of nurses
    has become a serious national
    problem.
  • II. The problem can be solved by
    offering nurses better salaries and
    better working conditions.

35
Hierarchy of Propositions
  • The policy proposition is the final element in a
    decision-making process.
  • Proposition of fact Person x engaged in a
    sexual relationship with a minor.
  • Proposition of value Person X is guilty of a
    crime
  • Proposition of policy Person X should be
    punished by a fine, jail term, etc.

36
Hierarchy of Propositions
  • IF, Propositions of fact oil is becoming more
    expensive and nuclear energy is cheaper and
    readily available in the United States.
  • THUS
  • Proposition of value Nuclear energy is superior
    to other types of energy (coal, oil, etc.)
  • THEREFORE,
  • Proposition of policy
  • We should build more nuclear plants..

37
Steps in Developing a Speech on the Question of
Policy
  • 1. Identify the problem to be resolved
  • The first step in developing a policy is to show
    that there is a need for taking an action
  • 2. Identify the causes of the problem
  • The question of causation is a question of
    culpability. Who is at fault? Whom or what
    should we blame?

38
The nature of the Problem
  • The Magnitude (the problem is severe)
  • The Extent (growing, widespread)

39
The origins of the problem
  • What is the cause of the problem?
  • Is this the real cause of the problem?
  • Is the cause structural or attitudinal?

40
Identify (or invent) available policies and
select the best one.
  • 1. What is the mechanism of the policy?
  • How does it work?
  • 2. Is the policy solving/minimizing the
  • problem?
  • 3. Is the policy affordable?
  • 4. Is the policy enforceable? 

41
What are you proposing to do?
  • Are you addressing causes or symptoms of the
    problem?
  • What behaviors are to be enacted that are not
    presently being enacted?

42
Mechanism
  • How it is going to work?
  • Is the solution available and acceptable?

43
Financing
  • How are you planning to pay for it?
  • Is the solution affordable?
  • Who will benefit from the policy? Who will pay
    the costs?

44
Enforcement
  • What means are used to ensure compliance?

45
Expected results
  • Does the policy eliminate the causes (or only
    symptoms) of the problem?
  • Does the policy have unintended effects?
  • Is the policy workable in the long run?

46
(No Transcript)
47
Opposing Policy Propositions
48
Refute the Reason for Change
49
Challenge the Problem Refute the Reason for
Change
  • The problem is not severe
  • The problem is stable or declining
  • The problem is of little importance for the
    audience

50
The problem is not severe
51
The problem is stable Example suicides per
100,000
52
Challenge problem causation
  • What is the cause of the problem?
  • Is this the real cause of the problem?
  • Is the cause structural or attitudinal?

53
Refute the Solutions
  • Identify Barriers
  • Dispute Workability
  • Present Disadvantages

54
Identify Barriers
  • Policy is not available
  • E.g., technology is not available
  • Policy is not acceptable
  • E.g., policy will not pass constitutional
    scrutiny

55
Dispute Workability
  • The policy is not affordable
  • The policy is difficult to implement
  • The policy cannot be enforced

56
Present Disadvantages
  • The policy has unintended effect
  • It makes things worse
  • It creates more problems

57
Refute evidence
  • Inaccurate/False/Insufficient
  • Incomplete
  • Inconsistent
  • Not recent enough
  • Sources Biased
  • Sources Unreliable

58
Identify logical fallacies
  • Hasty Generalization
  • Forcing a Dichotomy
  • (false dilemma)
  • Ad Hominem
  • Appeal to Authority/Tradition/People
  • Circular reasoning
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