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Christian Spirituality

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Christian Spirituality Periods Early formulation (250-600) Early Middle Ages (600-900) Golden Age (900-1300) Late Middle Ages (1300-1500) Reformation Counter ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Christian Spirituality


1
Christian Spirituality
2
Periods
  • Early formulation (250-600)
  • Early Middle Ages (600-900)
  • Golden Age (900-1300)
  • Late Middle Ages (1300-1500)
  • Reformation
  • Counter-Reformation

3
Periods (cont.)
  • 17th Century Anglo-American (Anglican, Puritan)
  • 18th Century Anglo-American (Great Awakening,
    Methodism)
  • 19th Century
  • 20th Century

4
Early Sources
  • Bible
  • Classical and Jewish philosophy
  • Monasticism
  • Eastern theology
  • Western theology
  • Celtic spirituality

5
Sources (cont.)
  • Classical and Jewish philosophy
  • Plato
  • Plotinus (205-c. 270)
  • Proclus (412-c. 490)
  • Philo (c. 20 B.C.-c. 50 A.D.)

6
Sources (cont.)
  • Monasticism
  • Anthony (c. 250-356) and the Desert Fathers
  • Evagrios (345-399)
  • John Cassian (c. 360-c. 435 to France 415)
  • Martin of Tours (ca. 317-357)
  • Benedict (c. 480-c. 547)

7
Sources (cont.)
  • Eastern theology
  • Alexandrian school
  • Clement (c. 160-220)
  • Origen (c. 185-253)
  • Athanasius (c. 296-373)
  • Cappadocian fathers
  • Gregory Nazianzus (c. 329-c. 390)
  • Basil (329-379)
  • Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335-c. 395)
  • Pseudo-Dionysius (c. 500)
  • Maximos Confessor (580-662)

8
Sources (cont.)
  • Western theology
  • Ambrose (334-397)
  • Augustine (354-430)
  • Gregory the Great (540-604)
  • John Scottus Eriugena (c. 810-c. 877)

9
Sources (cont.)
  • Celtic spirituality Emphases
  • Pilgrimage/voyage exile and home
  • Longing and desire
  • Longing for heroic past
  • Spiritual combat
  • Penance and spiritual guidance
  • Ambivalent view of nature

10
11-13th century Spirituality
  • Background
  • Ecclesiastical reforms
  • Gregory VII (c. 1020-1085, pope from 1073)
  • Fourth Lateran Council (1215)
  • Crusades (beginning 1096)
  • Monastic reform

11
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Benedictine reform
  • 11th century figures John of Fecamp, Peter
    Damian
  • Cistertians (1098) Bernard. others
  • Canon reform
  • Carthusians
  • Victorines
  • Mendicant order creation
  • Franciscans
  • Dominicans
  • Beguines and women mystical writers

12
11th--13th century (cont.)
  • Cistertians (Benedictine reform)
  • Order founded (1098)
  • Bernard (1090-1153)
  • William of St. Thierry (c. 1080-1148)
  • Aelred (c. 1110-1167)
  • Joachim of Fiore (1132-1202)

13
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Carthusians (canon reform)
  • Bruno (1030--1101)
  • Chartreuse founded (1084)
  • Order founded (1140)

14
11th-13th century (cont.)
  • Victorines (canon reform)
  • Abby of St. Victor founded (1108)
  • Hugh of St. Victor (1097-1141)
  • Richard of St. Victor (c. 1123-c. 1173)
  • Thomas Gallus (d. 1246)

15
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Franciscans
  • Francis (1182-1226)
  • Order founded (1209)
  • Bonaventure (1217-1274)
  • John of Parma (1209-1289)
  • Jacopone da Todi (1228-c.1306)

16
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Dominicans
  • Dominic (1172-1221) Cistertian
  • Order founded 1215
  • Aquinas (1226-1274)

17
11-13th century (cont.)
  • Beguines and women mystics
  • Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) Benedictine
  • Elizabeth of Schonau (c. 1129-1165) Benedictine
  • Hadewijch (c. 1200-c. 1250) Beguine
  • Mechtild of Madeburg (c. 1210-c. 1285?)
    Beguine/Dominican, later Cistertian
  • Mechtild of Hackborn (1240-1298)

18
Late 13th--Early 14th Century Background
  • Death of several prominent religious leaders
    (Dominic 1272, Aquinas and Bonaventure 1274)
  • Chaos in Papacy
  • Between Gregory X (1271-1276) and 1300 there were
    7 popes between 1268-1271 and 1292-1294 there
    was no pope.
  • Boniface VIII (1294--1303) has a ruinous
    confrontation with Philip IV of France (reins
    1285-1314)
  • Papacy moves to Avignon (1305-1378) this is
    later followed by the Great Schism (1378-1417)
  • European famines begin 1315 these are followed
    by the Black Death (1347-1350)

19
14th century Spirituality
  • Focus on reform/revival movements outside of
    France and Italy
  • British Spirituality
  • German Spirituality
  • Low Countries Spirituality
  • Italian remnant
  • Dante (1265-1321)
  • Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) Dominican
  • Later Catherine of Genoa (1447-1510)

20
14th century (cont.)
  • British spirituality
  • Margery Kempe (c. 1290)
  • Richard Rolle (c. 1300-1349)
  • John Wyclif (1324-1384)
  • Cloud of Unknowing (c. 1370 Carthusian?)
  • Walter Hilton (c. 1340-1396 Canon)
  • Julian of Norwich (1343-c. 1413)

21
14th century (cont.)
  • German spirituality
  • Meister Eckhart (c. 1260-1327 Dominican)
  • Margaret Ebner (1291-1351)
  • John Tauler (c. 1300-1361)
  • Henry Suso (c. 1295-1365)
  • Theologia Germanica (c. 1350)
  • Nicholas of Cusa (1400-1464)

22
14th century (cont.)
  • Low countries
  • Hadewijch (c. 1200-c. 1250)
  • John Ruysbroeck (1293-1381)
  • Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471)

23
Protestant Reformation
  • Reformation
  • Luther (1483-1546) the Ninety-Five Theses (1517)
  • Calvin (1509-1564) and Zwingli (1484-1531)
  • Anabaptists Mennonites and others (Menno
    Simons, 1496-1561)
  • Other mystics Jacob Boehme (1575-1624)

24
Reformation (cont.)
  • Effects of the Reformation
  • Rejection of monasticism and associated practices
  • De-emphasis on development
  • De-emphasis on mystery, negative theology
  • Emphasis on Word, preaching
  • Emphasis on the equality of all
  • Problem of assurance

25
Counter-Reformation
  • Movements and Reactions
  • Council of Trent
  • Spanish Mystics Ignatius and the Jesuits
  • French Spirituality
  • Jansenius Controversy (17 century)

26
Spanish Mystics
  • Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556)
  • Founder of the Jesuits, which became a primary
    tool for counter-Reformation and world missionary
    work
  • Wrote the Spiritual Exercises which emphasize
    examination, discernment

27
Spanish Mystics (cont.)
  • Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)
  • Led reform and establishment of Carmelite
    convents in Spain
  • Emphasis more on positive spirituality
  • Wrote a number of famous works, including an
    autobiography, Way of Perfection, and Interior
    Castle

28
Spanish Mystics (cont.)
  • John of the Cross (1542-1591)
  • Worked with Teresa for a period of time
  • Imprisoned by the Inquisition for a time, during
    which he did some of his best writing
  • Wrote poetry and prose, works include Ascent of
    Mount Carmel and Dark Night of the Soul

29
French Spirituality
  • Francis de Sales (1567-1622)
  • Brother Lawrence (1611-1691)
  • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
  • Quietists
  • Madame Guyon (1648-1717)
  • Francois Fenelon (1651-1715)

30
17th Century Anglo-American Mainstream
  • English Reformation (break with Rome completed
    1535) but continued struggle between Catholics
    and Protestants until the flight of James II
    (1688)
  • Spirituality for all
  • Book of Common Prayer (1549) Thomas Cranmer
    (1489-1556)
  • Dissolution of the monasteries
  • George Herbert (1593-1633)
  • Jeremy Taylor (1613-1667)
  • William Laud Becomes Archbishop of Canterbury,
    1633 introduces Arminian theology

31
17th Century Anglo-American Dissenters
  • Puritanism (anti-Catholic Calvinist emphasis on
    creation, sanctification)
  • Richard Baxter (1615-1691)
  • John Owen (1616-1683)
  • John Bunyan (1628-1688)
  • John Milton (1608-1674)
  • Separatism (Congregationalists, Baptists)
  • Quietism/Quakerism George Fox (1624-1691)

32
18th Century Anglo-American
  • William Law (1686-1761)
  • Awakenings
  • Isaac Watts (1674-1748)
  • American GA 1720s 1730s
  • Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
  • Methodism
  • John Wesley (1703-1791) Aldersgate Street
    Experience (1738)

33
19th-20th Century
  • European
  • Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855)
  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945)
  • Henri Nouwen (1932-)

34
19th-20th Century (cont.)
  • British
  • Evelyn Underhill (1875-1941)
  • CS Lewis (1900-1963)
  • William Temple (1881-1944)
  • Charles Spurgeon (1834-1892)

35
19th-20th Century (cont.)
  • American
  • Thomas Merton (1915-1968)
  • Dallas Willard (1935-)
  • George Buttrick (1892-1980)
  • Frank Laubach (1884-1970)
  • John Baillie (1886-1960)
  • Elizabeth OConnor (1921-)
  • E. Stanley Jones (1884-1973)
  • Morton Kelsey (Episcopal)

36
19th-20th Century (cont.)
  • International
  • Anthony de Mello (1931-1987)
  • Thomas Kelly (1893-1941)
  • Watchman Nee (1903-1972)
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