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Animal Science II- Small Animal

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Title: Animal Science II- Small Animal


1
Animal Science II- Small Animal
  • Unit D3- Animal Breeds and Basic Management

2
Essential Standard 9.00
  • Select the best pocket pet or bird for a given
    use.

3
Objective 9.01
  • Discuss major breeds of pocket pets and birds.

4
Rabbits
  • Developed into forty-five recognized breeds
  • Divided into five weight categories
  • Dwarf or Miniature
  • Small
  • Medium
  • Large
  • Giant

5
Dwarf or Miniature Breeds
  • Britannia Petite
  • Netherland Dwarf
  • Himalayan

6
Himalayan
  • One of the oldest and widest distributions
  • Young rabbits are white and slightly tinged with
    silver-gray
  • Matures rabbits become snow white with deep black
    nose, ears, feet, and tail

7
Small Breeds
  • Dutch
  • Tan
  • Florida White

8
Dutch
  • Originated in Holland and developed in England
  • Unique color markings
  • colored patches on each side of the head that
    encircle the eyes and ears
  • rear half is also colored the same as the head

9
Florida White
  • Developed in Florida
  • Crossed with Dutch, Polish, and New Zealand
    Whites
  • Short and compact
  • well-rounded hips and hindquarters
  • Bred for a small meat rabbit or a laboratory
    rabbit

10
Medium Breeds
  • English Spot
  • Standard Chinchilla
  • English Angora
  • Belgian Hare
  • Rhinelander
  • Rex

11
English Spot
  • Introduced to US from England
  • A unique chair of markings, the size of a pea,
    run from the base of the ear to the rear flank

12
Belgian Hare
  • Originated in Flanders, Belgium
  • Has a long, fine body, long, straight and slender
    legs

13
Rex
  • Short hair coat, with guard hairs being the same
    length as the under fur
  • The fur has a very soft, flush feel

14
Large Breeds
  • Californian
  • Cinnamon
  • American
  • English Lop
  • New Zealand
  • Silver Fox

15
Californian
  • Cross of a Himalayan and a Chinchilla and crossed
    with White New Zealand
  • White with black colored nose, ears, feet, and
    tail, and the eyes are red

16
English Lop
  • Oldest domestic rabbit breed known
  • Body is medium length with well arched back and
    low head carriage

17
New Zealand
  • Leading choice for commercial meat production
  • White is preferred because the small hairs that
    remain cannot be seen

18
Giant
  • Giant Angora
  • French Lop
  • Flemish Giant

19
Giant Angora
  • Developed for maximum amount of wool production
  • Has the body structure of a commercial animal
    with a unique coat structure

20
French Lop
  • Ears are shorter than the English Lop and hang
    down in a horseshoe shape from the crown
    approximately 1 ½ inches or more below the muzzle

21
Flemish Giant
  • Originated in Belgium
  • This is the largest of all the domestic rabbit
    breeds

22
Pocket Pets
  • Not defined by breeds
  • Grouped by colors and/or color patterns

23
Golden Hamster
  • Adults reach 5" -6" long
  • weigh about 4 ounces
  • Rich mahogany or orange color on the back with a
    white or creamy colored underside
  • A black patch is usually present along the side
    of the cheeks
  • Long-haired or teddy bear hamsters have long,
    silky fur

24
Dwarf/small desert Hamster
  • Light gray with a dark stripe down the back
  • Smaller than the Golden
  • 4" -4 ½" long
  • These are active friendly pets
  • Due to their smaller size, they are more
    difficult for children to handle

25
Gerbils
  • Adult gerbils reach 6"- 8" long nose to tail
  • Weigh 3 4 ounces
  • Mongolian Gerbil
  • reddish brown to dark brown

26
Rats
  • Black
  • tail is longer than the head and body
  • ears are about half as long as the head
  • color is usually black or dark gray with a brown
    or gray-white underside
  • Brown
  • larger than the black rat
  • tail is always shorter than the head and body
  • thicker and more robust
  • short and more rounded ears
  • fur is dark to gray brown on the back with
    lighter colors on the underside

27
Mice
  • Self colors
  • one color
  • Tans
  • any color with tan belly
  • Piebald or pied marked mice
  • spots, patches or broken patterns
  • Satins
  • any color or markings with satin coat

28
Guinea Pig
  • Adults guinea pigs
  • reach 8 -14" in length
  • weigh from 1 to 4 pounds.
  • Guinea pigs have very sensitive hearing and can
    detect frequencies beyond the human ear
  • Self-defense for guinea pigs is to stand on hind
    legs and chatter with their teeth

29
Guinea Pig
  • Types
  • Abyssinian
  • rough, wiry hair coat
  • the hair is made up of swirls or cowlicks called
    rosettes
  • American
  • hair is short, very glossy and fine in texture
  • Peruvian
  • longhaired variety that may reach 20"in length
  • since guinea pigs do not have a tail it is
    difficult to distinguish the front from the back
    of the Peruvian. It looks like an animated mop
  • Satin
  • coat is fine, dense, and soft

30
Chinchillas
  • Adults range in length from 9 -15 inches
  • tail of 3 10 inches
  • weigh 1 2 pounds
  • Standard
  • blue-gray that is most popular
  • White
  • mutation with black eyes
  • Beige
  • pearl colored to pastel colored
  • Black
  • has a black undercoat, very narrow gray-white
    band, jet-black veil (tips of fur) and high
    density

31
Ferrets
  • Common Sable
  • ranges from light to dark, depending on the shade
    of both the underfur and guard hairs
  • the underfur ranges from white to beige
  • White
  • red-eyed is referred to as a true albino
  • there are a few black-eyed white
  • Sliver Mitt
  • underfur of white with guard hairs of black and
    white
  • gives a silvery appearance

32
Ferrets
  • Sterling Silver
  • similar to Silver Mitt but with more white guard
    hairs
  • Butterscotch
  • underfur is same as sable but the guard hairs,
    mask, and hood colorings are butterscotch instead
    of black
  • Cinnamon
  • underfur is white or off-white and guard hairs
    that are rich red-brown or cinnamon color

33
Rabbit Use
  • Meat
  • High in protein
  • Low in cholesterol, fat, sodium
  • Very palatable

34
Rabbit Use
  • Research and laboratory
  • Florida White
  • Developed as a small meat and laboratory animal
  • Used to produce disease fighting antibodies
  • Study reproduction
  • Research several human diseases
  • Skin irritation tests
  • test the reaction of chemicals on the skin

35
Rabbits- research
  • Have been used in tests for cosmetics
  • do not have tear ducts
  • cannot shed tears to dilute chemicals put into
    their eyes
  • Most companies do not use this test anymore

36
Rabbit Use
  • Fur/wool-divided into four types
  • Normal
  • regular rabbit
  • Rex
  • short
  • Angora
  • like wool
  • Satin
  • mutation fur
  • smaller in diameter
  • transparent outer shell

37
Rabbit Use
  • Compared to sheeps wool, rabbits wool is finer,
    lighter, warmer, and softer
  • Does not cause irritation to skin
  • Not as scratchy
  • Used in the manufacturing
  • Clothing
  • Toys
  • Coats
  • Hats
  • Gloves

38
Rabbit Use
  • Pets
  • With diversity in size they can fit into
    different home situations
  • Trainable to use litter box
  • Require little special care
  • Clean, gentle, and lovable pets

39
Hamsters
  • Used in medical research since 1931
  • Found that they could be tamed and made into a
    pet
  • Golden hamster
  • most abundant hamster used for research and pets
  • Dwarf/small desert hamsters
  • make good pets
  • Children have more problem handling them due to
    their small size

40
Gerbils
  • Japanese scientists were the first to breed in
    captivity
  • easy to work with
  • gentle
  • active during the day
  • have no special food or housing requirements
  • drink little water, virtually odorless, and would
    seldom bite
  • popular pets

41
Rats
  • White albino rats
  • Have been of major importance in medical,
    biological, and psychological research
  • used in developing drugs
  • studying diseases, nutrition, aging, and other
    topics
  • Intelligent and have the ability to learn so have
    been used in behavioral studies
  • Colored rats
  • especially have been accepted as pets

42
Mice
  • Used for medical and biological research
  • especially with hereditary studies
  • Pet mice are relatively free of disease
  • When handled frequently, show little tendency to
    bite or escape

43
Guinea pigs
  • Bred originally for meat production
  • Still used by the native people of Ecuador, Peru
    and Bolivia as a food source
  • Used for research on pathology, nutrition,
    genetics, toxicology, and serum development
  • Used by Louis Pasteur in his research on rabies
  • Used also as a pet

44
Chinchillas
  • Used as a source of fur for thousands of years
  • Brought to California from South America to breed
    for their fur
  • Many furs are sold as a group
  • Requires 120 to 150 pelts to make a full-length
    coat
  • Used as pets since the 1950s

45
Ferrets
  • Recently been found to be wonderful pets
  • have a musky smell and need to be descented
  • males also need to be castrated
  • Used in the 1800s for rodent control
  • run into holds and run the rodents out
  • leave a scent behind that would trigger fear
  • Help wire airplanes in hard to reach places
  • Used in scientific research
  • catch the same colds as humans

46
Objective 9.02
  • Use care techniques that improve the well-being
    of pocket pets and birds.

47
Rabbit Housing and Equipment
  • Hutch size depends on the size of the animal
  • small rabbits need cages 24 wide x 24" long x
    14" high
  • large rabbits (over 12 pounds) needing 24" x 48"x
    18" high
  • The Belgian Hare is an active breed that needs
    even more space
  • Solid wood floors are needed for large breeds
    (over 12 pounds) to prevent sore hocks
  • Absorbent materials for solid floors should be
    replaced weekly, but cages should be cleaned
    daily

48
Rabbit Housing and Equipment
  • Wire floors are easier to keep clean because
    urine and feces drop to a removable tray below
  • Cages for small rabbits will need to be cleaned
    once or twice a week
  • Control urine odor with baking soda sprinkled in
    the corners of the collection tray
  • replace absorbent material on a regular basis
  • Raise rabbits outside year-round
  • protect from winter wind
  • provide air movement in hot weather if
    temperature goes above 90F
  • A frozen water bottle and fans can help keep the
    rabbit cool in hot weather

49
Rabbit Housing and Equipment
  • Ventilation is a must
  • avoid cool, damp, drafts
  • Sixteen hours of daylight or artificial lighting
    promotes breeding
  • Galvanized metal self-feeders that clip on the
    outside of the cage allow quick feeding and help
    eliminate waste
  • Bowls take up cage space and are subject to be
    tipped over

50
Rabbit Housing and Equipment
  • Rabbits need a lot of water
  • 16 ounce water bottle is minimum
  • 32 ounce bottle is better
  • Vaccum-type water bottles
  • clip on the outside of the cage
  • best for eliminating wet dewlaps and spills that
    can spoil bedding and result in lack of water for
    the pet

51
Feeding Rabbits
  • Best to use pelleted-type commercial feed
    formulated to meet daily nutritional needs
  • use fruits, vegetables, and leafy green foods in
    moderation to avoid gastrointestinal problems
  • Grass hay, oats, corn, oatmeal, wheat germ,
    pieces of carrot, carrot tops, slices of apples
    and bananas, pineapple, and green beans are all
    acceptable
  • Young rabbits
  • should not be fed leafy green vegetables
  • high water content
  • results in diarrhea and dehydration

52
Hamster Housing and Equipment
  • Aquariums make good cages. They allow the animal
    to see out and are easy to clean
  • Space for a single hamster is 10" x 16"x 10" tall
  • Cages must be gnaw-proof
  • Commercial cages have stainless steel tops and
    bottoms
  • Plastic floors are designed so the animal cant
    gnaw with their teeth
  • Water bottle
  • needs to hang outside the cage to prevent damage
    from gnawing or be protected with a metal cover
  • Exercise wheels may be plastic or metal
  • Plastic wheels will be destroyed by the animals
    gnawing, but are quieter
  • This is important because hamsters exercise all
    night long
  • Clean fresh bedding (paper confetti or strips,
    wood chips or shavings, hay, straw, or pieces of
    cotton)
  • absorb urine and give hamsters something to chew
    on

53
Feeding Hamsters
  • Easiest to use commercially prepared hard pellets
  • Mixed rations should contain seed, lettuce, dried
    peas, beans and nuts
  • Avoid sudden changes in the diet
  • dont overfeed greens and fruits that may cause
    diarrhea
  • Dont leave soft type foods in the cage to spoil
  • be cautious because the feed may get stuck in the
    hamsters pouch
  • Special treats include sunflower seeds, crickets,
    and grasshoppers

54
Gerbil Housing and Equipment
  • Same as hamsters, but gerbils are more active and
    need more space
  • A breeding pair need 150 square inches of floor
    space
  • Multiple gerbils need 36 square inches of floor
    space
  • Overcrowding can lead to cannabilism.
  • Gerbils can jump, so a wire mesh cover is
    essential
  • Avoid cotton and wool for bedding
  • can cause blockage in the digestive system
  • Cardboard tubes from toilet tissue and paper
    towels make excellent temporary tunnels and
    gerbils enjoy chewing them up
  • Only use solid plastic exercise wheels
  • Wheels that have spokes are may snag the tail of
    the gerbil and cause injury

55
Feeding Gerbils
  • Easiest to use commercially prepared hard pellets
  • Mixed rations should contain seed, corn, oats,
    wheat, and barley
  • Avoid sudden changes in the diet
  • Dont overfeed greens (lettuce, cabbage, carrots,
    turnips, and beets)
  • may cause diarrhea
  • Gerbils like bird seed
  • adds variety to their diet
  • feeding oilseed like sunflower may lead to
    obesity
  • Gerbils do not drink much water, an 8 ounce
    drip-type water bottle is best

56
Rat Housing and Equipment
  • Basically the same as gerbils and hamsters
  • 10" x 16" x 10" high cage is sufficient for a
    pair of rats and their litter
  • All equipment needs to be gnaw-proof or protected
  • Ceramic feed bowls
  • easy to clean
  • will not rust
  • gnaw-proof
  • difficult to turn over
  • Ropes and ladders are good for exercise and
    wheels for small rats
  • Prefer paper tissue for nesting
  • bedding should be wood shavings or chips

57
Rat Feeding
  • Easiest to use commercially prepared hard pellets
    for gerbils or other small animals
  • May add dry dog food, fruits, and vegetables
  • Rats consume about 1 ounce of water per day
  • vitamins and minerals can be added to the water

58
Mice Housing and Equipment
  • A pair of mice need a minimum of 72 square inches
    of floor space and a height of 8 inches
  • An aquarium 6" x 12" x 8" will work for a pair
  • Bars of cage must be close together (5/16" apart)
  • A mouse condo consist of several layers or
    platforms built on a table with concealed legs
    and at least 20" from the floor

59
Housing and Equipment
  • Mice have poor vision and will not jump
  • Wood shavings are ideal bedding
  • should be changed at least once per week.
  • Mice urinate in the corners of their cages
  • Cat litter and baking soda can help with the
    strong urine odor
  • Water bowls will not work for mice as they
    quickly become contaminated with feces and urine

60
Mice Feeding
  • Use commercially prepared hard pellets for
    gerbils or other small animals
  • almost anything will work
  • Mice will not overeat

61
Guinea Pig Housing and Equipment
  • Single guinea pig needs a 12" x 24" cage in order
    to get enough exercise
  • bottom of the cage needs to be at least 3 4
    inches deep
  • prevent bedding material from being scattered
  • Guinea pigs do not climb and the cage will not
    need a top
  • Aquariums make excellent cages
  • wood cages should be avoided because of the urine
    odor that builds up in the wood

62
Guinea Pig Housing and Equipment
  • When multiple guinea pigs are being kept, each
    pig will need at least 180 square inches of floor
    space
  • Keep outside after temperatures warm to 50F
  • Provide 3 square feet of run using chicken wire
    for outside pens

63
Guinea Pig Feeding
  • Easiest to use commercially prepared hard pellets
    and feed twice a day
  • Guinea pigs are vegetarians
  • Can not synthesize Vitamin C
  • need Vitamin C enhance pellets to supplement
    their diet
  • prevent scurvy
  • vitamin C pellets must be used within 30 days of
    opening

64
Guinea Pig Feeding
  • Fresh greens, lettuce, fruits, herbs, green
    vegetables, root vegetables, potatoes, clover,
    and dandelion greens are favorite foods
  • Peanuts and sunflower seed are good treats
  • may lead to obesity because
  • high fat content
  • Guinea pigs drink with their mouth full of feed
  • so water bottle tubes must be clean regularly to
    prevent the build up of bacteria
  • need a 16 or 32 ounce water bottle to meet their
    needs

65
Chinchilla Housing and Equipment
  • Chinchillas are nocturnal
  • need a quiet location during the day
  • Metal and wire cages 14" x 24" x 12"will work for
    a single chinchilla
  • 24" x 24" x 14" is better
  • wood must be on the outside of the wire mesh or
    it will be destroyed
  • Need adequate ventilation
  • location that is not too hot (over 90F will
    cause heat prostration)
  • Need small mesh wire less than 1" square to
    prevent loosing small chinchillas
  • Chinchillas must be kept in individual cages
  • they fight and inflict serious injury
  • Polygamous breeding cages
  • use a tunnel system for the male to go to
    different locations
  • females are fitted with a collar that keeps them
    from using the tunnel

66
Chinchilla Housing and Equipment
  • Chinchillas need a bath twice a week
  • finely ground powder
  • volcanic ash available from the pet store
  • removes excess moisture and oil
  • Powder is placed in a small pan
  • depth of 2 - 3"
  • Leave the pan in the cage for 5 minutes
  • allow the chinchilla to roll around in it
  • Chinchillas are not bathed in water
  • During hot weather, baths are needed daily

67
Chinchilla Feeding
  • Raisins are a favorite treat of chinchillas
  • Pelleted feeds for guinea pigs
  • Feeds made of ground alfalfa hay, corn gluten,
    wheat germ or bran plus alfalfa hay or timothy
    hay and green foods like grass, lettuce, leaves,
    carrots, celery, and fruits

68
Ferret Housing and Equipment
  • Hutches similar to rabbits
  • Ferrets can be kept outside all year long if
    protected from inclement weather, kept out of
    drafts, and shaded in the summer
  • A wood and wire cages 12" x 24" x 10"will work
    for a ferret with a litter
  • will have to be let out for exercise
  • A cage 24" x 24" x 14" is better for a ferret
    pair

69
Ferret Housing and Equipment
  • Need larger water bottles
  • like those used by guinea pigs and rabbits
  • 16 or 32 ounce
  • Ferrets are escape artist and doors need to be
    locked
  • Food bowls need to be heavy earthenware
  • so they will not be turned over
  • Rubber balls, squeak toys, and plastic pipes
    provide ferrets with tunnels and fun for hours

70
Ferret Feeding
  • Need a feed containing at least 35 animal
    protein
  • Kitten food is higher in protein than cat food
  • A commercial dry food helps maintain gum and
    teeth health, but plenty of water needs to be
    available
  • Young ferrets should be fed all they will eat
    twice a day
  • Add ½ teaspoon of vegetable oil to older ferrets
    diet
  • aids in digestion
  • bowel movement
  • helps maintain a healthy coat.
  • Treats include
  • meat scraps, cracklings, fruits, red licorice,
    and ice cream in limited amounts

71
Animal Science II-Small Animal
  • Birds-Unit D3

72
Parrot Family
  • Contains some of the smartest birds.
  • Many species can be taught to talk, are
    affectionate, and make excellent pets.
  • Members of the parrot family are known for their
    large beaks, especially the Macaws.
  • Includes Cockatoos, Cockatiels, Conures, Macaws,
    Parrots, Parakeets, Lovebirds, Hanging Parakeets

73
Cockatoos (Parrot Family)
  • Crest or tuft of feathers on the top of the head
  • Ability to mimic words and sounds
  • Intelligent
  • Range in length from 13-30
  • Popular birds that make excellent pets
  • Tame easily

74
Cockatoos (Parrot Family)
75
Cockatiel (Parrot Family)
  • One of the most popular pet birds
  • About 12 long (the size of a small cockatoo)
  • Commonly found in pet stores at a reasonable
    price
  • Gray cockatiels are mostly available.
  • Ideal for beginners and youngsters
  • Easy to raise and affectionate

76
Cockatiel (Parrot Family)
77
African Gray Parrot (Parrot Family)
  • 13 long
  • Primary color is gray
  • Very alert, intelligent and affectionate
  • Considered to be the best talker of all birds
  • Voice closely resembles a human voice

78
African Gray Parrot (Parrot Family)
79
Budgerigar-budgie (Parrot Family)
  • Most popular pet bird in the world
  • Australian bird that gets its name, which means
    good bird or good food, from the Aborigines
  • About 7 long with a primary color of
    yellowish-green
  • Can be taught to talk with proper training
  • Easy to care for, inexpensive pet
  • Eats food from floor of cage

80
Budgerigar-budgie (Parrot Family)
81
Toucans (Woodpecker Family)
  • Fairly rare as pets
  • May cost 2500 or more
  • Very noisy birds
  • About the size of a macaw
  • Extremely large bill, which can be almost as long
    as the birds body

82
Toucans (Woodpecker Family)
83
Perching Birds
  • Largest family of birds
  • Almost 60 of all birds (5,100 of 9,000 bird
    species)
  • Good singers known as song birds

84
Starlings (Perching Family)
  • Talking Mynah bird is in this group. It is a
    black bird with an orange bill
  • Has the ability to mimic the human voice and
    other sounds
  • Require lots of care
  • Cages must be cleaned daily because Mynah birds
    have a diet of fruit
  • Prices range from 300 to 500

85
Starlings (Perching Family)
86
Canary (Perching Family)
  • Very important pet
  • Some are bred for their color
  • Others are bred for their singing ability
  • Some are bred to have a crested top (feathering
    on the top of the head)

87
Canary (Perching Family)
88
Finches (Perching Family)
  • Small birds that are sociable in nature
  • Bengalese Finch is the most social of all birds
  • Zebra Finch is the most widely kept and bred
    finch in captivity.

89
Finches (Perching Family)
90
Perches
  • Size and style depend on the bird
  • Most store bought cages come with hard plastic
    perches which may be uncomfortable for birds.
  • If birds refuse to perch, replace plastic perches
    with wood perches that are more natural for birds.

91
Perches
  • Larger birds like larger perches, smaller birds
    like smaller perches
  • Finches/canaries- ½ round perch
  • Budgerigars- ½ oval perch
  • Parrots- 1 square perch

92
Perches
  • The perch for large parrot-type birds must be
    replaced as these birds destroy wood perches.
    However, the bird exercises its beak and stays
    busy in the process.

93
Perches
  • Limbs and tree branches make natural perches, but
    care must be taken to insure they are free of
    mold and pesticide residue.

94
Perches
  • Tapered perches work well because they give the
    bird a choice of most of the comfortable perching
    spot.

95
Water and Feed Containers
  • Water containers need to be hard and easy to
    clean materials like glass, ceramic, or stainless
    steel

96
Water and Feed Containers
  • Gravity-type waterers that hang outside the cage
    with a metal spout/tube extending into the cage
    work excellent.

97
Water and Feed Containers
  • Feed containers may be plastic for smaller birds,
    but parrot-type birds need the same kind of
    material used for watering containers

98
Toys
  • Prevent boredom
  • Large parrot-type birds need
    stainless-steel chains with bells
  • Smaller birds like canaries and finches can have
    mirrors, chains with bells, and ladders

99
Cage Location
  • Location of cage must be out of direct sunlight,
    free from drafts, in a place of constant
    temperature, and protected from hazards like
    poisonous plants and pets.

100
Feeding
  • Most birds eat one of three thingsseed, fruit,
    and/or nectar

101
Seed
  • The vast majority of birds have a diet of seed
  • Cereal seedshigher content of carbohydrates
    compared to oil
  • Canary seed, millet, corn, dehusked oat kernals
  • Oil seedshigher in fat content than cereal seed
    and lower in carbohydrates
  • Sunflower, peanuts, safflower, pine nuts, rape,
    maw niger, linseed

102
Seed
  • Usually bought in a commercial premixed ration of
    cereal and oil seed that is formulated for
    certain bird species and provides balance and
    variety
  • Should be dry and free of dust and dirt
  • Moldy seed should never be fed (peanuts are very
    susceptible)

103
Seed
  • May be soaked in warm water for 24 hours for
    young birds who may have difficulty cracking the
    seed with their beak or for birds during the
    breeding and molting season

104
Soaked Seeds
  • Soaking stimulates germination which causes a
    chemical change that increases the protein
    content of the seeds.
  • Before feeding, rinse in tap water and examine
    for mold or fungi
  • Discard any soaked seeds not consumed within a
    few hours and clean containers before feeding
    more soaked seeds

105
Fruit
  • Consumed by Mynah, lories, and lorikeets
  • Diet does not include seeds, grit, and cuttlefish
  • Soft bill pellets or foods from the pet store
  • Fruitapple slices, grapes, orange slices, and
    banana or dried fruit can be fed
  • Mealworms are live food that can be fed also

106
Nectar
  • Nectar and pollen are consumed by lories and
    lorikeets
  • Powdered nectar is available from a pet store to
    mix with water

107
Other Feed Options
  • Green plant material
  • Carrot tops, chickweed, dandelion leaves
  • Kale and spinach in moderation (too much green
    can cause diarrhea)
  • Avoid lettuce because it lacks nutritional value
  • Wash to remove any pesticide residue
  • Feed after it has warmed to room temperature

108
Other Feed Options
  • Grit aids in the ventriculus in grinding food up
    since birds have no teeth
  • Soluble-oyster shell breaks down and is a source
    of minerals
  • Insoluble-crushed granite provides the base for
    food to rub and work against to be ground up

109
Other Feed Options
  • Cuttlefish bone (marine mollusk)
  • Provides a source of calcium and will readily be
    eaten by larger birds
  • Smaller birds may need cuttlefish shaved or
    chipped
  • Particularly useful to female birds who need
    calcium for egg production

110
Handling and Training
  • Allow birds to adjust to new locations for 2 to 3
    days before any handling is attempted.
  • Offer a treat at regular intervals until it will
    take the treat through an open door cage
  • Press a stick perch up against the birds chest
    above the legs to encourage the bird to step up
    on it

111
Handling and Training
  • Once the bird is comfortable one may substitute a
    finger or hand for the bird to perch on
  • Leather gloves may be needed for larger birds
    that use their beak to climb to perch

112
Clipping Wings
  • Wings can be clipped to restrict their ability to
    fly and prevent escape
  • Painless
  • Primary and secondary flight feathers are cut
    just above the base of the feather shaft
  • Cutting into the feather shaft will result in
    injury and bleeding

113
Clipping Wings
  • The two outer primary flight feathers are left
    for aesthetic purposes

114
Teaching to Talk
  • Budgerigars, cockatiels, parrots, macaws and
    cockatoos can be taught to talk
  • Young males are usually the best learners and
    easiest to teach
  • Remove distractions such as mirrors, toys, and
    feed during lessons
  • The same person needs to work with a bird on a
    regular basis. Usually women and children are
    better trainers.

115
Teaching to Talk
  • Lessons should be given at the same time
    everyday.
  • Limit the length to about 15 minutes each day
  • Use short phrases and words and slowly repeat them

116
Competency 20.00
  • Use principles of bird management to create a
    healthy habitat for pet birds.
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