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Foods and Nutrition Unit 1 Nutrition and Weight Control

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Title: Foods and Nutrition Unit 1 Nutrition and Weight Control


1
Foods and NutritionUnit 1 Nutrition and
Weight Control
Tonja Bolding Lakeside High School
Revised 2008
2
1.1 Match terms related to nutrition and weight
control
  • 1. absorption-the passage of nutrients from the
    gastrointestinal
  • tract into either the blood or the tissue
    fluid surrounding the cell
  • 2. amino acids -one of the building blocks of
    protein
  • 3. appetite-a desire to eat
  • 4. calorie- a measurement of the amount of
    energy produced when food is burned by the body
    in science it is the amount of energy needed to
    raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water 1.0
    degrees Celsius.
  • 5. deficiency disease- a disease caused by the
    lack of a specific necessary element in the body
  • 6. diabetes mellitus- lack of or inability to
    use the hormone insulin, which results in the
    build up of glucose in the bloodstream
  • 7. digestion- the process by which the body
    breaks down food into useable nutrients
  • 8. fallacy- a mistaken belief

3
  • 9. fat soluble vitamin-vitamins that are
    absorbed and transported by fat includes
    vitamins A, D, E. and K
  • 10. glucose-type of simple sugar the bodys
    primary energy source and the only energy source
    of the brain and nervous system the basic sugar
    molecule from which all other carbohydrates are
    built
  • 11. malnutrition- poor nutrition over an extended
    period of time which can be caused by an
    inadequate diet, or the bodys inability to use
    the nutrients it takes in
  • 12. metabolism- the process by which living cells
    use nutrients in many chemical reactions that
    provide energy for vital processes and activities
  • 13. nutrient- chemical substances in food that
    help to maintain the body
  • 14. nutrition- the study of nutrients and how
    they are used by the body
  • 15. obesity- weighing twenty percent or more
    above desirable weight for height, in a adult,
    defined as a BMI of 30 or more
  • 16. osteoporosis- a condition caused by a calcium
    deficiency which results in porous brittle bones
    and a loss in bone density

4
  • 17. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)-
    suggested levels of nutrient intake to meet the
    needs of most healthy people
  • 18. saliva- a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid
    secreted by the mouth that begins to break down
    starches and makes food easier to swallow
  • 19. taste buds- sensory organs located on various
    parts of the tongue
  • 20. trace elements- elements or minerals needed
    in very small amounts
  • 21. vitamin- nutrients that dont provide energy
    or build body tissue, but help regulate these and
    other body processes
  • 22. water soluble vitamins- a vitamin,
    specifically vitamin C or one of the B complex
    vitamins that dissolve in water

5
1.2 Describe psychological, physiological and
environmental reasons for eating
  • Psychological
  • Food can satisfy emotional needs
  • Babies learn to connect food with
  • warmth and security
  • Children associate foods with
  • pleasurable experiences
  • Adults associate food with times of happiness and
    security

6
  • Children may eat a certain way because of
    examples set by their parents
  • Emotions may cause under eating and overeating
  • Food appeals to the senses of sight, taste, and
    smell.
  • our tastebuds (sensory organs located on various
    arts of the tongue) detect sweet, bitter, sour
    and salty
  • Preparing food can be as satisfying as eating it.

7
  • Physical
  • Food is one of the most basic physical needs
  • Your body needs food to provide energy for vital
    process
  • walking and climbing
  • building and repairing tissue
  • Food meets 2 basic needs
  • hunger
  • health

8
  • Environmental
  • Food brings people together.
  • Preparing and eating food are social activities.
  • Family culture has a great impact on the foods
    people eat and how they eat them.
  • Friends have an affect on the foods you choose.
  • The media can affect your food choices.

9
1.3 Describe effect of nutrition (the study of
nutrients and how they are used by the body) on
health and body mass
  • Body Mass Index
  • -A calculation involving a persons weight and
    height measurements.
  • Healthy Weight BMI 18.5-24.9
  • Overweight BMI 25-29.9
  • Obese BMI 30
  • Underweight BMI under 18.5
  • For more information go to the Centers for
    Disease Control
  • and Prevention website
  • http//www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/bmi/adult_BMI/eng
    lish_bmi_calculator/bmi_calculator.htm

10
  • The use of BMI is assessing weight has
    limitations because it does not take body
    composition into account.
  • One way to evaluate whether excess body weight is
    due to fat or muscle is though a skinfold
    test with the use of a caliper.
  • A pinch test can be used by grasping a fold of
    skin at the back of your upper arm between your
    thumb and forefinger. A fold that measures more
    than an inch thick is a often a sign of excess
    fat.

11
1.4 Identify food related health problems
  • High blood pressure
  • often referred to as hypertension
  • Heart disease
  • smoking and obesity are causes
  • Obesity (weighing twenty percent or more above
    desirable weight for height, in adult, defined as
    a BMI of 30 or more)
  • one of the major causes of many
  • health problems

12
  • Underweight
  • often suffer from chronic infections, they tire
    easily and feel cold in a moderate temperature.
  • Malnutrition
  • (caused by poor nutrition over an extended period
    of time resulting from an inadequate diet, or the
    bodys inability to use the nutrients it takes
    in)

13
  • Food allergies/food sensitivities
  • lactose intolerance
  • inability to digest lactose which is milk sugar
  • peanuts and peanut butter
  • shellfish
  • shrimp, crab, clams, oysters
  • nuts
  • walnuts, pine nuts, cashews
  • wheat
  • celiac disease is a permanent adverse reaction to
    gluten which is a mixture of proteins in the
    grain

14
  • Vitamin and/or mineral deficiency diseases
  • (a disease caused by the lack of a specific
    necessary element in the body)
  • anemia iron
  • night blindness vitamin A

kwashiorkor protein
scurvy vitamin c
pellagra niacin
goiter iodine
beriberi thiamin
rickets vitamin D
osteoporosis calcium
15
  • Diabetes mellitus (lack of or inability to use
    the hormone insulin, which results in the build
    up of glucose in the bloodstream) is a health
    problem that affected 235,000 Arkansans in 2003
  • Type I or insulin dependent occurs most
  • often in children and young adults.
  • Type II or non-insulin dependent occurs in adults
    over 40 that are overweight and eat diets high
    in refined carbohydrates

16
1.5 Name unhealthy diet practices
  • Eating disorder are abnormal eating behaviors
    that risks physical and mental health.
  • doctors do not know what causes them
  • believed to be triggered by some type of stress
  • most often affects young women and teen girls

17
Common Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • characterized by self starvation
  • intense fear of weigh gain
  • distorted body image
  • blood pressure drops/respiration slows
  • abnormal hormone secretion/periods stop
  • body temp drops/sensitive to cold
  • heart may stop in extreme cases

18
Allegra Versace, 20 year old daughter of designer
Donatella Versace is currently undergoing
treatment for anorexia.
Super thin celebrities such as Mary-Kate and
Ashley Olsen have been accused of having anorexia.
19
  • Bulimia
  • characterized by binging and purging
  • thousands of calories (a measurement of the
    amount of energy produced when food is burned by
    the body in science it is the amount of energy
    needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water
    1.0 degrees Celsius) are consumed in a short
    period of time
  • food is eliminated by vomiting and/or laxatives
  • bulimics feel a lack control over their eating
  • feel guilty and unlike anorexics know their
    behavior is abnormal

20
2006 American Idol runner-up Katharine McPhee
admits to have battled bulimia for 5 years .
Singer Amy Winehouse struggles with bulimia
(among other things)
21
  • Binge eating disorder
  • repeated episodes of uncontrolled eating
  • do not take part in an opposing behavior to
    prevent weight gain
  • most are overweight or obese

22
Signs of Eating Disorders
  • abnormal weight loss
  • binge eating
  • self-induced vomiting
  • abuse of laxatives and/or diuretics
  • excessive exercise
  • absent or irregular menstrual periods
  • depression

If you suspect that a friend has an eating
disorder seek help for them.
23
  • Weight Loss Aids are also considered unhealthy
    diet practices.
  • special exercise equipment (gimmicks)
  • diet pills
  • fad diets

Ab Roller
24
  • If it sounds too good to be true, it probably
    is.
  • The problem with most aids that promise quick
    weight loss is they do not help people develop
    new lifestyle behaviors.
  • As soon as people stop using these products they
    go back to their old eating and activity
    patterns.
  • These quick fix products are a fallacy (a
    mistaken belief) and should be avoided.

25
1.6 Define basic nutrient (a chemical substance
in food that help to maintain the body) groups,
their sources and functions
  • Nutrients are divided into the following 6
    groups
  • carbohydrates
  • fats
  • proteins
  • vitamins
  • minerals
  • water

26
  • CARBOHYDRATES
  • the bodys main source of
    energy

27
  • Function
  • the bodys main energy source
  • help digest fats efficiently
  • provide bulk in the diet
  • 3 main types sugars (simple carbohydrates),
  • starches and fiber (complex carbohydrates)

28
  • Simple Sugars
  • Glucose (type of simple sugar the bodys primary
    energy source and the only energy source of the
    brain and nervous system the basic sugar
    molecule from which all other carbohydrates are
    built) is sometimes called blood sugar
  • Fructose (fruit sugar)
  • Lactose (milk sugar)
  • Maltose (malt sugar from grains)
  • Sucrose (table sugar)

29
  • Starch
  • the most abundant carbohydrate in the diet
  • the storage form of energy in plants
  • Fiber
  • plant source that humans cannot digest
  • does not provide energy like other carbs
  • provides bulk and promotes normal bowel function

30
  • Sources of Simple Carbohydrates
  • sugar
  • syrups/honey/molasses
  • soft drinks
  • candies
  • sweets
  • jams/jellies

31
  • Sources of Starch
  • bread
  • cereal
  • pasta
  • rice
  • corn
  • potatoes
  • dry beans and peas

32
  • Sources of Fiber
  • whole grains and cereals
  • fresh fruits
  • fresh vegetables

33
  • FATS
  • provides a concentrated source of energy and
  • helps protect the body from sudden changes
  • in outside temperature

34
  • Functions
  • provide energy
  • carry certain vitamins
  • make food taste good
  • helps you feel full after eating
  • Types
  • saturated fatty acids meat and dairy
  • unsaturated fatty acids
  • monounsaturated canola oil, olive oil, peanut
    oil
  • polyunsaturated corn oil, safflower oil,
    sunflower oil
  • trans fatty acids shortening, margarine

35
Sources of Fat
  • Visible
  • margarine
  • butter
  • fat/skin on meat
  • Invisible
  • eggs
  • baked products
  • ?saturated fats are solid at room temperature
  • ?unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature

36
  • PROTEIN
  • composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and
    nitrogen,
  • body uses it for growth and maintenance

37
  • Functions
  • growth maintenance and repair of tissues
  • provide energy
  • Made up of 20 amino acids (one of the building
    blocks of protein)
  • 2 types of amino acids
  • essential
  • 9 that the body cannot make, must get from food
  • nonessential
  • 11 that the body makes

38

Types of Protein
  • Complete Protein
  • contain all 9 essential amino acids
  • sources animal foods and soybean
  • supports growth and maintenance of body tissue

39

Types of Protein
  • Incomplete Protein
  • missing one or more essential amino acids
  • will not support growth and maintenance of body
    tissues
  • sources plant foods

40
Sources of Protein
  • lean meats
  • poultry
  • fish
  • milk
  • cheese
  • eggs
  • dry beans/peas
  • nuts
  • grains

41
  • VITAMINS
  • nutrients that dont provide energy or build
    body tissue,
  • but help regulate these and other body processes

42
Types of Vitamins
  • Fat Soluble (A, D, E, K)
  • dissolve in fat
  • can build up in the body and be dangerous
  • Water Soluble (C and Bs)
  • dissolve in water
  • body does not store
  • extra carried out in urine

43
Vitamin A
  • Function
  • used to make a chemical compound in the eyes need
    to adapt to darkness
  • promotes normal growth especially in bones and
    teeth
  • Sources
  • liver
  • egg yolks
  • whole milk
  • fortified dairy products
  • butter
  • fish oil

44
Vitamin D
  • Functions
  • to produce the growth of bones and teeth
  • helps the body use calcium and phosphorus
  • Sources
  • eggs
  • liver
  • fatty fish
  • added to milk, cereal, butter
  • and margarine

45
The Sunshine Vitamin
  • The body can make vitamin D with exposure to the
    sun.
  • Sunlight converts a substance in the skin
  • Sun exposure is linked to 30 of all cancers.
  • Limit exposure and protect the skin.

46
Vitamin E
  • Function
  • dietary antioxidant that significantly reduces
    the harmful effects of oxygen on normal body
    functions
  • Sources
  • fats and oils
  • liver
  • eggs
  • whole milk
  • dairy foods
  • leafy green vegetables
  • whole grain breads and cereals

47
Vitamin K
  • Function
  • the blood clotting vitamin
  • Sources
  • leafy green vegetables
  • cauliflower
  • liver
  • egg yolks

48
Vitamin C
  • Function
  • formation and maintenance of collagen, a protein
    that is part of connective tissue
  • helps wounds heal and broken bones mend
  • Sources
  • broccoli
  • cabbage
  • cantaloupe
  • citrus fruits
  • green peppers
  • leafy green vegetables
  • strawberries

49
Thiamin (B1)
  • Function
  • helps the body release energy from food
  • promotes normal appetite (a desire to eat) and
    digestion
  • keeps the nervous system healthy and prevent
    irritability
  • Sources
  • nearly all foods except fats, oils and refined
    sugars contain some thiamin.
  • no single food is high in thiamin
  • wheat germ
  • pork products
  • legumes
  • whole grains
  • enriched cereals

50
Riboflavin (B2)
  • Function
  • helps cells use oxygen
  • help keep skin, tongue and lips normal
  • Source
  • organ meats heart and liver
  • milk and milk products
  • eggs
  • oysters
  • leafy green vegetables
  • whole grain and enriched cereal products

51
Niacin (B3)
  • Function
  • keeps the nervous system, mouth, skin, tongue,
    and digestive tract healthy
  • Sources
  • muscle meats
  • poultry
  • peanuts/peanut butter

52
Pantothenic Acid (B5)
  • Function
  • promotes growth and helps the body make
    cholesterol
  • Sources
  • organ meats heart and liver
  • yeast
  • egg yolks
  • brand
  • wheat germ
  • dry beans
  • milk

53
B6 (Pyridoxine)
  • Function
  • helps nerve tissue function normally
  • plays a role in the regeneration of red blood
    cells
  • Sources
  • muscle meats
  • liver
  • vegetables
  • whole grain cereals

54
Biotin (B7)
  • Function
  • needed for the breakdown of fats, carbohydrates
    and proteins
  • Sources
  • kidney and liver
  • chicken
  • eggs
  • milk

55
Folate/Folic Acid (B9)
  • Function
  • especially important in the diets of pregnant
    women
  • Sources
  • asparagus
  • broccoli
  • dry beans and peas
  • liver
  • yogurt
  • bananas
  • oranges
  • strawberries
  • whole grain cereals

56
B12 (Cobalamin)
  • Function
  • helps in functioning of cells in the bone marrow,
    nervous system and intestine
  • Sources
  • animal protein foods meat, fish, milk, eggs,
    cheese
  • fortified cereals and breakfast foods
  • Plant foods do not contain B12,
    strict
  • vegetarians should take a supplement.

57
Anatomy of a Grain
58
  • MINERALS
  • regulate body processes, or become part
  • of the body tissue

59
Macrominerals
  • Needed in the diet in amounts of 100 or more
    milligrams each day
  • calcium
  • phosphorus
  • magnesium
  • sodium
  • chlorine
  • potassium

60
Calcium
  • Function
  • combines with phosphorus to build and strengthen
    bones and teeth
  • Sources
  • milk and milk products

Consume foods high in calcium to prevent
osteoporosis (a condition caused by a calcium
deficiency which results in porous brittle bones
and a loss in bone density) as you age.
61
Phosphorus
  • Function
  • works with calcium to strengthen bones and teeth
  • Sources
  • milk and milk products
  • meat
  • poultry
  • fish
  • eggs

62
Magnesium
  • Function
  • helps cells use proteins, fats, and carbs to
    produce energy
  • regulate the bodys temperature
  • Sources
  • whole grains
  • nuts
  • beans
  • meat
  • dark green leafy vegetables

63
Sodium, Chlorine and Potassium
  • Function
  • maintain the acid-alkali balance in the body
  • Sources
  • bananas (potassium)
  • table salt (sodium and chlorine)
  • the RDA for sodium is a maximum of 2,400 mg per
    day
  • this equates to 1 teaspoon of table salt per day

2,400mg
64
Microminerals
  • also called trace elements (elements or needed in
    very small amounts)
  • these minerals have not been shown to pose a
    great concern in the diets of most people in the
    US
  • fluorine
  • iron
  • zinc
  • iodine

65
Fluorine/Fluoride
  • Function
  • the development and protection of teeth
  • Sources
  • drinking water
  • where available
  • toothpaste

Captain Fluoride
66
Iron
  • Function
  • combines with protein to form hemoglobin, which
    is the protein pigment in red blood cells that
  • takes oxygen from the lungs and carries
  • it to cells throughout the body
  • Sources
  • liver
  • spinach
  • salmon
  • Deficiencies
  • anemia
  • common in women and children

67
Zinc
  • Function
  • helps wounds heal and aids the functioning of the
    immune system
  • Sources
  • meat
  • poultry
  • seafood
  • whole grains

68
Iodine
  • Function
  • the essential part of the thyroxine,
  • a hormone produced by the thyroid
  • gland that regulates metabolism (the process
  • by which living cells use nutrients in many
    chemical reactions that provide energy for vital
    processes and activities)
  • Sources
  • iodized salt
  • seafood
  • seaweed
  • nori is dried seaweed used to wrap sushi

69
  • WATER
  • regulates all the body processes and is essential
    to life

70
  • People can live more than a month without food,
    but only a few days without water.
  • Between 50 and 75 percent of your body weight is
    water.
  • It is found both inside and outside all your
    cells.
  • Function
  • aids in digestion and cell growth and maintenance
  • lubricates joints
  • regulates body temperature

71
  • Sources
  • about 54 comes from the liquid you drink such as
    coffee, tea, juice, soda, etc.
  • about 37 from water intake
  • the rest from various foods containing water such
    as lettuce and when the body releases energy for
    carbs, fats and proteins

72
Water Requirements
  • Some nutrition experts suggest and easy way to
    figure your daily water needs
  • body weight divided by twooz of daily fluid
    intake
  • Ex. 160 lb person should drink 80 oz of
    fluid/daily
  • More water is need by those suffering from fever,
    diarrhea, high-protein diets and
  • living in hot climates.

73
Digestion(the process by which
the body breaks down food into useable nutrients)
  • The digestive process begins in the mouth when
    chewed food mixes with saliva (a mucus and enzyme
    containing liquid secreted by the mouth that
    begins to break down starches and makes food
    easier to swallow)
  • The swallowed food enters the esophagus, which
    runs from the mouth to the stomach.
  • The stomach churns the food and mixes it with
    gastric acid.
  • In the small intestine, absorption(the passage of
    nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into
    either the blood or the tissue fluid surrounding
    the cell) takes place
  • In the large intestine, some of the water and
    electrolytes are removed from the food, then it
    travels to the colon.
  • Solid waste is then stored in the rectum until
    it is excreted via the anus.

74
1.7 Explain MyPyramid including divisions,
physical activity and recommended
serving allowances
  • The food guide pyramid was revised
  • April 19,2005
  • The following website will be used to study this
    revision
  • www.mypyramid.gov
  • See separate MyPyramid Powerpoint

75
1.8 Name careers related to nutrition and weight
control
  • Dietician
  • food service
  • hospital
  • education
  • research
  • Personal Trainer
  • Fitness Instructor
  • aerobics
  • pilates
  • yoga
  • Sports medicine
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