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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd Edition

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Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd Edition Chapter Five Training Design P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker Design Phase Constraints and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd Edition


1
Effective Training Strategies, Systems and
Practices, 3rd Edition
  • Chapter Five
  • Training Design
  • P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker

2
Design Phase
3
Constraints and Possible Ways of Dealing with
Them Part 1 of 3
Constraints Suggestion for How to Handle
Need high level of simulation1 because Law
(fire drills) Task critical to the job
(police firing gun) Mistakes costly (airline
pilot)
Incorporate a longer lead time to prepare
simulations/role plays. Purchase Simulators.
Trainees vary in amounts of experience
Consider modularization.
Trainees have large differences in ability levels
Use programmed instruction. Have high level of
trainer/trainee interaction.
4
Constraints and Possible Ways of Dealing with
Them Part 2 of 3
Constraints Suggestion for How to Handle
Consider different training programs may be
negative transfer for employees but not for new
hires.
Mix of employees and new hires trained on a new
procedure
Long lag between end of training and use of
the skill on the job
Distribute practice through the lag. Provide
refresher material and/or models for employees to
follow.
Short lead time
Use external consultant or training package.
5
Constraints and Possible Ways of Dealing with
Them Part 3 of 3
Constraints Suggestion for How to Handle
Bias against a type of training (role play,
etc.)
Develop proof of effectiveness into the training
package. Use another method.
Few trainees available at any one time
Use programmed instruction.
Small organization with limited funds
Hire consultant/purchase training. Join
consortium.
6
Guide to determining time required to prepare
training Part 1 of 3
Variables Variables Level Of Effort For Design Level Of Effort For Design
Low Medium High
Who Who Who Who
1. Designer knowledge and skills related to instructional design ? extensive knowledge and skills ? Moderate knowledge and skills ? minimal knowledge and skills
2. Designer knowledge of subject matter ? extensive knowledge ? some knowledge ? no knowledge
3. Size and complexity of the target training group ? small, homogeneous ? medium size, moderately complex ? large, complex
4. Designers and clients track record for sticking to plans ? always stick ? sometimes stick ? never stick
7
Guide to determining time required to prepare
training Part 2 of 3
Variables Variables Level Of Effort For Design Level Of Effort For Design
Low Medium High
What What What What
5. the number of instruction modules ? few (5 modules) ? several (8 modules) ? many (12 modules)
6. Elements included in the training materials ? trainee manual only ? instructor and participant manuals ? instructor and participant manuals, overheads, job aids
7. clients or organizations expectations regarding packaging ? minimal (produced in-house) ? modest (desktop publishing) ? extensive (professionally produced)
8. what is considered final product ? first draft by designer, client does rest ? designer completes up to the pilot ? designer completes all drafts, finalizes after pilot
8
Guide to determining time required to prepare
training Part 3 of 3
Variables Variables Level Of Effort For Design Level Of Effort For Design
Low Medium High
How How How How
9. data collection ? a focus group made up of a few well-informed people ? a focus group and a few interviews ? several focus groups and several interviews
10. designers interaction with the client ? deals directly with top decision maker ? deals with more than one level of decision makers ? deals with a complex labor-management committee
11. clients level of involvement ? approves general direction and final draft ? reviews and approves key materials ? reviews and approves all materials
12. Amount of interactivity ? minimal ? moderate ? extensive
9
Proposal for developing a one day workshop on
Effective Communication
Action Time Rate Total
Prepare Prepare Prepare Prepare
Interview relevant employees to determine issues and context to develop training 1 day 1,000 1,000
Develop objectives and plan for developing training. Includes identifying appropriate instructional methods and developing evaluation objectives 2.5 days 1,000 2,500
Develop training materials based on objectives 8 days 1,000 8,000
Develop usual aids and evaluation material 2.5 days 1,000 2,500
Miscellaneous 1,400
TOTAL 15,400
10
Types of Costs in Training Programs
  • Development Costs such as TNA
  • Direct Costs actual cost of program
  • Indirect Costs such as preparation costs
  • Overhead Costs equipment, facilities
  • Participant Compensation
  • Evaluation Costs

11
Training Costs for Grievance Reduction Training
Part 1 of 2
Developmental Costs Developmental Costs
1. 20 days of directors time at 50,000 per year 2. 5 days of trainers time at 30,000 per year 3. Materials 4,000 600 1,000
Direct Costs Direct Costs
1. 5 days of trainers time at 30,000 per year 2. Training facility rental 5 days at 150 per day 3. Materials and equipment 4. Coffee, juice, and muffins 600 750 2,000 600
12
Training Costs for Grievance Reduction Training
Part 2 of 2
Indirect Costs Indirect Costs
1. 1 day trainer preparation 2. 3 days administrative preparation at 20,000 per year 120 120
Participant Compensation (may include travel) Participant Compensation (may include travel)
1. 30 supervisors attending 5-day workshop (Average 35,000 / yr.) 21,000
Evaluation Costs Evaluation Costs
1. 6 days of evaluators time at 30,000 per year 2. Materials 720 800
Total Training Costs 32,310
13
Program Objectives
  • Mager Description of a performance you want
    learners to be able to exhibit before you
    consider them competent
  • Specify what learners should be able to do,
    conditions under which they must do it, and
    criteria in judging success

14
Performance Objectives
  • Objective Indicator
  • Understand how to Discriminate between
  • read X-rays normal and
    abnormal

  • X-rays
  • Knowledge of loans Recall procedure for

  • making a loan
  • Ability to read Identify
    transistors
  • diagrams on a
    schematic diagram

15
False Objectives
  • Show an appreciation for loan procedures
  • Be able to think critically and analytically
  • Have a deep awareness and thorough humanizing
    grasp of interpersonal relations

16
Conditions for Performance
  • Relevant and important conditions under which
    performance is expected to occur
  • Repair a motor with two minor defects using a
    standard set of tools and diagrams

17
Criterion for Performance
  • How well trainees should be able to perform in
    order to be acceptable
  • Includes speed, accuracy and quality
  • Examples finish in 20 minutes, no more that 2
    errors, within a tolerance of .1 inch

18
Types of Training Objectives Part 1 of 2
(Kirkpatrick)
Describes the desired trainee attitudinal and
subjective evaluations of training
1. Trainee Reaction Objectives
2. Learning Objectives
Describes the type of behavior that will
demonstrate the learning, the conditions under
which the behavior must occur, and the criteria
that will signify that a sufficient level of
learning has occurred
19
Types of Training Objectives Part 2 of 2
3. Transfer of Training Objectives
Describes job behaviors that will be affected by
training, the conditions under which those
behaviors must occur, and the criteria that will
signify that a sufficient transfer of learning
from training to the job has occurred
4. Organizational Outcome Objectives
Describes the organizational outcomes that will
be affected by the transfer of learning to the
job and the criteria that will signify that
organizational outcome objectives have been
achieved
20
Learning Objectives Improved Part 1 of 2
After reading a scenario of an unmotivated
student, and without the use of any outside
material, identify orally to the class what you
would do to motivate the student, and explain
which theory you used and why. Trainee must
identify at least 3 motivators and tie to correct
theory. Must be correct on 4 of the 5 scenarios
Will be able to apply theories of motivation to
different situations
21
Learning Objectives Improved Part 2 of 2
When asked, correctly identify to the trainer 5
things that are necessary to have an effective
team.
Will understand what is needed to have an
effective team
Will have knowledge of three types of active
listening, and be able to use the appropriate one
in a particular situation
In a role play, appropriately respond to an angry
comment using one of the active listening types,
then correctly explain to the class which was
used and why.
22
Trainee Characteristics
  • Trainability f(Motivation, Ability, Perceptions
    of work environment)
  • Perceptions of training
  • Self-efficacy
  • Factors that increase motivation
  • Personality and attitudes
  • Extraversion, openness, conscientiousness,
    agreeableness, stability

23
No Trait and Treatment Interaction
24
A Trait and Treatment Interaction
25
Social Learning Processes and Corresponding
Training Events
Attention/Expectancy Learning environment,
pre-training communications, statement of
objectives and process, highlighting of key
learning points
Retention Activation of memory Stimulation of
prior related learning Symbolic coding
and Presentation of encoding schemes and images,
cognitive organization associations with
previously learned material, order of
presentation during training Symbolic rehearsal
and Case studies, hypothetical scenarios, aids
for cues for retrieval transfer (identical
elements and principles)
Behavioral Reproduction Active and guided
practice (role plays and simulations)
Reinforcement Assessment and feedback (positive
and/or negative)
26
Conditions of Practice
  • Active practice can be mental practice
  • Massed vs. spaced practice
  • Rest intervals early in training
  • Less meaningful, greater difficulty and amount
    the better spaced practice
  • Less capable, less experienced learner does
    better with spaced practice
  • Retention better with spaced practice
  • Whole vs. part

27
Conditions of Practice
  • Overlearning
  • Knowledge of results/feedback
  • Important aspects
  • Provisions of feedback
  • Specify corrective actions
  • Reward/punishment consequences

28
Retention
  • Meaningfulness of material
  • Degree of original learning
  • Retroactive interference new learning
    interferes with old learning
  • Proactive old learning interferes with the
    retention of new learning

29
Seven Step Relapse-Prevention Training
Step
1. Choose a skill to retain
2. Set goals
3. Commit to retain the skill
4. Learn coping (relapse prevention) strategies
5. Identify likely circumstances for
first relapse
6. Practice coping (relapse prevention) strategies
7. Learn to monitor target skill
30
Coping Strategies for Relapse Prevention Part 1
of 2
Step
Understand the relapse process
Recognize difference between training and work
setting
Create an effective support network on the job
Identify high risk situations
31
Coping Strategies for Relapse Prevention Part 2
of 2
Step
Reduce emotional reactions that interfere with
learning
Diagnose specific support skills necessary to
retain new skill
Identify organizational support for skill
retention
32
Transfer of Training
  • Stimulus Response Transfer
  • same same positive
  • same different negative
  • different different zero/none

33
Increasing Transfer
  • Maximize similarity
  • Practice
  • Provide a variety of situations and examples
  • Understand general principles
  • Support
  • Opportunity to perform on the job
  • Feedback and reinforcement
  • Develop and follow learning objectives

34
A Plan to Apply Skills Back on the Job
1. What skill/technique (be specific)
2. What will using skill/technique look like (be
specific)
3. What are the positive and negative
consequences of using and not using the skill.
Positive () Negative (-)
Using Skill
Not Using Skill
4. What will a slip look like?
5. How will you feel if you slip back to old
techniques?
6. Under what circumstances is a slip likely to
occur?
7. What support is needed?
35
Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction Part 1
of 2
Instructional Event Relation to Social Learning Theory
Gain attention Attention
Informing the trainee of Goal (objectives) Attention
Stimulate recall of prior knowledge (learning) Retention Activation of memory
Present the material Retention Activation of memory, Semantic coding, Cognitive organization
36
Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction Part 2
of 2
Instructional Event Relation to Social Learning Theory
Provide guidance for learning Retention Semantic coding/ cognitive organization through guided discovery Retention Symbolic Rehearsal
Elicit performance (practice) Behavioral Reproduction
Provide informative feedback Reinforcement
Assess performance
Enhance retention and transfer Reinforcement
37
Learning and Transfer Factors as related to
Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of
design 1 of 5
Social learning Theory Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider
Pre-training Attention/Expectancy Influence expectations attitudes of trainees. Identify those with low expectations/ send to pre-training workshop Provide information to influence expectancies/ identify positive outcomes.
Demonstrate the need for training and set goals Do needs analysis so only relevant trainees attend. Have supervisors discuss performance of trainee and set mutual goals. Have learning objectives distributed ahead of time.
38
Learning and Transfer Factors as related to
Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of
design 2 of 5
Social learning Theory Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider
Training Beginning Attention/ Expectancy Create/reinforce positive attitude toward training Gain Attention Allow time for instructor and trainee introductions and develop a relaxed atmosphere
Inform trainee of goals Allow for time to go through needs analysis, show learning objectives, and discuss usefulness on the job draw example from trainees
Eliminate distractions Choose site where anxiety level will be low (see classical conditioning). Choose proper facilities.
39
Learning and Transfer Factors as related to
Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of
design 3 of 5
Social learning Theory Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider
During Retention Make relevant Continue to focus on training objectives
Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Develop links between previous learning and the new learning (activation of memory).
Present material Use multiple media and make interesting Ask questions and get involvement
40
Learning and Transfer Factors as related to
Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of
design 4 of 5
Social learning Theory Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider
Make interesting Provide guidance for learning Get trainees involved (symbolic rehearsal) Use relevant examples and offer many of them
Behavioral Reproduction/ Reinforcement Encourage learning Elicit performance Provide feedback Provide relevant practice process (including maximum similarity and/or different situations). Let trainees know how they are doing.
41
Learning and Transfer Factors as related to
Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of
design 4 of 5
Social learning Theory Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider
Ending Reinforcement Be sure trainees see results of training Assess performance Provide time for examining objectives to see what was accomplished. Provide time to evaluate performance level accomplished and provide feedback
Sensitize trainees to difficulty in transfer of training Enhance retention and transfer Incorporate relapse-prevention strategy. Provide commitment of trainer to meet with trainees to facilitate transfer. Develop trainees goals for transfer of training
42
Learning and Transfer Factors as related to
Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of
design 5 of 5
Social learning Theory Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider
Post-Training Reinforcement Facilitate transfer Obtain support from supervisor/ peers/ trainer to help trainee in transferring the training to the workplace. Ensure that reward systems are in line with newly trained behaviors.
43
Learning Curves
  • Negatively accelerated material easy,
    experienced learner, high ability
  • Positively accelerated material complex,
    learner inexperienced
  • S shaped positively accelerated in early stages
    negatively in later (common)

44
Plateaus in Learning
  • Hierarchy of habits
  • Motivation declines
  • Incorrect learning being eliminated
  • Learning material that is complex whole composed
    of several simple parts

45
Perceptual Preferences
  • Print
  • Visual
  • Aural
  • Interactive
  • Tactile/manipulative
  • Kinesthetic/psychomotor
  • Olfactory
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