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SOUTH AMERICA

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SOUTH AMERICA MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES Physiography Dominated by the Andes mountains and the amazon basin. Population Concentrated along the periphery. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOUTH AMERICA


1
SOUTH AMERICA
2
POLITICAL MAP
3
REGIONS OF THE REALM
  • Caribbean North
  • Colombia
  • Venezuela
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • French Guiana

Brazil
  • Andean West
  • Peru
  • Ecuador
  • Bolivia
  • Southern Cone
  • Argentina
  • Chile
  • Uruguay
  • Paraguay

4
MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES
  • Physiography
  • Dominated by the Andes mountains and the amazon
    basin.
  • Population
  • Concentrated along the periphery.
  • Cultural pluralism
  • Exists in most countries and is expressed
    regionally.
  • Regional economic interaction
  • Has been minimal in the past.
  • Acute Financial Problems
  • External debts and default

5
PLATE TECTONICS
6
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
7
PRECIPITATION
8
THE INCA EMPIRE
  • Culture hearth-
  • Basin around Cuzco (1200-1535 a.D.)
  • Altiplanos were key to settlement patterns.
  • 20 million subjects at its zenith
  • Transportation networks and integration efforts
    were most impressive.
  • A highly centralized state

9
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES COLONIAL DOMAINS
10
SOUTH AMERICAS CULTURE SPHERES
11
CULTURE SPHERES
Tropical-plantation
  • Resembles Middle Americas Rimland
  • Locations, soils, tropical climates favor
    plantation crops, especially sugar.
  • Initially relied on African slave labor

12
CULTURE SPHERES
European-commercial
  • The most Latin part of South America
  • Includes the Pampas - temperate grasslands
  • Economically most advanced
  • Transportation networks and quality of life are
    excellent.

13
CULTURE SPHERES
Amerind-subsistence
  • Correlates with the former Inca Empire
  • Feudal socioeconomic structure persists
  • Includes some of South Americas poorest areas
  • Subsistence agriculture must contend with
    difficult environmental challenges.

14
CULTURE SPHERES
Mestizo-transitional
  • Surrounds the Amerindian-subsistence region
  • A zone of mixture- culturally agriculturally
  • Transitional -- economic connotations

15
CULTURE SPHERES
Undifferentiated
  • Characteristics are difficult to classify.
  • Sparsely populated
  • Isolation and lack of change- notable features
  • Development of Amazonia may prompt significant
    changes.

16
SOUTH AMERICAS CULTURE SPHERES
Tropical-plantation
European-commercial
Amerind-subsistence
Mestizo-transitional(mixed)
Undifferentiated
17
ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
  • MERCOSUR
  • LAUNCHED IN 1995
  • A SOUTHERN CONE COMMON MARKET
  • INCLUDES BRAZIL, ARGENTINA, URUGUAY, AND PARAGUAY
  • ANDEAN GROUP
  • INITIALLY FORMED IN 1969 (ANDEAN PACT)
  • RESTARTED IN 1995
  • MEMBERS ARE VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA, PERU, ECUADOR,
    AND BOLIVIA

18
ECONOMIC INTEGRATION(CONTINUED)
  • GROUP OF THREE (G-3)
  • FORMED IN 1995
  • INCLUDES MEXICO, VENEZUELA, AND COLOMBIA
  • A FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION WHICH AIMS TO PHASE OUT
    ALL TARIFFS BY 2005
  • NAFTA
  • LAUNCHED BY THE US, MEXICO, AND CANADA IN 1995
  • AIMS TO INCLUDE CHILE

19
BARRIERS TO INTEGRATION
  • A hollow continent - why?
  • Physiographic barriers
  • Non-complementary economies
  • Lack of developed infrastructure
  • Individual countries oriented towards Europe and
    the us not towards each other

20
URBANIZATION
  • The movement to and clustering of people in towns
    and cities
  • The percentage of a countrys population living
    in cities
  • 78 - continent-wide in south america
  • South americas increase based on rate of
    natural increase and internal migration
  • The latin american city model

21
GENERALIZED MODEL OFTHE LATIN AMERICAN CITY
Commercial/Industrial
Elite Residential Sector
Disamenity
Disamenity
Zone of Maturity
CBD
Zone in Situ Accretion
Zone of peripheral squatter settlements
22
GLOBAL URBANIZATION
Urban Population as a Percentage of
Total Population in Different Areas of the World,
1950-2000
23
BRAZIL
  • South Americas Giant
  • World rankings
  • Population size - 5th
  • Territory - 5th
  • Economy - 8th
  • Industrial base - 8th

24
BRAZIL
  • CONTAINS HALF THE CONTINENTS LAND AND PEOPLE
  • A FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF 26 STATES
  • ETHNIC DIVERSITY - MIXTURE OF EUROPEAN, AFRICAN,
    AND AMERINDIAN PEOPLES
  • PORTUGUESE - SPEAKING ROMAN CATHOLIC ADHERENTS
  • SUBSTANTIAL MINERAL RESOURCES IRON, ALUMINUM
    ORE, MANGANESE, OIL, AND GAS

25
A Two Class System?
  • GNP per capita-4,630
  • Largest income gap in the realm
  • Wealthiest 10 of the population...
  • own 2/3 of the land
  • control over 50 of the countrys wealth
  • Poverty has increased by 50 since 1980

26
BRAZIL(CONTINUED)
  • GREAT CITIES
  • RIO DE JANEIRO - CULTURAL FOCUS
  • SAO PAULO - INDUSTRIAL HUB
  • BRASILIA - A FORWARD CAPITAL
  • DEVELOPING THE AMAZON
  • GROWTH POLE CONCEPT
  • ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

27
FORWARD CAPITAL - BRASILIA
  • Is the capital city positioned in a contested or
    potentially contested territory?
  • Is it near an international border?
  • Does it confirm the states intent to maintain
    its presence in the territory under contention?

28
GROWTH POLE THEORY
  • AIMS TO PROMOTE GROWTH IN THE HINTERLANDS
  • AUGMENTED BY INVESTMENT SUPPORT IN AN ATTEMPT TO
    SPREAD ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND BENEFITS
  • CREATE JOBS IN DEPRESSED AREAS
  • REDUCE UNEVEN CONCENTRATIONS OF WEALTH
  • DECENTRALIZE INDUSTRY
  • SETS OFF RIPPLES OF DEVELOPMENT

29
All Others
Sao Paulo
57
3
Sao Paulo
All Others
43
97
GDP
TOTAL LAND AREA
Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo
All Others
55
24
76
All Others
45
POPULATION
INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT
30
THE NORTH (CARIBBEAN SOUTH AMERICA)
31
THE NORTH (CARIBBEAN SOUTH AMERICA)
  • VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA, GUYANA, SURINAME, FRENCH
    GUIANA
  • REGIONAL CHARACTER
  • COASTAL LOCATIONS
  • EARLY EUROPEAN PLANTATION DEVELOPMENT
  • FORCED MIGRATION OF BLACK LABORERS

32
VENEZUELA
  • - 25.2 MILLION PEOPLE
  • OIL FROM LAKE MARACAIBO IS CHIEF RESOURCE
  • CARACAS VALENCIA - KEY CITIES

33
CARIBBEAN SOUTH AMERICA(CONTINUED)
  • COLOMBIA - 41.6 MILLION PEOPLE
  • COFFEE, OIL COAL - MAJOR EXPORTS
  • COCAINE - LEADING ECONOMIC ACTIVITY
  • TORN BY INTERNAL VIOLENCE
  • BOGOTA MEDELLIN - KEY CITIES

34
CARIBBEAN SOUTH AMERICA(CONTINUED)
  • THE GUIANAS (FRENCH GUIANA, GUYANA, SURINAME) -
    POPULATIONSlt 1.5 MILLION
  • ETHNICALLY DIVERSE
  • POVERTY STRICKEN
  • FACE ENVIRONMENTAL CRISIS

35
THE WEST (ANDEAN SOUTH AMERICA)
36
THE WEST(ANDEAN SOUTH AMERICA)
  • PERU, ECUADOR, BOLIVIA
  • REGIONAL CHARACTER AMERINDIAN POPULATIONS,
    SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE, MOUNTAINOUS
    ENVIRONMENTS, POVERTY
  • PERU - 28.3 MILLION PEOPLE
  • LIMA IS ITS PRIMATE CITY
  • ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES - FISHING, IRRIGATED
    AGRICULTURE, SUGAR, COTTON, RICE, FRUIT, OIL,
    MINERALS (AN EMERGING ECONOMY!)

37
ANDEAN SOUTH AMERICA(CONTINUED)
  • ECUADOR - 13.1 MILLION PEOPLE
  • MAIN EXPORTS OIL, COFFEE, CACAO, BANANAS
  • GUAYAQUIL - LARGEST CITY AND COMMERCIAL CENTER
  • QUITO - CAPITAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER
  • BOLIVIA - 8.6 MILLION PEOPLE (DISPERSED)
  • LANDLOCKED
  • MAIN EXPORTS TIN AND ZINC

38
THE SOUTH (SOUTHERN CONE)
39
THE SOUTH(MID-LATITUDE SOUTH AMERICA)
  • THE SOUTHERN CONE
  • ARGENTINA,
  • CHILE,
  • PARAGUAY,
  • URUGUAY
  • HEART OF EUROPEAN-COMMERCIAL CULTURE SPHERE

40
THE SOUTH(MID-LATITUDE SOUTH AMERICA)
  • ARGENTINA
  • 37.8 MILLION PEOPLE
  • 90 URBANIZED, PERIPHERAL
  • BUENOS AIRES (12.9 MILLION) - A CLASSIC PRIMATE
    CITY
  • EXPORTS CEREALS, MEATS, VEGETABLE OILS

41
THE SOUTHMID-LATITUDE SOUTH AMERICA (CONTINUED)
  • URUGUAY - 3.3 MILLION PEOPLE
  • MONTEVIDEO - CLASSIC PRIMATE CITY
  • MOST EUROPEAN OF SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES
  • EXPORTS HIDES, MEATS,TEXTILES
  • PARAGUAY - 5.8 MILLION
  • 95 MESTIZO
  • LANDLOCKED LOCATION
  • CHILE- AN ELONGATED STATE
  • EXPORTS COPPER AND NITRATES
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