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Telecommunications Industry Brief


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Title: Telecommunications Industry Brief

Telecommunications Industry Brief
Strategic Challenge
  • How to keep up with the pace of change?

High uncertainty about future No time to make
decisions Difficult to catch-up as pace
increases Tough competition penalizes mistakes
Planning is limited Reacting is
insufficient Traditional strategies of build
and defend a position are inadequate
Fortresses No Longer Exist
  • Intel could try to defend its fortress

but chooses not to
  • Superior technical capabilities
  • Substantial capital barriers to entry
  • Dominant market share
  • Only the paranoid survive
  • Advantage is assumed temporary
  • Strategy is complicated and surprising
  • Price cutting in NICs
  • Innovation into MMX technology
  • 500 million investment in over 50 media,
    Internet and graphics companies
  • Downmarket microprocessors for under 1,000 PCs
  • Expanded product line
  • Laptop-specific microprocessor
  • New, cheap chips
  • New express bus chips

Time Pacing
  • Common experience

Best practice
  • Need for change is not anticipated
  • Initiating change takes too long
  • Change frequently loses momentum
  • Best solution is to react to events as quickly as
    possible (event triggered)
  • Drive change with internal metronome (clock
    driven change)
  • Monitor own processes and the market for rhythms
  • Set the pace
  • Choreograph transitions

Footnote Source Sources
Time Pacing Examples
  • Company

Addition of new manufacturing capacity
Builds new facility every 9 months
Opening of new retail outlet
Opens 300 stores each year to hit target of 2,000
by year 2000
Launch of new products
40 of sales from products launched in last 5
years (in 1997 achieved 49)
Jack Welchs calendar
Like seasons of the year, Welch manages through a
rhythm of regular, seasonal activities
  • Common experience

Best practice
  • Innovative ideas suffer from poor execution
  • Company aspires to lead, but always seems to
    follow industry
  • Analysis-paralysis
  • Successful companies are run by a braintrust of a
    few, smart senior executives
  • Success is driven by an army of revolutionaries
  • Successful companies
  • Operate on the fly
  • Limit information
  • Eliminate conflict
  • A few rules, neither bureaucracy nor chaos
  • Structure key outcomes with responsibilities
  • Structure key activities with priorities
  • Success is driven by more information (real
    time), not less and fact-based debate

Improvisation Semi-Structure Examples
  • Company

Limited set of rules
  • Strict product development priorities
  • Products released in three stages internal,
    beta, full launch
  • Priorities managed, not projects spontaneous
    content encouraged
  • We live on the edge
  • Clear ranking of which types of molecules are
    research priorities
  • Maximum number of molecule types pursued at any
    one time
  • Projects killed according to step charts
  • Movies must
  • Center on a basic human condition and a flawed,
    but sympathetic character
  • Have a clear beginning, middle, and end
  • Disciplined financing (50 more efficient than
    industry standard)

(The Crying Game Pulp Fiction The English
Patient Chasing Amy Cinema Paradiso)
  • Common experience

Best practice
  • Annual strategic plans are created, then filed
    and ignored
  • Strategic plans are often wrong in hindsight
  • Short-term performance pressure takes priority
    over future thinking
  • Planning predicts the future
  • Planning is a waste of time, it is better just to
  • Build vision of business, not industry
  • Probe the future
  • Wide variety (time and content) of low-cost
    probes to create insight
  • Constant, thin attention
  • Hypotheses and evaluation metrics tied to probes
  • 5-week schedule, 5-month plan, 15-month intuition

Probing Examples
  • Company

  • Youve got to experimentstrategy is about
    buying optionsthen picking the best ones to
    pursue John Browne, CEO
  • Drilling experiments on Andrew oil field led to
    revolutionary horizontal drilling technique
  • Used limited JV with Safeway to experiment with
    integrated food and fuel convenience stores
  • Schwabs approach is to use market to fine-tune
    new products as a result, they release products
    at a blistering rate, some hit and some wither,
    but the flood keeps coming Forbes
  • Develop experimental products/services in-house
  • Futures trading
  • Market Buzz
  • AdvisorSource
  • Uses alliances for further experiments
  • IPOs with Goldman Sachs
  • Direct life insurance with Great West Life
  • Gates calls probes feelers
  • Youve got to make sure you have feelers out to
    see when things are about to achieve critical
  • Currently limited backing of three different
    video compression technologies
  • Creates probes with internal projects, alliances,
    and acquisitions
  • Both shorter term probes and Blue Sky projects

Making Probing Happen
Future focused meetings
5 years
3 years
  • Design a probe portfolio
  • Range of time frames
  • Range of technologies
  • Range of probe types
  • Always low cost
  • More random probes when more uncertainty
  • Measure results
  • At some point, accelerate investment in direction
    of probe or eliminate it

Scenario planning
2 years
18 months
6 months
Market research
Alliances/ JVs
Pilot markets
Experimental products and services
  • Common experience

Best practice
  • New business opportunities suffocate in shadow of
    legacy ones
  • New businesses thrive while traditional
    businesses languish
  • Roadblocks on previously successful growth paths
  • New businesses succeed only when isolated from
    traditional ones
  • Diversification is successful when managers build
    and extend a tightly woven set of competencies
  • Drive successful diversified growth when
  • Traditional businesses are combined with new
  • Multiple growth paths are traveled
  • 3 Rs rearchitecture, recombination, and refresh
    are used
  • Thinking is modular
  • Existing businesses are culled

Regeneration Examples
  • Company

  • Recognized modularity of brewery, wholesale
    business, and retailing/hospitality skills
  • Diversified into resort hotels, restaurants,
    nursing homes, and health clubs based on
    retailing/hospitality skills
  • Divested smaller, less profitable brewery
  • Diversified into high-volume, low-cost, in-store
    banking outlets with supermarket-style service
    sales force
  • Newly trained salesforce used to re-vitalize
    traditional branch network
  • Entry into luxury market with Lexus, built on
  • Discarded, experimental, midsize, Asian market
    product platform
  • New dealerships, brand images, styling,
  • Rearchitected selected engineering features
  • Refreshed lower priced name plates with Lexus
  • Sophisticated combination of varied mutations,
    recombinations, and refreshers
  • Combined camera skills (optics technology,
    management of dealers, high-volume assembly) and
    new copier product
  • Combined print engines from copiers with new
    laser printers product and OEM channel into print
    engine business
  • Refreshed copier business with sophisticated
    control technology from laser printers
  • Recombined dealer management, high-volume
    assembly, copier and laser printer technology to
    launch fax machines business

  • Local Services and Strategies
  • Long Distance Service and Strategies
  • Integrated Carrier Strategies
  • Voice over Whatever

Local Market Dynamics
  • Large, slow growth market
  • Competition really just beginning
  • Lots of MA activity
  • SBC/Pac Bell/ SNET/ Ameritech
  • Bell Atlantic/ NYNEX/ GTE
  • WorldCom/MFS/Brooks

ILEC Local Market Revenues98.6 Billion, 1997
Revenues for ILECs only, excludes non-telecom
ILEC Local Services Market51.1 Billion, 1997
Residential - 54 Business - 42
What Defines the CLECs?
  • The Telecom Act of 1996 transformed CAPs into
    CLECs and created the rise of an integrated
    carrier approach. It also sparked the entrance
    of other new competitive local exchange
    carriers- both start-ups and existing carriers.
  • CLECs are among the fastest growing , and are
    clearly the first wave of Integrated Carriers
    because they were able to leverage existing
    infrastructure to offer a broader portfolio of
  • CLECs are diverse different target markets,
    service mixes and technology solutions.
  • Competition is driving carriers to unprecedented
    levels of business, service and infrastructure

CLEC Revenue Mix1997 2000
1997- 3.1B
2000- 9B
Domestic Revenues Only
CLEC Profiles
Geographic service area
Key Customer Focus
Sales Organization
  • East Coast emphasis with extended Frame Relay
    to the West Coast and Texas
  • Nationwide Frame Relay servicethrough the
    UNISPAN consortium
  • The target market for Intermedia isbusinesses
    with between 50 and 500lines that can ultimately
    be servedon-net.
  • Also targeting larger accounts with its
    inter-city data services andinternet services
  • 365 Intermedia sales peopleand a total of 617
    salespeople when Shared Tech.,LDS, and national
    Tel areadded
  • 102 Sales Offices located throughout the US

  • Regional carrier
  • Focuses on clusters in OhioValley, Texas
    SouthernCalifornia ColoradoNorth Carolina
    Alabamaand Tennessee.
  • New network in Atlanta for 1998 and no
    additionalnetworks planned
  • Primarily focuses on Tier Iand Tier II.
  • Sells to small and medium-sizedbusinesses of 5
    to 100 lines with astrong emphasis on accounts
    with15 to 50 lines.
  • Utility agreements will bring onMultiple-dwelling
    units as a target market
  • ICG is trying to leverage its existing client
    relationships to sell bundledsolutions.
  • Sales force is estimated at roughly 300.
  • Also leverages itsrelationship with utilities
    toexpand into residential andbusiness markets.

  • Nationwide footprint covering 28 of the 30
    largest MSAs.
  • BizTel footprint-206 areasincluding 96 of the
    top 100 MSAs.
  • Focus on Tier I cities someemphasis on Tier II
    andTier III cities.
  • New emphasis on regional corridors.
  • Target larger businesses (550 linesor more) in
    certain verticals such asFinancial Services,
    Healthcare,Education, Govt and Mediacompanies.
  • Other Key market is on-netsmall/medium
    businesses (500 linesor less.)
  • Very limited residential play.
  • Sales channels include bothdirect sales force
    (689 salesrepresentatives) and agentsand
    resellers (approx. 2000.)

CLEC Profiles
Geographic service area
Key Customer Focus
Sales Organization
  • Regional player-mostly West andSouthwest U.S.
    and Hawaii.
  • Not looking to go national.
  • Mostly Tier II and Tier III cities.
  • Target SMBs business-between2 to 200 access
  • Continue to serve wholesale and retail
  • Sales force approx. 290
  • Focus on customer care andholding-the-hand of
    the customer.

  • Southeast and Southwest U.S.
  • Tier II and III cities.
  • Accelerating roll out in 98.
  • Targeting small to mediumbusinesses spending.
  • Targets firms in professional services,health
    care, govt, and financialservices.
  • No interest in residential.
  • Sales and Marketing staff grewfrom 56 people in
    1996 to 277 people in 1997.

  • Regional focus - Midwest, New England, and Mid
  • All TRS based.
  • Target businesses with 2-10 businesslines.
  • Focus on providing full bundles andsuperior
    customer service.
  • Direct Sales focus.
  • Sales force grew from 206in 1996 to 426 in 1997.

Key Market Trends and Influences Affecting the
CLEC Market
  • Wall Street
  • Deregulation
  • Mergers and Acquisitions
  • Alliances and Partnerships
  • Integrating the product portfolio
  • Network Build-out
  • Growth- Can they sustain their current growth and
    will they be able to manage and survive their

Wall Street and Deregulation
  • Wall Street
  • Pressure to show profit- EBIDTA positive
  • None of the CLECs EBIDTA positive except for TCG
  • Wall Street looking for a return on investments
  • Push towards deployment of success-based capital
  • Deregulation
  • Telecom Reform Act of 1996
  • Required the RBOCs to open the local markets via
    resale, UNE and facilities based
  • Competition in the business market.
    Cherry-picking the profitable customers.
    Residential markets have seen very little to any

Deregulation (Continued)
  • 8th Circuit court interconnection rulings
  • Removed the ILECs burden of recombining UNEs and
    placed that burden on the competing carrier.
    Ruling now under consideration by the Supreme
  • Interconnection pricing in the hands of the
    state regulatory commissions. Leaves competition
    fragmented and makes a national TSR or UNE local
    entry strategy difficult.
  • RBOCs into Long Distance
  • RBOCs need to meet 14 point checklist to gain
    entry into in-region Long Distance,
  • FCC vs. SBC granted RBOCs the ability to
    immediately enter in-region. Overturned on
  • RBOCS plannin ressive attack of the
    in-region long distance market. Expecting to take
    most market share in the small and medium
    business market and the consumer market.

Mergers / Acquisitions and Alliances /
  • CLECs are positioning themselves both to be
    acquired or to acquire. Are the CLECs looking
    for an exit strategy?
  • Acquisitions, alliances, and partnerships have
    allowed for quick, lower-cost entry into new
  • Large IXCs continue to look to the CAPs turned
    CLECs as an access alternative to the ILECs
  • Internets demand for dedicated access, the call
    for alternatives to the PSTN, and the lure of the
    ISP retail business have driven many CLECs to
    acquire ISPs
  • ICG/Netcom, Intermedia/Digex, MFS/UUNET,
    TCG/Cerfnet, RCN/ UltraNEt and Erols
  • Challenge is integrating acquisitions.
    Importance of a seamless entity to customers

Network Build-out Expansion Today Growth
  • Still in the Build Out Stage for Most CLECs
  • Many Are Expanding Into New Cities, Others Are
    Consolidating their existing networks to Ensure
    Seamless Regional corridors
  • Third Tier Cities Now the Focus of New CLEC
    Opportunities (i.e., Cities With 750,000
    Population or Less) Tier 1 and many Tier 2
    cities saturated
  • Move into Switched Services Long Distance
    helping to achieve profitability and positive
    cash flow while traditional CAP segment faces
    threat from IXC acquisitions

Network Build-out Expansion Today Growth
Tomorrow (Continued)
  • Yankee Group Forecasts More MFS-Style Exit
    Strategies for facilities-based CLECs. Network
    build-out is expensive and it is less expensive
    to buy the networks
  • Move towards 3rd generation CLECs- dropping in
    switches and leasing the fiber between the
    switches. Allows for a faster turn-up time and
    generation of positive cash flow. CLECs to look
    for in this category include US LEC Allegiance
    and Focal

Network Expansion Growing CLEC
Switch Deployment
Can the CLECs Survive Growth?
  • Managing Growth
  • Customer Growth- can they meet customer
    expectations and demand
  • Market Growth- Are they going too fast too
    quickly? Do they have the resources to maintain
    their current pace or are they trying to be
    everything to everyone? Example being US ONE
    which crashed and burned
  • Ensuring Quality while Maintaining Growth
  • Leased Networks
  • Manage unbundled elements- need to own the
    customer end-to-end and control the customers
    entire experience
  • Talent Finite number of talented people in the

Local Exchange Market - 200044 billion
CLEC revenues EXCLUDES MFS MCImetro (MFS and
MCImetro included in IXCs) revenues for dial
tone ONLY,EULC, taxes, and toll are not included
CLEC Market Dynamics 36 to 48 Months
  • Multiple facilities-based CLECs in major Tier 1
    and 2 cities
  • Tier 3 cities offer some growth opportunity
  • UNEs widely available
  • RBOCs have gained In-region LD relief
  • Technology increases bandwidth
  • Potential for oversupply of inventory
  • Bandwidth Exchange prices fall
  • CLECs Employing Exit Strategies
  • Increased IXC / ILEC Partnerships

Long Distance Market
1997 Long Distance The 86.7 Billion Market
Business 54 Residential 46
1997 Business Long Distance 46.7 billion
Grew approx. 10.9 from 1996
Key Segment Growth (1996-97)
Business Long-Distance Market Shares (1996)
The Big 2 85
ATT Consolidations and Acquisitions, in
defense of the core business
  • Divesting non- core assets and businesses
  • ATT Universal Card to Citibank
  • ATT Solutions customer care to Cincinnati Bell
  • Termination of Direct TV marketing agreement
  • Acquires TCG and Defines Local Business Entry
  • Paid 11.3 billion in stock
  • Time to market a key factor in influencing the
    acquisition decision
  • ATT gains Cost efficiencies, Local network
    coverage, and Local market experience
  • TCG gains scale, access to the ATT brand, and
    easier access to capital and other resources

Sprint Looking for Partners?
  • With MCIWorldCom merger, Sprint falls further
  • Existing Local properties not all that attractive
  • However, with its LD brand, Wireless assets, and
    local presence, it is well positioned to partner
    or merge with
  • LECs with national ambitions
  • Foreign PTTs that are seeking a US presence
  • WorldCom acquires MCI to become the leading
    integrated carrier
  • MCI spurns GTE and leaves BT standing at the
  • Overnight, MCIWorldCom becomes
  • the second largest LD carrier with 25 share
  • the largest CLEC, with 56 share
  • the leading global ISP
  • Fourth largest international telco

WorldCom and MCI A comparison
Long Distance
  • 7 Billion Annual revenue (1997)
  • former Wiltel wholesale LD
  • 16.5 billion annual revenue (1996)
  • 7.06 billion in consumer revenue
  • 9.4 million households

  • Estimated 1996 CLEC revenues of 1.9 bn
  • 52 MFS Metros
  • 34 Brooks Metros
  • 23 markets under development
  • 7500 on-net buildings (est)
  • 75 Class 5 switches
  • 25 of all competitive access lines
  • CLEC (Metro) Revenue of 450 million
  • Presence in 36 cities
  • Local switched service in 32 cities
  • 30 Class 5 switches

WorldCom and MCI A Comparison
  • UUNet, largest global ISP
  • 50,000 business customers (access andhosting)
  • Compuserve Network Services
  • Provides transport to America Online,Earthlink,
    Microsoft Network
  • 500 million in Internet Revenue
  • 400,000 dial-up customers
  • Private wholesale services to 25-35 of all
  • 200 million estimated revenue
  • Sold to CW as part of EU approval

  • 60 settlement agreements globally
  • 470 million in revenues
  • Metro infrastructure in 12 cities
  • UUNets European backbone in 10 cities
  • 200 settlement agreements globally
  • Licenses in UK, Germany
  • Top bid on Embratel

  • Choicecom
  • Few of its other LD or CLEC acquisitionshave
    major wireless play
  • Holds on wireless licenses
  • Nationwide Cellular Services (a reseller)
  • Operates in 15-20 markets
  • 400,000 subscribers
  • Paging reseller (through PagNet),over 600k subs.

RBOCs into Long Distance
Telecom Act of 1996New Competitive Telecom
Services Market
  • An act to promote competition and reduce
    regulation in order to secure lower prices and
    higher quality services for American
    telecommunications consumers and encourage the
    rapid deployment of new telecommunications
  • IXCs, Cable and CAPs Allowed to Enter Local
  • IXCs with more than 5 of the nations
    presubscribed lines is not able to joint market
    local and long distance services until RBOCs are
    granted in-region relief
  • Mandated LEC Resale at Fair and Reasonable Prices
  • RBOCs Enter Out-of-Region Long Distance
  • RBOCs Open Local Markets in Exchange for
    In-Region Long Distance
  • Pressure of New Integrated Telecom MarketBeyond
    Resale/Bundling to Service Innovation

RBOC Entry into Long Distance
Offering Services
Approved Services
  • Announced it will begin offering long distance
    in Missouri
  • Marketing Alliance with Qwest (in-region)
  • 45 States
  • WorldCom
  • 1999

Bell Atlantic /NYNEX
  • 34 States
  • 34 States and plans to file in Minnesota and
  • Sprint
  • 1998?

Bell South
  • 39 states and applications pending in Vermont and
  • ATT
  • 1999

SBC / PacTel
  • 5 States
  • Sprint
  • 1999
  • 5 States

  • NONE
  • Marketing Alliance with Qwest (in-region)
  • 34 States
  • FrontierCard
  • Williams?
  • Qwest?
  • 1999

Leveraging Established Customer Relationshipsto
Provide New Services
Biggest Hurdle for the RBOCsOSS Access and
  • Required under the Act
  • ILEC must provide access to its OSSs on terms
    that are just reasonable, and non discriminatory
  • RBOCs have been frustrated in their 271
    applications by OSS issues
  • Not able to show flow through of orders and
    service transactions from CLECs
  • Push for National Gateway in some quarters, but
    who pays the bill?
  • Call for Standards by many parties (NARUC, ATIS,
  • Manual processes pre te

  • Nice try but too early. Not likely to make
    first-round approval based on Track A (of two
    tracks) benchmarks
  • Lack of competing providers to residential and
    business subscribers by companies that offer
    services predominantly over their own telephone
    service facilities
  • Competition and interconnect deals are with
    competitors that are focused on business
  • ATT, has stopped marketing to residential
    customers in the six markets where it resells
    ILEC services to the residential market
  • the Yankee Group believes that the first approval
    for RBOC entry into in-region LD will be around
    4Q98 or early 99. BANY is most likely to succeed

Integrated Carrier Strategies Large Business
Market Issues
Do Large Biz Customers Care About Service
  • If Given A Choice
  • 70 of Businesses Say They Would Use One Company
    for All Their Communication Needs
  • Key Reasons
  • Less Effort to Manage the Network 68
  • One Stop Shopping 62
  • Lower Costs 59

source YC100 1996
but Price isnt Everything
How important to the purchasing decision are the
following factors? 5 very important 1
not important
Source YG WSTA Survey 1996
Long Distance Integrated Carriers
Enhanced Telephony
Wholesale Services
  • All facilities based LD carriers, whether they
    are national or regional in nature wholesale LD
    services to each other, to smaller carriers and
    to resellers
  • Over time, the four largest LD carriers have
    increased their revenue contribution from the
    wholesale channels
  • Frontiers agreement to sell capacity to Level 3
    is an example of the renewed focus on wholesale
    by smaller LD carriers such as CW and LCI

Wholesale (Continued)
  • New entrants such as Qwest, IXC, Williams and
    Level 3 will expand the wholesale market but will
    also put significant price pressure on wholesale
  • New services such as IP, and new entrants in
    local and LD market are expected to feed the
    demand for wholesale service
  • We estimate the wholesale market to be around
    8.3 billion

ELDP Diversification Strategies
  • IXC Communications
  • in addition to carriers carrier services,
    offering switched, freephone, calling card and
    data services
  • Looking to acquire smaller retail players
  • Qwest Communications
  • direct retail plays through VoIP, dial-around
  • acquisitions of LCI, SuperNet
  • looking to enter the large corporate market
  • Williams Companies
  • leverage already large network integration
  • Level 3 Communications
  • purchased Data CLEC XCOM

Voice Over WhateverDemand for Alternative Voice
Key Issue What is the current status of Voice
Services Over Alternative Networks (TCP/IP, Frame
Relay and ATM)?
Key Context Issue How much data is moving over
TCP/IP, Frame Relay and ATM today...
Key Context Issue How much data is moving over
TCP/IP, Frame Relay and ATM in 5 years...
Frame Relay takes over
Key Issue How much voice traffic will migrate to
VSANs over the next five years?
Slow migration of voice, for all services
Fax keeps pace
Key Issue What are the reasons for choosing
IP Telephony MOUs as a Percentage of Total
Consumer MOUs (1998-2005)