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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance Chapter 26 Causes and Consequences of Acid-Base Imbalances Causes and Consequences of Acid-Base Imbalances Homeostatic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance


1
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
  • Chapter 26

2
Body Water Content
  • Varies with weight, age, and sex
  • Early embryo (97)
  • Newborn (77)
  • Adult male (60)
  • Adult female (54)
  • Elderly (45)
  • Adipose tissue versus skeletal muscle largely
    determines adult differences.

3
Body Fluids and Compartments
4
Composition of Body Fluids
  • Electrolytes
  • Cations sodium, potassium, hydrogen, magnesium,
    and calcium
  • Anions chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate, and
    sulfate
  • Non-electrolytes
  • Glucose
  • Urea
  • Protein
  • Lipids
  • Creatinine

5
Comparison of Compartments
6
Fluid Movement Between Compartments
7
Fluid Movements
  • Exchange between blood and interstitial spaces

8
Fluid Movements
  • Exchange between extracellular fluids and cells

9
Water Balance
10
Regulation of Water Intake
11
Regulation of Water Output
12
Regulation of Water Output
  • Obligatory Water Losses
  • Skin and lungs
  • Urine and feces
  • Fluid intake
  • Diet
  • Levels of Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)

13
Disturbances in Water Balance
  • Dehydration
  • Hypotonic hydration
  • Edema

14
Electrolyte Balance
  • Regulation of Sodium Balance
  • Regulation of Potassium Balance
  • Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Balance
  • Regulation of Magnesium Balance
  • Regulation of Anions

15
Regulation of SodiumBy Aldosterone
16
Regulation of Sodium By ANP
17
Regulation of SodiumBy Baroreceptors
18
Regulation of Sodium
  • Aldosterone
  • ANP
  • Baroreceptors
  • Other hormones
  • Estrogenenhances Na reabsorption
  • Progesteronedecreases Na reabsorption
  • Glucocorticoidsenhances Na reabsorption

19
Regulation of Potassium
  • The regulatory site of potassium is in the renal
    tubules
  • Influence of aldosterone
  • Influence of plasma potassium concentrations

20
Regulation of Calcium
  • Influence of Parathyroid Hormone
  • Influence of Calcitonin

21
Regulation of Phosphate
  • Influence of Parathyroid Hormone
  • Decreases plasma phosphate concentrations while
    increasing calcium concentrations
  • Influence of Calcitonin
  • Increases plasma phosphate concentration while
    decreasing calcium concentrations

22
Regulation of Magnesium Balance and Anions
  • Magnesium
  • PTH increases plasma magnesium concentrations by
    causing a decrease in the amount of magnesium
    excreted by the kidneys
  • Anions
  • Chloride is indirectly increased by Aldosterone
    because it passively follows sodium

23
Acid-Base Balances
24
Strong Acids versus Weak Acids
25
Chemical Buffers
  • Three Types
  • Bicarbonate Buffers
  • Phosphate Buffers
  • Protein Buffers

26
Bicarbonate Buffers
  • Major extracellular buffering system
  • HCO3- functions as a weak base while H2CO3
    functions as a weak acid.
  • Example
  • HCl NaHCO3- H2CO3 NaCl

27
Phosphate Buffers
  • Important in urine and intracellular buffering
    systems
  • However NaH2PO4 acts as the weak acid and Na2HPO4
    serves as the weak base.
  • Example
  • HCl Na2HPO4 NaH2PO4 NaCl

28
Protein Buffers
  • Most abundant buffering system in the body
    including intracellular and extracellular
    compartments.
  • Carboxyl groups (COOH) and amine groups (NH3) act
    as either an acid or a base respectively.

29
Physiological Buffers
  • Two Types
  • Respiratory Buffering System
  • Renal Buffering System

30
Respiratory Regulation of H
  • Rising plasma H causes deeper, rapid breathing
    which decreases CO2 blood thereby decreasing H
    ions.

31
Renal Buffering System
Reabsorption of HCO3- is coupled to H secretion
32
Abnormalities in Acid-Base Balance
  • Respiratory acidosis
  • Increased CO2increased Hdecreased pH
  • Cause Hypoventilation
  • To compensate Kidney functionincrease excretion
    of H or by increased reabsorption of HCO3-
  • Respiratory alkalosis
  • Decreased CO2decreased Hincreased pH
  • Cause Hyperventilation
  • To compensate Kidney functiondecreased H
    excretion or by decreased reabsorption of HCO3-

33
Abnormalities in Acid-Base Balance
  • Metabolic acidosis
  • Decreased HCO3-increased Hdecreased pH
  • Cause Diarrhea, ketosis, renal dysfunction
  • To compensate Hyperventilation and kidney
    function
  • Metabolic alkalosis
  • Increased HCO3-decreased Hincreased pH
  • Cause Vomiting, diuretics, alkaline drug use
  • To compensate Hypoventilation and kidney
    function

34
Causes and Consequences of Acid-Base Imbalances
35
Causes and Consequences of Acid-Base Imbalances
36
Homeostatic Imbalances
  • Hypernatremia
  • Hyponatremia
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hypokalemia
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • Hyperchloremia
  • Hypochloremia
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Hypocalcemia
  • Hypermagnesemia
  • Hypomagnesemia
  • Hyperproteinemia
  • Hypoproteinemia

37
Homeostatic Imbalances
38
Homeostatic Imbalances
39
END TEST IV MATERIAL
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