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Vaccines

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Vaccination efforts have been met with some controversy since their inception, on scientific, ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Vaccines


1
Vaccines
  • Whats that have to do with Biomedical
    Engineering?
  • By Jonathan Lloyd

2
What is a Vaccine?
  • A vaccine is an antigenic material that
    stimulate adaptive immunity to a disease.
    Vaccines can prevent the effects of infection by
    many pathogens. Vaccines are generally
    considered to be the most effective method of
    preventing infectious diseases. The material
    administered can either be live but weakened
    forms of either bacteria or viruses, killed or
    inactivated forms of these pathogens, or purified
    material such as proteins.

3
History of Vaccines
  • Smallpox was the first disease people tried to
    prevent by purposely inoculating themselves with
    other types of infections. smallpox inoculation
    was started in India before 200 BC. In 1796
    British physician Edward Jenner tested the
    possibility of using the cowpox vaccine as an
    immunization for smallpox in humans for the first
    time. The word vaccination was first used by
    Edward Jenner. Louis Pasteur furthered the
    concept through his pioneering work in
    microbiology.

4
Vaccination
  • Vaccination (Latin vaccacow) is named because
    the first vaccine was derived from
    a virus affecting cows, the relatively
    benign cowpox virus, which provides a degree of
    immunity to smallpox, a contagious and deadly
    disease. Vaccination and immunization have the
    same meaning but is different from inoculation
    which uses unweakened live pathogens. The word
    "vaccination" was originally used specifically to
    describe the injection of the smallpox vaccine.

5
Controversy?
  • Vaccination efforts have been met with
    some controversy since their inception, on
    scientific, ethical, political, medical safety,
    religious, and other grounds. In rare cases,
    vaccinations can injure people and in the United
    States they may receive compensation for those
    injuries under the National Vaccine Injury
    Compensation Program. Early success brought
    widespread acceptance, and mass vaccination
    campaigns were undertaken which are credited with
    greatly reducing many diseases in numerous areas.

6
Types of Vaccination
  • All vaccinations work by presenting a foreign
    antigen to the immune system so there will be an
    immune response, but there are several ways to do
    this. The four main types that are currently in
    clinical use are

7
Inactivated
  • An inactivated vaccine consists of virus
    particles which are grown in culture and then
    killed using a method such as heat or
    formaldehyde. The virus particles are destroyed
    and cannot replicate, but the virus proteins are
    intact enough to be recognized and remembered by
    the immune system and evoke a response. When
    manufactured correctly, the vaccine is not
    infectious, but improper inactivation can result
    in intact and infectious particles. Since the
    properly produced vaccine does not
    reproduce, booster shots are required
    periodically to reinforce the immune response.

8
Attenuated
  • In an attenuated vaccine, live virus particles
    with very low virulence are administered. They
    will reproduce, but very slowly. Since they do
    reproduce and continue to present antigen beyond
    the initial vaccination, boosters are required
    less often. There is a small risk of reversion
    to virulence, this risk is smaller in vaccines
    with deletions. Attenuated vaccines also cannot
    be used by immunocompromised individuals.

9
Subunit
  • A subunit vaccine presents an antigen to the
    immune system without introducing viral
    particles, whole or otherwise. One method of
    production involves isolation of a specific
    protein from a virus or bacteria and
    administering this by itself. A weakness of this
    technique is that isolated proteins may have a
    different three dimensional structure than the
    protein in its normal context, and will induce
    antibodies that may not recognize the infectious
    organism. In addition, subunit vaccines often
    elicit weaker antibody responses than the other
    classes of vaccines (McBean 74).

10
Virus-Like
  • Virus-like particle vaccines consist of viral
    proteins derived from the structural proteins of
    a virus. These proteins can self-assemble into
    particles that resemble the virus from which they
    were derived but lack viral nucleic acid, meaning
    that they are not infectious. Because of their
    highly repetitive, multivalent structure,
    virus-like particles are typically more
    immunogenic than subunit vaccines. The human
    papillomavirus and Hepatitis C virus vaccines are
    two virus-like particle-based vaccines currently
    in clinical use.

11
Now the Important Stuff
  • Genetic engineering is a sub branch to biomedical
    engineering. Genetic engineering is the process
    of taking genes and segments of DNA from one
    species and putting them into another species,
    thus breaking the species barrier and
    artificially modifying the DNA of various
    species (Levine 11).

12
Genetic Engineering and Vaccines
  • Vaccination against a disease involves the
    injection of killed or weakened microorganisms
    into a person, as we know. The killed or weakened
    microorganism is made by engineers believe it or
    not. This procedure has always carried the risk
    of there being live, virulent pathogens in the
    vaccine because of some error in the
    vaccine-producing process (LeVine 78).

13
Vaccine Making(Subunit)
  • Genetic engineering techniques have been used to
    produce vaccines which use only the parts of an
    organism which stimulate a strong immune
    response. To create a subunit vaccine,
    researchers isolate the gene or genes which code
    for appropriate subunits from the genome of the
    infectious agent. This genetic material is
    placed into bacteria or yeast host cells which
    then produce large quantities of subunit
    molecules by transcribing and translating the
    inserted foreign DNA (Allen 23). These foreign
    molecules can be isolated, purified, and used as
    a vaccine. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of
    this type of vaccine. Subunit vaccines are safe
    for immunocompromised patients because they
    cannot cause the disease.

14
ANY QUESTIONS?
15

16
  • Gildea, S. "A Comparison of Antibodies." Vaccines
    (2011). PubMed. Web. 7 Oct. 2011.
  • McBean, Eleanor. The Poisoned Needle Suppressed
    Facts about Vaccination. Pomeroy, WA Health
    Research, 1993. Print.
  • LeVine, Harry. Genetic Engineering a Reference
    Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA ABC-CLIO, 2006.
    Print.
  • "The History Of Vaccines And Immunization
    Familiar Patterns, New Challenges Health
    Aff."Health Affairs. Web. 08 Feb. 2011.
    lthttp//content.healthaffairs.org/content/24/3/611
    .fullgt.
  • Allen, Arthur. Vaccine the Controversial Story
    of Medicine's Greatest Lifesaver. New York W.W.
    Norton, 2007. Print.
  • "GENETIC ENGINEERING." 56th World Science Fiction
    Convention - Bucconeer 1998. Web. 08 Feb. 2011.
    lthttp//www.bucconeer.worldcon.org/contest/2002e_5
    .htmgt.
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