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ArcIMS Advanced GIS Fall 2003 GEOG 4850/5850 Map Service/AXL Fundamental component of ArcIMS To create a MapService, you first need to make a map using the ArcIMS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ArcIMS

  • Advanced GIS
  • Fall 2003
  • GEOG 4850/5850

Map Service/AXL
  • Fundamental component of ArcIMS
  • To create a MapService, you first need to make a
    map using the ArcIMS Author application. There,
    you add data layers to a map and specify how
    those layers will be organized and symbolized.
  • After you have the map looking the way you want,
    you create a map configuration file (AXL
    extension). The map configuration file is a text
    file that stores information about your map
    design. (Map configuration files will be referred
    to as AXL files throughout this course.)
    Together, the AXL file and a MapService are what
    you need to publish maps on the Web.

Two types of MapServices Image and Feature
  • A Feature MapService streams data as vectors. An
    Image MapService sends a map image in JPEG, PNG,
    or GIF format.

Image MapService
  • When you use an Image MapService, a map image is
    generated by the map server in JPEG, GIF, or PNG
    format and sent to the client computer that
    requested it. No special processing is required
    by the client computer. All the processing takes
    place on the map server, which generates a new
    map image each time it receives a request

Feature MapService
  • With a Feature MapService, the map server bundles
    the data as vectors and attributes and sends it
    to the client through a process called streaming.
    Unlike Image MapServices, Feature MapServices are
    locally cached and the client computer can
    perform further geoprocessing on the data
  • streaming
  • A type of data transmittal in which data is not
    downloaded from a server, but rather temporarily
    cached in a local computer's memory. Users
    interact with the data held in their computer's
    local cache. Streamed data is usually sent from
    the server in a compressed format. When received
    by the client (local computer) the data is
    uncompressed and displayed using software
    designed to interpret and display the data

  • Logon to
  • Many applications of ArcIMS are shown here.
  • Projection-on-the-fly
  • Geo-Game
  • California Climagraph

ArcIMS Applications
  • ArcIMS consists of four applications Author,
    Administrator, Designer, and Manager. In this
    topic, you'll learn how these applications work
    together to allow you to create and manage an
    ArcIMS Web site.
  • Designing a Web site that provides geographic
    content requires careful planning. The first step
    to understanding how ArcIMS works is to create
    geographic content, then publish it as a
  • To create a MapService, you add data to a map and
    decide how you want it to be presented on the
    Internet. This information is stored in the AXL
    (map configuration) file. As you will see, you
    use the AXL file to start a MapService.
  • After creating a MapService, you use ArcIMS to
    create a Web page that can handle the MapService.
    That involves designing the Web page and
    determining how the MapService will be presented.
    The MapService allows the map content (defined in
    the AXL file) to be published on the Internet and
    provides the framework for your Web site's

  • ArcIMS Author is the application you use to
    define the content for a map that you want to
    publish on the Internet. You decide what data
    will be shown and how it will appear on your map.
    First, you need to find the appropriate data
    sources for your Web site. You can use
    shapefiles, a variety of different image types,
    ArcSDE layers, and coverages stored in ArcSDE
    for Coverages. Through a Catalog window, you add
    this data to your map as layers. Layers reference
    the data source. In other words, a pathname is
    stored for the location of the actual file or
    files that comprise the data.
  • Once you have added data layers, ArcIMS Author
    allows you to add tools to help users navigate
    your map, like pan and zoom, and to investigate
    your map, like Map Tips and Identify. The final
    output from Author is a map configuration file,
    or AXL file. AXL files are text files that define
    all the map properties, including layer
    symbology. Author writes your choices and
    definitions in ArcXML, an Extensible Markup
    Language (XML) used specifically for creating
    Web-based products.

extensible markup language (XML)
  • XML is a markup language derived from SGML
    (Standard Generalized Markup Language) that
    defines the various components of a document by
    identifying and separating content, structure,
    and style. It was created and is maintained by
    the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to facilitate
    more standardized and structured user documents
    for the World Wide Web. It has now moved beyond
    the World Wide Web and is adopted by
    organizations around the world as the standard
    for producing both digital and analog mediums.

  • At any given moment, a GIS-enabled Web site will
    be receiving and providing numerous requests and
    responses for MapServices. To maintain an
    effective and efficient Web site, you will need
    to monitor its activity and fine-tune its
    operation. ArcIMS Administrator is the ArcIMS
    application you use to control how your Web site
  • One of the essential tasks that you perform with
    Administrator is creating and starting
    MapServices. Once you have created a map in
    Author, you convert the resulting map
    configuration file (AXL file) to a MapService in
    Administrator. Basically, in Administrator you
    are publishing the content of an AXL file onto
    the Internet
  • Besides site administration, ArcIMS Administrator
    allows you to manage other components of your Web
    site, including spatial servers, virtual servers,
    and special folders for storing information
    gathered from users. Data administrators can also
    check statistical information about the site's
    performance and manage collaborative tools such
    as EditNotes and MapNotes. You'll learn more
    about the features available in ArcIMS
    Administrator in Module 4, Working with ArcIMS

  • To publish MapServices, you need a Web site that
    has been designed to handle them. ArcIMS Designer
    is the application you use to construct a Web
    site tailored to the individual MapServices that
    you created. With Designer, you create the look
    and feel of the site as well as determine
    functionality by adding tools for zooming,
    panning, querying, and map layer treatment
  • An important decision you will need to make is
    what type of client viewer your Web site will
    use. There are two basic client viewer templates
    accessible through ArcIMS, each offering a range
    of capabilities. The HTML client viewer permits
    only image files to be downloaded, while the
    Java-based client viewer allows both image and
    feature data transfer

Example Creating an ArcIMS website - 1st step
  • Author The first step is to use ArcIMS Author
    to create a map that you want to display on a Web
    site. In Author, you add the different geographic
    layers, organize them how you want, and choose
    their symbology. When your map is complete, you
    output it as a text file with an AXL extension.
    In the ArcIMS documentation, this file is
    referred to as the map configuration file.

Example Creating an ArcIMS website - 2nd step
  • Once the map configuration file is created, you
    need to register it before it can be published on
    the Internet. This step is called starting a
    MapService, and you use ArcIMS Administrator for
    this task. The map configuration file you
    generated using Author is the input to a
    MapService. When a map server receives a request
    for a MapService, the MapService follows the
    instructions in the map configuration file and
    sends data to the client. Administrator is the
    application that allows this communication to
  • Second, use the map configuration file to create
    and start a MapService in ArcIMS Administrator.

Example Creating an ArcIMS website - 3rd step
  • Once the MapService has been created and started
    in Administrator, you are ready to design a site
    for public display. ArcIMS Designer has a wizard
    interface that guides you through the process of
    creating HTML pages and supporting files

  • More and more, the Internet is becoming a common
    forum for analyzing and solving geographic
    problems. Developing an ArcIMS-powered Web site
    allows you to distribute your own geographic data
    and integrate it with data from other sites. The
    heart of an ArcIMS Web site is the MapService. A
    MapService defines how geographic data may be
    displayed on the Web. There are two types of
    MapServices Image and Feature MapServices.
  • ArcIMS consists of four applications Author,
    Administrator, Designer, and Manager.
  • ArcIMS Author is the application that allows you
    create a map and organize your data into an AXL
    file which you use to create a MapService.
  • ArcIMS Administrator allows you to create and
    manage your MapServices.

Summary - 2
  • ArcIMS Designer is the application you use to
    design and build ArcIMS viewers by combining
    MapServices with toolbar functions.
  • ArcIMS Manager ties the other three applications
    together into a wizard-driven interface, and
    leads you through the process of authoring
    MapServices, designing Web pages, and
    administering sites.
  • ArcIMS is the engine behind Geography Network, an
    Internet portal that facilitates finding
    geographic data and other content. Geography
    Network is the place to search for MapServices
    that others have created and where you can
    publish your own MapServices when you're ready.

ArcIMS Architecture and InstallationLesson Goal
  • the multitier architecture of ArcIMS
  • how to use the ArcIMS help system
  • how to access ArcIMS Online
  • how to find technical documentation in the ArcIMS
    Knowledge Base
  • the basic steps in the ArcIMS installation
  • how to test your configurations using the ArcIMS
    Diagnostics Web page
  • how to quickly create a simple ArcIMS Web site

Server-Client Environment
  • When a client makes a request for a MapService,
    the request is first handled by the Web server,
    then passed through to ArcIMS. A response is sent
    back through the Web server to the client.
  • The server processes requests, creates and runs
    MapServices, and manages the Web site. Data
    sources managed by the server can include both
    database and file-based sources.
  • The client is a user's Web browser or supported
    software program such as ArcGIS that accesses an
    ArcIMS viewer on the Web site. Through the
    viewer, a client sends requests and views or
    interacts with maps and data. The viewer provides
    the framework for the Web site that is, it
    defines the site's appearance and functionality.

  • ArcIMS needs a Web server that can be extended to
    run Java code, either built-in or by using a
    servlet engine
  • Servlet engines extend Web servers with a common
    applicaton programming interface (API) and allow
    them to process Java code. A servlet is a Java
    program that runs as part of a Web server and
    responds to requests made to a special URL. The
    most common use for a servlet is to extend a Web
    server by dynamically generating Web content. A
    servlet can be written so that it receives the
    request, acquires and processes the data as
    needed by the client, then returns the result to
    the client. Servlets are analogous to applets,
    except they work on the server side of the

Spatial Server
  • ArcIMS spatial serverThe backbone of ArcIMS is
    the ArcIMS spatial server. The ArcIMS spatial
    server provides the functional capabilities for
    accessing and bundling maps and data into the
    appropriate format before sending them to a Web
  • When a request is received, the ArcIMS spatial
    server performs functions such as creating
    cartographic map image files, streaming map
    features, searching to query the database,
    geocoding for address matching operations, and
    extracting or "clipping" data to create a subset
    that can be sent back in shapefile format

Client side
  • Client computers access an ArcIMS Web site using
    a Web browser or a supported software program,
    such as ArcExplorer 3 Java Edition or ArcGIS.
    The client interacts with the Web site through
    the viewer created for the site. It is the viewer
    that controls the site's appearance and
  • Standard ArcIMS includes HTML and Java viewers,
    and supports a full suite of other ESRI software
    clients such as ArcGIS, ArcExplorer, and ArcPad,
    and other devices. If you want, you can choose
    from a variety of ready-to-use viewer templates
    or you can customize the standard ArcIMS viewer
    templates using VBScript or JavaScript.

Feature/HTML viewers
  • Feature streaming (available with the Java
    viewer) serves information to a client browser in
    a specially optimized compressed format,
    resulting in true client/server processing
    capabilities. The new ArcIMS architecture allows
    more powerful clients to process "smart data" on
    the client computer to instantly perform many
    tasks without having to interact with the server.
  • The HTML viewer performs less processing on the
    client computer than the Java viewer, making it a
    "lighter" client option. The HTML viewer may be
    the best solution for simple mapping applications
    that incorporate only Image MapServices.

ArcIMS Installation
  • Verify System Requirement 256MB Ra, 226 MB
    space, Win2000 or Solaris 7/8
  • Typical/Customization
  • You may be able to run ArcIMS spatial servers on
    several machines instead of one.
  • Typical- Installing all components on one
    computer is suitable for sites with limited
    computing resources or those that expect a light
    volume of use.

Custom Installation
  • A custom installation allows ArcIMS components to
    be distributed and increases the efficiency of
    high-volume Web sites.
  • Adding more computers with ArcIMS spatial servers
    expands the processing capabilities of Web sites
    that get heavy traffic.

Testing the ArcIMS servlet connector
  • it can be accessed through Start gt Programs gt
    ESRI gt ArcIMS 3.1 gt ArcIMS Diagnostics or type in
    map.Esrimap?cmdConnectorPing in browserr URL

Exercise create a simple webmap using ArcIMS
  • Load your county data (such as from neighboring
    counties, White, Cumberland, Fentress, etc..) to
  • Start ArcIMS

  • the main features of the ArcIMS Author interface
  • the types of data you can work with in Author
  • how to add data using the Catalog
  • the different ways you can symbolize feature
    layers in Author
  • how to save your map as a map configuration file
  • the structure of ArcXML files

Authoring maps
  • Create a axl file map configuration file
  • You will identify data layers for your map
  • Symbolize layers and legend and scale setup
  • Start ArcIMS Author application from
    programgtEsrigtArcIMS 3.1gt Author or access through

Author toolbar
File and Edit
  • Open Select an existing map configuration file
    to edit (not available in Manager) Save
    Project Save your work in a map configuration
    file Copy Map Image to File Save a JPEG image
    of your current map display Close Project
    Close the current project (not available in
    Manager) Add Layers Opens the Catalog where
    you can browse for and add new data layers
    Print Print the current map display to a default
    printer Scale Bar Properties Set the map and
    scale bar units (available only in Manager)

Author toolbar2
  • Zoom to Previous Zoom back to the previous
    extent Zoom to Next Extent Zoom forward to the
    next extent (use after clicking Zoom to
    Previous) Zoom to Full Extent Zoom to the full
    extent of all the layers in the map Zoom to
    Active Layer Zoom to the extent of the active
    layer Zoom In Zooms in when you click or draw
    a box on the map Zoom Out Zooms out when you
    click or draw a box on the map Pan/Pan One
    Direction Move the map display without changing
    the map scale

Author toolbor 3
  • Identify Shows feature attributes when you
    click on the features on the map Find Allows
    you to type in a word to find features in one or
    more layers Stored Query Creates a predefined
    query on a feature attribute table Geocoding
    Properties Defines the properties for the street
    file you want to use for address matching and
    builds a geocoding index MapTips Enables
    MapTips using an attribute of a layer Layer
    Properties Defines the layer symbology Clear
    All Selection Clears the selected features in
    all layers

Add Data - ArcCatalog
  • Navigate to folder where you have data stored,
    and click on Add Layer
  • ArcIMS supports the following data types
    shapefiles, ArcSDE layers, many image formats,
    and ArcInfo coverages accessed through ArcSDE
    for Coverages.

  • A shapefile is a standard format for storing
    geometry and attribute information for a set of
    geographic features. The geometry for a feature
    is stored as a shape comprised of a set of vector
    (point, line, or polygon) coordinates. Every
    feature in a shapefile must have the same shape.
    Shapefiles are a vector file format for storing
    the location and attribute information of point,
    line, and polygon features. The name "shapefile"
    is somewhat misleading because each shapefile is
    comprised of at least three files
    shapefile_name.shp, shapefile_name.shx, and
  • A shapefile has three core files with different
    extensions that indicate their contents
  • SHP Stores feature geometry (shape and location
  • SHX Stores the index of the feature geometry
  • DBF A dBASE file that stores the attribute
    information for the features

ArcIMS and shapefiles
  • These three files must be stored in the same
    folder. Shapefiles may also have other associated
    index files that speed analysis and querying.
    These files are not required.
  • ArcIMS does not allow a shapefile to have field
    names longer than 10 characters. Also, shapefiles
    that contain duplicate field names cannot be
    drawn in ArcIMS.

Image File in ArcIMS
  • Image data is raster-based data in which each
    cell, or pixel, has a certain value. Common
    examples of images are satellite images, aerial
    photographs, and scanned documents. On maps, an
    image is often used as a background layer.
  • You've learned that ArcIMS supports three types
    of output image formats (GIF, JPEG, and PNG), but
    the ArcIMS spatial server is able to read many
    types of image formats. This means that when you
    use imagery in your map, the source image file
    can be stored in a variety of formats. These
    images can be added as references to the map
    configuration file (AXL file) to be registered by
    a MapService.
  • In ArcIMS Author, you can add and view images in
    some source formats, including BMP, JPEG, GIF,
    and TIF. Images in other formats such as MrSID,
    ERDAS IMAGINE, and image directories can be added
    to Author, but they cannot be viewed. The image
    reference is saved in the map configuration file.

Image file format for ArcIMS
  • Arc Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG), ASRP,
    Bitmap (BMP),
  • Band Interleaved by Line (BIL), Band Interleaved
    by Pixel (BIP)
  • Band Sequential (BSQ), Controlled Image Base
  • Compressed Arc Digitized Raster Graphics (CADRG)
  • GeoTIFF, IMPELL,JPEG File Interchange Format
  • Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG)
  • Multiresolution Seamless Image Database (MrSID)
  • National Imagery Transmission Format (NITF)
  • Portable Network Graphics (PNG), SUN Microsystems
    Computer (SUN)
  • Tagged Image File format (TIF), USRP
  • ESRI ArcInfo GRID, ESRI ArcView Image Catalog
  • ESRI Spatial Database Engine Raster (ArcSDE
  • Some image formats store georeferencing
    information in the header of the image file.
    Other image formats store this information in a
    separate ASCII file. This file is generally
    referred to as the world file, because it
    contains the real-world transformation
    information used by the image. ArcIMS requires
    that world files be included with image layers
    that use them.

Creating a map
  • In ArcIMS Author, there are many ways to
    customize the appearance of your maps. You can
    control how the source data is displayed and how
    users interact with the layers. You can set scale
    bar properties and add, reorder, and remove
  • You use the Layer Properties dialog to access
    most layer-specific properties. In this dialog,
    you can do things such as change the name of a
    layer, customize its symbology, and add text
    labels for features.
  • The symbology you choose for displaying layers
    greatly affects how readers interpret the map.
    Learning how to display your layers clearly and
    efficiently will help your audience understand
    your data and may also reveal patterns not
    otherwise apparent. ArcIMS provides a wide
    variety of symbol styles and colors you can use
    to represent layer

Scale bar properties
  • A scale bar helps users interpret the data shown
    on your map. ArcIMS Author adds a scale bar
    automatically at the bottom of the map display.
    To ensure the accuracy of the scale bar, you need
    to specify the map units of your data, the scale
    units, and the screen units you want to use for
  • Map unitsMap units are the units in which your
    data sources are stored. You can work with
    spatial data that stores feature locations as
    unprojected geographic coordinates (latitude and
    longitude coordinates stored in decimal degrees)
    or projected x,y coordinates. Projected data is
    data stored in real-world units such as meters or
  • Setting the map units is crucial if you want to
    enable accurate measuring and buffering on your
    Web site. The map units will be written to the
    map configuration file (as the MAPUNITS element).
  • Scale unitsScale units are the units ArcIMS uses
    for reporting measurements and dimensions in the
    scale bar. You can choose any units (e.g., miles,
    feet, meters, or kilometers) appropriate for the
    map display you are working with.

Scale bar
  • Screen unitsScreen units are used to physically
    measure a distance using a ruler displayed on
    your monitor to estimate true distance (e.g., 1
    inch on the monitor equals 50 feet in the real
    world). You can set screen units as inches or
    centimeters. In Author, you set the map units,
    scale bar units, and screen units using the Scale
    Bar Properties command on the View menu. When
    you're creating a map using ArcIMS Manager, you
    access the Scale Bar Properties either by
    right-clicking the scale bar or clicking the
    Scale Bar Properties button. In Author, you can
    choose to not display the scale bar by unchecking
    the Scale Bar command on the View menu. You
    cannot remove the scale bar in Manager.

Legend - layer
  • After you add data using the Catalog, each source
    dataset appears as a layer in the legend.
  • Many operations in ArcIMS work only on the active
    layer. For example, you can identify only
    features of the active layer. To make a layer
    active, click the layer name in the legend. When
    a layer is active, it is enclosed by a
    rectangular box.

Order of layers
  • For best display, point and line feature layers
    should be placed at the top of the legend. Here,
    the Water and County layers obscure the Landmarks
    and Highways layers
  • To change the order in which a layer draws, click
    the layer in the legend and drag it to a new
    position (up or down). You can also reorder
    layers by right-clicking the active layer, then
    clicking Move Layer. With this method, you can
    move the active layer up or down or move it
    directly to the top or bottom of the legend.

Layer Properties dialog
  • The Symbols tab is where you change the method,
    style, color, and size of layer symbols. ArcIMS
    offers three ways to symbolize your feature data
    one symbol, graduated symbols, or unique values.
    Using options in the Labels tab, you can display
    text labels for layer features based on an
    attribute field. You choose the attribute field,
    font, style, size, and label text effects for
    each layer.
  • The General tab displays information for that
    layer (data source location and type). In this
    tab, you can change the name of a layer as it
    displays in the legend. You can also set a scale
    factor for a layer, so that features display or
    don't display based on the map's scale.

Single symbol
  • If you like, you can use custom images for point
    and polygon feature symbols. The images must be
    GIF or JPEG files, and they can be modified only
    in a graphics program, not in Author. In the
    legend, custom images will be sized to 16-by-16
    pixels. To use custom images as symbols for point
    or polygon layers, you will need to specify in
    the Layer Properties dialog both the absolute
    path to where the files are stored
  • You may have to edit your Web server
    configuration file and add another virtual
    directory to the list.

Unique symbols
  • For example, suppose you have a layer of 100
    pizza restaurants. Conceivably, you could use a
    unique symbols legend to display these features
    by restaurant name. You would end up with 100
    different symbol types if every restaurant has a
    unique name. More appropriately, you could use
    unique symbols to display the pizza places by
    their neighborhood location. You will then create
    fewer symbols that have more implied meaning. You
    can change the style type (point marker, line
    style, or polygon fill pattern) of the symbols
    used to represent features. For point and line
    layers, you can also change the size of all your
    feature symbols. Additionally, the label
    displayed in the legend can be changed.
  • ArcIMS can display features with a number of
    methods when you use a unique symbols legend.
    Bountiful harvest, pastels, and minerals are
    three predetermined color schemes.

Graduated symbols
  • ArcIMS uses the Equal Interval classification
    method to divide features into classes. The Equal
    Interval classification method divides the range
    of attributes into equally-sized subranges. You
    cannot customize the range values in Author. As
    you will discover later, you can change these
    values from within the map configuration (AXL)
  • You can also display ranges based on a start and
    end color. For example, in the map above, census
    tracts in the lowest class for median property
    values are displayed in yellow (the start color)
    and tracts in the highest class for median
    property values are displayed in red (the end
    color). Tracts with property values in between
    are displayed in colors between yellow and red.
  • You can also symbolize a layer using differently
    sized line or point symbols (e.g., represent
    census tracts with low median property values
    with a 5-point circle and tracts with high median
    property values with a 20-point circle).
  • By default, when you use a graduated symbols
    legend, the label for each class (the text that
    appears in the legend) is the same as the class
    range values. You can change the labels for the
    classes if you like.

Graduated-symbol map
Exercise Add data using Author
  • You will need data from U drive. Create a map
    using Author.
  • Right-click on folder which contains the
    shapefiles to make it as a favorite folder in
  • Add data and change symbol to reflect the data
  • Save data in U drive.

ArcXML structure
  • Like HTML, the ARcXML use element tag. Forward
    slash (/) to end an element. Some elementsNote
    how the elements are defined. Their names are in
    uppercase letters and surrounded with angle
    brackets (this format is usually called the
    element tag). Some elements have both opening and
    ending tags, while others, like SHAPEWORKSPACE,
    have only one tag. Note the forward slash at the
    end of the SHAPEWORKSPACE and DATASET elements

  • Open tn_physiography.axl from Notepad on your
    computer. Answer the following questions (Do not
    save this file if you somehow modify this file.
    Youd better copy this file to your directory)
  • 1) What version of ArcXML is being used?
  • 2) Where is this project stored?
  • 3) What map units are being used?
  • 4) How many layers the project contain?

Defining the map presentation
  • about the tools ArcIMS Author provides for
    exploring map data
  • how to set a scale range for a layer
  • what a scale dependent renderer is
  • how to create complex feature symbology using
    group renderers
  • how to add text labels for layer features to a
  • how to define stored queries and geocoding
    properties for maps
  • how to author a map in ArcIMS Manager

Tools for exploring data
  • Identify - When you use Identify, the attributes
    for all the features located at the same point
    within a search tolerance are displayed. For
    example, if several features in the same layer
    are close together, the Identify Results window
    may display information on all nearby features.
    When this happens, click one feature in the left
    panel to see its attribute data.
  • Map tips MapTips allow you to see an individual
    attribute value as you pause the mouse pointer
    over features in the map. Only one MapTip field
    may be set per layer
  • Find You can use the Find tool to quickly find
    a feature based on a string (text) attribute.
    Find searches the string fields of layer
    attribute tables and returns the records for
    features that meet the search criteria. In the
    Find dialog, you enter the text value for which
    you want to search (you don't need to enclose the
    text with quotes), keeping in mind that Find
    searches are case-sensitive. You can enter a
    partial value and Find will still return results
    (e.g., typing "Afgh" will find Afghanistan).

Advanced properties for map display
  • When you're preparing maps for publication on the
    Web, you'll want to keep your end-users in mind.
    What functionality will they find helpful? How
    can you enhance the map display to make it more
    attractive and understandable?
  • When you're preparing maps for publication on the
    Web, you'll want to keep your end-users in mind.
    What functionality will they find helpful? How
    can you enhance the map display to make it more
    attractive and understandable?
  • In ArcIMS Author, there are many ways to
    customize your map display to meet the needs of
    your end-users. In Lesson 1, you saw some of the
    ways you can change the symbology for layers in
    your maps. In this topic, you'll learn more
    advanced layer display techniques that will help
    you design maps appropriate for your audience.
  • You can do more in Author, however, than just
    define the appearance of the map. You can also
    prepare for the functionality you want your Web
    site to include. You can define your map
    configuration file so that end-users of your Web
    site will be able to search for features on the
    map and even type in an address and have that
    address display as a point on the map.

Descriptive Names/Scale/Transparency
  • Most of the data layers name are only meaningful
    to the creators of the layers. You need to
    provide a descriptive names of the layers so that
    end-users will have idea what the layer is about.
  • Set explicit scale factorsWhen you're displaying
    several layers on a map and you don't want the
    display to be cluttered, you can set explicit
    scale factors for layers. That is, you can set
    the scale range in which a layer displays.
    Outside of that range, the layer will not be
    visible on the map. You can set the minimum
    scale, maximum scale, or both. Setting a scale
    range writes two attributes to the map
    configuration file's LAYER element minscale and
  • the General tab will include a transparency
    slider bar, which allows you to adjust the
    visibility of an image layer (or Image MapService
    if applied using the Layer Properties button in a
    Java viewer or ArcExplorer Java Edition). Using
    the Transparency slider bar, you can adjust the
    transparency of the image layer from 0 to 100
    percent transparency. The default value is 0
    percent (the image is not transparent).

Scale Issues
  • Scale factors are a good way to produce a map
    that has the appropriate amount of detail at a
    given scale. If you have a detailed layer, you
    may not want it to turn on until a user zooms in.
    For example, you may not want a city streets
    layer to draw when the extent is zoomed out to
    cover the entire region
  • In this example, street features are visible only
    when the scale reaches 15,000,000. Cities are
    not visible until a 2,500,000 scale is reached
  • To change the minimum or maximum scale factor,
    you can go through the steps again or remove the
    scale factor by right-clicking the layer and
    choosing Remove Scale Factor.
  • When a layer is not visible due to a scale
    factor, the layer name is also removed from the

Scale dependent renderers
  • A scale factor determines the visibility of a
    layer based on scale. A scale dependent renderer
    changes the symbology of a layer based on scale.
  • To set a scale dependent renderer, you work in
    the Layers tab (next to the Legend tab). In the
    Layers tab, select the active layer, then click a
    renderer to edit. Click the Set scale dependent
    renderer button to set the maximum scale range,
    minimum scale range, or both for this renderer.
    You can add more renderers to the Layers list by
    clicking the Add another renderer button. After
    you click this button, the Layer Properties
    dialog opens, where you can create the symbology
    you want. Set a scale range for the new renderer
    using the Set scale dependent renderer button.
  • Setting a scale dependent renderer for a layer
    adds the SCALEDEPENDENTRENDERER element in the
    map configuration file for that LAYER element. To
    remove a layer's scale dependent renderer, click
    the Clear scale dependent renderer button in the
    Layers tab.

Group Renderers
  • Now things get really fancyyou can add
    additional renderers to a layer to create complex
    symbology for certain features and make them more
    attractive or distinguishable. A common usage of
    group renderers is to draw a road layer twice
    once with a wide line, and again with a narrower
    line of a different color to display a cased
    road. If you have turned on labeling for a layer,
    the labels will always appear above all group
    renderers in a layer
  • When creating group renderers, you may need to
    move renderers up or down in the Layers list. For
    example, you would want the thick line renderer
    on the bottom and the thin line renderer layer on
    top. Group renderers add the GROUPRENDERER
    element to the map configuration file and will
    apply to all features in the active layer.

Add labels
  • Labels are text added to a map that describes the
    features in a layer. The text source for labels
    is one of the layer's attribute fields. You set
    labeling for a layer using the Labels tab in the
    Layer Properties dialog
  • ArcIMS uses an algorithm that places each label
    in the best possible position. This algorithm
    will also resolve label conflict so that no
    labels will overlap
  • Labels add either a SIMPLELABELRENDER or
    VALUEMAPLABELRENDERER element to the map
    configuration file, depending on how you assign
    them to your layer.
  • You can label line features with five different
    highway shield styles Interstates, US States,
    Mexican, Oval and Rectangle.
  • In the Layer Properties dialog, choose a numeric
    field for labeling, then click the Use Shields
    button. You can use the same highway shield for
    every line in your layer or different shields
    based on values within an attribute field. You
    can then choose a different shield type for every
    unique value in the chosen attribute field.

Shield properties
Duplicate line lables
Using your own custom highway shields You can
incorporate your own highway shields in your map
display, but not directly through the ArcIMS
Author interface. You can manually add the
RASTERSHIELDSYMBOL element to the map
configuration file to point to your own GIF or
JPEG shield image. You can also add attributes to
determine the database field and the label font.
For more information, consult the ArcXML
Programmer's Reference Guide.
Stored Query
  • Creating stored queries for your maps allows
    end-users to ask questions and get information
    about the features on the map. In other words,
    they can query the spatial database. A stored
    query in ArcIMS takes the SQL (Structured Query
    Language) syntax burden off the end-user and
    allows you to define a concise or complex
    single-parameter statement that the end-user will
    refer to by name.
  • To create a stored query, click the Stored Query
    button in ArcIMS Author and name the stored query
    when prompted. This will be the same name used to
    identify the query in the Web site, so be sure to
    make the query name appropriately descriptive.
  • Use the Stored Queries dialog to construct an
    SQL-like expression. While you're building the
    expression, a popup window may appear asking if
    you want to see only the first 100 sample values
    or see all values. Test the expression by
    clicking the Execute button.
  • If the query works, you complete the stored query
    by substituting a variable for the value and
    saving the query with the unique name. This will
    add a STOREDQUERY element to the map
    configuration file.
  • When the Web site is up and running, end-users
    clicking the Search button will access your
    stored query and can supply their own value for
    the variable.

Geocode process
  • Address geocoding is a process that allows
    end-users to locate a point on the map based on
    an address they enter. To include address
    geocoding functionality in your Web site, you
    must add a street reference layer to the map.
    ArcIMS Author does not perform address matching.
    Instead, it writes the necessary information for
    address matching to the map configuration file.
  • To enable geocoding in your Web site, you add the
    street reference layer to Author (or ArcIMS
    Manager), then set geocoding properties for it.
    In the Geocoding Properties dialog in Author, you
    choose an address style and the corresponding
    fields in the street attribute table for each
    address component that the address style requires
    (required components are indicated with an
    asterisk). Geocoding performance and processing
    depend on the size of your street reference

Geocode - 2
  • ArcIMS uses the same geocoding engine and
    supports the same address styles as ArcView GIS
    3.x. For information about the address styles
    supported by ArcIMS, consult the Using ArcIMS
    reference or ArcIMS online help. When you add
    geocoding functionality in Author, several new
    embedded elements are added to the map
    configuration file (GCFIELD and GCSTYLE) and new
    index files (identified with GCI and XRF
    extensions) are created. For an ArcSDE street
    reference layer, you will be prompted to save the
    index files to a directory. By default, the index
    files will be saved to a temp directory. For
    shapefile street reference layers, the index
    files are stored in the same folder with the
    source shapefile.
  • After you set the geocoding properties, end-users
    of your Web site will be able to click the Locate
    Address button, enter an address, and the point
    representing the address will be geocoded and
    displayed on the map.

  • Use data from learnarchims\author\lesson2\data
    and Mrn_rds and Mrn_rvs (data from Marion,
    Indiana Census TIGER 2000 data)
  • Symbolize the layers
  • Add scale dependent renderer for features/Labels
  • Identify