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Hitler

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In 1933, Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany, and had almost complete control of Germany only the aged President Hindenburg could stop him. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hitler


1
Hitlers Germany
  • In 1933, Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany,
    and had almost complete control of Germanyonly
    the aged President Hindenburg could stop him. In
    July of 1934, Hindenburg died and Hitler took
    over and combined the offices of Chancellor and
    President. He was then to be known as Fuhrer
    (leader). On August 2, the German army swore
    allegience to Hitler as Fuhrer, rather than to
    Germany. He now had complete control.

2
Unemployment in Millions
The Economy Under the Nazis
  • During the 1930s high employment was an important
    reason why the Nazis came to power
  • Hitler promised bread and work for the German
    people

Hitler was far more successful than the British
government in reducing unemployment during the
same period? Why?
3
Hitler was able to lower employment by
introducing 4 strategies
  • Reparations
  • Government Spending
  • Wage and Price control
  • Rearmament

4
Reparations
  • Stopped paying reparations once president
  • Money that had been going to France and Belgium
    could now be invested in German economy to create
    more jobs

5
Government Spending
  • Hitler created new jobs through government
    spending on construction
  • Network of motorways (autobahns)
  • This network not only created jobs, but created a
    more efficient Germany industry goods could be
    shipped faster
  • Also increased the speed at which troops could
    cross the country

6
  • Huge public buildings
  • Olympic games were held in Berlin in 1936 in a
    newly built Olympic Stadium
  • Created jobs, but also impressed people (a
    visible sign that Hitler was making Germany great
    again)
  • Reich Labour Service
  • Provided manpower for jobs such as building the
    autobahns, draining marshes for farmland,
    building sea walls to protect coastal areas from
    flooding
  • Investments in Car Industry
  • Volkswagen is produced the peoples car
  • By cutting imports of foreign cars, jobs were
    created
  • Car factories were also useful because they could
    be easily converted for military needs

7
Wage and Price Control
  • Destroyed trade unions, therefore keeping wages
    low
  • This was a reward for industries who supported
    Hitlerthey made big profits
  • Industrialists would help Hitler stay in power

8
Rearmament
  • Before 1936, Hitler concentrated on providing the
    bread and work he had promised
  • From 1936 onwards, he changed the aims of the
    economyrearmament
  • More money was spent on weapons construction and
    more men were recruited into the army
  • When Hitler came to power the army was limited to
    100 000 soldiers (Versailles Treaty)
  • 1938 risen to 900 000 men

Expenditure on the armed forces (figures in
millions of marks)
9
SchachtMinister of Economics
  • 1936Hjalamat Schacht made Economics Ministerhe
    was not a Nazi
  • He had been part of the Weimer Germany and played
    important roles in the Dawes and Young plans
  • Made trade deals with less developed countries
    for raw materials
  • Focus on ore and iron for war materials

10
Propaganda and Censorship Strategies Hitler used
to gain power
  • Hitler used wordssimple slogansto get his
    message across
  • Hugenberg, a owner of many newspapers, supported
    Hitler after 1929 and spread Hitlers message
  • Hitler also benefited form the invention of the
    microphone and loudspeaker
  • Hitler was the first German politician to use
    the aircraft to travel during elections

11
Once In Power
  • Appointed Goebbels as Reich Minister of Public
    Enlightenment and Propagandacontrolling press,
    radio, publishing, films, and the arts
  • No book could be published without the permission
    of Goebbels
  • Books were ordered to be burned which disagreed
    with Nazi views
  • Newspapers (who were not shut down) got new from
    the Nazi news agency (DNB)
  • 1939Nazis owned 67 of newspapers

12
The Radio
  • Gave Hitler access into German homesthose of the
    ordinary citizen
  • 193970 of Germans owned a radiohighest
    percentage in the world at the time
  • Radios designed for short range, therefore could
    not pick up foreign stations, only Nazi views
  • People who did listen to foreign radio could be
    executed

A Volksempfänger VE 301 GW (Nazi people's radio)
13
Public Image
  • Goebbels organized huge marches and rallies at
    which the SA and Hitler could show offpeople
    would believe that Hitler was making Germany
    great if they could see it
  • Every year there was a rally at Nuremberg
  • Biggest spectacle was the Berlin Olympics of 1936
  • New stadium built with film cameras to record
    events and photo-electric timing instead of stop
    watches
  • Germany was presented as the most advanced nation
  • Germany also won more medals than any other
    country, proving the superiority of the German
    race

14
Art Before the Nazis
  • Modern art becomes popular
  • Camera invented
  • Art was not mimicking, it was composing
  • Artists did not just copy nature, they had to
    take the images around them they see and put them
    in a totally different way giving people a new
    experience

15
Art after the Nazis
  • Since many found modern art difficult to
    understand (quite different from realism), many
    hated itthe Nazis exploited this
  • Called modern art degenerated art (meaning sick
    and twisted)
  • Blamed it on Jews and other races
  • The art of Germany was realismthe purpose though
    was propaganda

16
The Simple Message
  • Nazis had a simple message
  • hard work was shown as heroic
  • Peasant life was glorified
  • Glorified perfect bodiesthe Aryan body
  • Many artists were arrested and others left
    Germany
  • 1937 a degenerate art exhibition was held in
    Munich, along side an exhibition of German art
  • Two million people visited the modern art exhibit
    (three times more than the German exhibit) to
    laugh at the degenerate art.

Water Sports Albert Janesch (1936)
"Blut und Boden" (Blood and Soil) by Erich Erler
(1942)
17
How did Hitler get the German people to obey him?
  • Police State
  • If people did not respond to the choose to accept
    Nazi ideas, then they must be forced to accept
  • The police had the power to do as they wished
  • German citizens had few rights
  • Hitler developed a number of agencies to enforce
    terror

18
The SA and the SS
  • SA (Strum Abteilung)
  • Formed in 1921 by Hitler to attract more
    followers
  • Ex-soldiers, unemployed, men who felt betrayed by
    the Weimar government disrupted meetings of
    Hitlers opposition
  • known as brownshirts, hence the brown uniform
    by 1934 there were over 2 million
  • Expected Hitler to take wealth from the rich,
  • The SA leader believed that they should take over
    the army and that the SA focus should be a
    National Socialist Germany
  • SS (Schutzstaffel)
  • Formed in 1925 as Hitlers personal bodyguard
  • Technically part of the SA, however leader,
    Heinrich Himmler wanted them to be a separate
    organization
  • In 1934 Himmler told Hitler that the SA planned
    to overthrow him (this is debatable)
  • Hitler had the leaders arrested and executed
  • The SS then controlled the Nazi police and were
    completely loyal to Hitler
  • They were supposed to be perfect examples of
    Aryan men

19
Divisions of the SS
  • The SD (Sicherheitdienst)
  • Responsible for state security
  • Search out and deal with enemies of the Nazis
  • The Waffen SS
  • Units who fought with the army
  • The Deaths Head Units
  • Controlled concentration camps (originally
    controlled by the SA)

20
The Gestapo
  • Geheime Staatspolizeithe secret police
  • first set up in 1933
  • 1936 given power in the whole of Germany
  • Like SD, searche dout enemies of Nazis
  • Could arrest anyone and send them to
    concentration camps without trial
  • Informers were used to uncover any opposition
    orginizations
  • 1939162 000 Germans imprisoned without trial
  • 1936Himmlers deputy, Richard Heydrich becomes
    head of Gestapoin effect under SS control

21
The Courts
  • SD and Gestapo could put people in concentration
    camps without trial so courts could not protect
    Germans from policethis was not the role of the
    courts though
  • Judges were replaced by Nazi reportersopponents
    could still be punished if they did have a trial
  • 1934Hitler sets up Peoples Courtthis was to
    try the enemies of the state
  • 1939had already sentenced over 500 people to
    death and sent many to concentration camps

22
The Concentration Camps
  • Set up as prisions for Hitlers enemies
  • First one in Dachau, opened in 1933
  • Were supposed to correct opponents so that they
    stopped opposing Nazis
  • Many were killed in these camps
  • During the war many camps became extermination
    camps

Main gate for the prisoners. ARBEIT MACHT
FREI--"Freedom through work", or "Work sets you
free".
23
How did Hitler get the German people to obey him?
  • Police State
  • If people did not respond to the choose to accept
    Nazi ideas, then they must be forced to accept
  • The police had the power to do as they wished
  • German citizens had few rights
  • Hitler developed a number of agencies to enforce
    terror

24
The SA and the SS
  • SA (Strum Abteilung)
  • Formed in 1921 by Hitler to attract more
    followers
  • Ex-soldiers, unemployed, men who felt betrayed by
    the Weimar government disrupted meetings of
    Hitlers opposition
  • known as brownshirts, hence the brown uniform
    by 1934 there were over 2 million
  • Expected Hitler to take wealth from the rich,
  • The SA leader believed that they should take over
    the army and that the SA focus should be a
    National Socialist Germany
  • SS (Schutzstaffel)
  • Formed in 1925 as Hitlers personal bodyguard
  • Technically part of the SA, however leader,
    Heinrich Himmler wanted them to be a separate
    organization
  • In 1934 Himmler told Hitler that the SA planned
    to overthrow him (this is debatable)
  • Hitler had the leaders arrested and executed
  • The SS then controlled the Nazi police and were
    completely loyal to Hitler
  • They were supposed to be perfect examples of
    Aryan men

25
Divisions of the SS
  • The SD (Sicherheitdienst)
  • Responsible for state security
  • Search out and deal with enemies of the Nazis
  • The Waffen SS
  • Units who fought with the army
  • The Deaths Head Units
  • Controlled concentration camps (originally
    controlled by the SA)

26
The Gestapo
  • Geheime Staatspolizeithe secret police
  • first set up in 1933
  • 1936 given power in the whole of Germany
  • Like SD, searche dout enemies of Nazis
  • Could arrest anyone and send them to
    concentration camps without trial
  • Informers were used to uncover any opposition
    orginizations
  • 1939162 000 Germans imprisoned without trial
  • 1936Himmlers deputy, Richard Heydrich becomes
    head of Gestapoin effect under SS control

27
The Courts
  • SD and Gestapo could put people in concentration
    camps without trial so courts could not protect
    Germans from policethis was not the role of the
    courts though
  • Judges were replaced by Nazi reportersopponents
    could still be punished if they did have a trial
  • 1934Hitler sets up Peoples Courtthis was to
    try the enemies of the state
  • 1939had already sentenced over 500 people to
    death and sent many to concentration camps

28
The Concentration Camps
  • Set up as prisions for Hitlers enemies
  • First one in Dachau, opened in 1933
  • Were supposed to correct opponents so that they
    stopped opposing Nazis
  • Many were killed in these camps
  • During the war many camps became extermination
    camps

Main gate for the prisoners. ARBEIT MACHT
FREI--"Freedom through work", or "Work sets you
free".
29
The Workers
  • Reich Labour Service
  • This was set up for all school dropouts (after
    the age of 14) and for unskilled workers
  • They carried out jobs that required many
    unskilled workers, such as draining the marshes
  • The German Labour Front
  • Set up to replace trade unions, which were
    considered to be too closely connected to the
    socialists and communist parties

30
  • (The German Labour Front cont)
  • The concept of Volkgemeinschaft
  • the idea of everyone working together for the
    good of the country
  • The Nazis wanted the people to return to the
    spirit of working during the First World War when
    people sacrificed themselves for the good of the
    country
  • The committee was made up of representatives of
    employers and workers and they could only
    recommend higher wages and better working
    conditions

31
Autarky
  • Hitler 1936
  • It is impossible for us, at present, to
    manufacture certain raw materials which we lack
    in Germany. The final solution lies in extending
    out living space, that is to say, extending the
    sources of raw materials and foodstuffs for our
    people.
  • Hitler wanted Germany to be economically
    self-sufficient establishing autarky

32
The Women
  • The place for women was in the home, but this was
    considered and very important job by the Nazis
  • Nazi propaganda posters depicted women looking
    after husbands and childrenwhich they were
    taught in schools
  • Girls were told not to smoke and or dietboth
    might affect their ability to have healthy
    children
  • Professional women (doctors, lawyers, etc.) were
    forced to give up working to have children

33
  • Women were allowed to teach since teaching
    children was an important job
  • Nazi slogans described the role of women as
    Different, not inferior
  • Producing children was vital for the Nazis as
    they saw children as the first generation who
    would grow up in a Nazi world
  • 1933the birth of Germany had dropped by two
    million (due men being killed in WWI)

34
Babiesmoney
  • Nazis offered marriage loans of 600 marks and if
    women had more than 4 children this loan did not
    have to be paid back
  • If you had 8 children you were awarded the Honour
    Crossit was awarded on the 12 of august every
    year, Hitlers mothers birthday
  • 1933970 00 babies born
  • 19391 413 000 born

Bronze Cross5-6 children Silver Cross6-7
children Gold Cross7-8 children
35
  • Anti-abortion laws enforced, contraceptives hard
    to get
  • Nazis only wanted healthy, Aryan children,
  • Jews could not get marriage loans
  • Women with hereditary disease could be sterilized
  • 1939women were allowed to work in factories for
    the war effort
  • League of German Girls (BDM) was set up to
    educate girls in family life and to make them
    healthy so they could produce lots of children

36
Nazi Youth
  • Bernhard Rust, Nazi Minister of Education the
    whole purpose of education is to create Nazis.
  • Mandatory schooling up to age of 14
  • Boys and girls went to separate schools
  • All subjects stressed Nazi beliefs
  • In History class students were taught that the
    German army had been stabbed the back by the
    Weimer government at the end of World War I
  • Biology taught students that Germans, as members
    of the Aryan race, were superior to all races
  • Girls education consisted of how to be the
    perfect housewife and mother

37
The Church
  • How did the Nazis deal with Christianity?
  • 1933most Germans were Christians
  • Belonged to either Roman Catholic Church or
    Protestant Churches
  • Protestant church had no head
  • Roman Catholic very strong in south Germany,
    especially in Bavaria (Nazis home state)
  • Many Protestant Churches openly supported Nazis,
    at first so did the Catholic Church
  • 1933Hitler signed the Concordat with the Pope
  • An agreement which said the Catholic Church would
    be left alone by Nazis as long as they stayed out
    of politics

38
Why did the churches support the Nazis?
  • To many Christians, Weimer Germany seemed to be
    an immoral country, but the Nazis supported the
    family and old-fashioned moral standard
  • Hitler expressed his support for the church in
    his speeches
  • Nazis opposed communism.
  • Communism wanted to destroy Christianity and so
    the church feared them
  • Hitler seemed the only hope in the struggle
    against communism

39
Hitler Youth vs. Catholic Youth
  • Nazis did not leave the Catholic Church alone
  • Catholic Church had a strong youth baseone which
    rivalled the Hitler Youth
  • Many parents preferred to send children to
    Catholic Youth than to Hitler Youth
  • Catholic Church ran many schools
  • These students did not face propaganda,
    therefore, could grow up as opponents of Nazis
  • Schools ordered to remove all Christian symbols
  • Eventually, schools taken from church control
  • 1937Pope protested to Hitler
  • 1937Catholic Church made illegal

40
Christian Punishment
  • 1/3 of all Catholic priests were punished by the
    Nazis
  • 400 put in a special block at Dachau
    concentration camp
  • Many Germans went to Catholic Church, and church
    leaders were applauded when they appeared in
    public
  • They rarely opposed Nazis
  • Protestants were divided between those who
    supported Nazis and those who did not

41
The Nazi Religion
  • The Nazis set up their own Christian church so
    they could gain control of Christianity
  • Some did support the church, but it was not a
    success
  • Faith Movementa pagan set up by the Nazis in a
    further attempt to remove the influence of the
    Christian church
  • Used Norse myths to appeal to feelings of past
    greatness

42
Treatment of minorities
  • The Jews were not the only group treated as
    second class citizens
  • Gypsies, Vagrants, Black people, Mentally ill,
    and Homosexuals were all treated terribly

43
The Gypsies
  • Gypsies were targeted for 2 reasons
  • They were not Aryansthe superior rates
  • They were asocialmove from area to area and
    did not have regular jobs, meaning they could not
    be part of the Volkgemeinschaft, the idea of
    self-sacrifice that the Nazis wanted to instil in
    all Germans
  • Nazi scientists regarded gypsies as inferior by
    race and could never be taught to be good Germans
  • 1939all gypsies were ordered to be sent to
    concentration camps in the newly conquered Poland
  • 200 000 gypsies were murdered

44
Vagrants
  • People who moved town to townfor example those
    looking for work, maybe youth, beggars, etc.
  • Nazi solution was to force these people to work
  • 1938more than 10 000 vagrants gathered and
    placed in concentration camps
  • There they were educated in how to work

45
Black People
  • Although few black people were in Germany they
    were subject to Nuremburg Laws
  • Germans not allowed to marry blacks
  • Black musicpopular in the 1920sviewed as
    degenerate and un-German
  • Children born to German women by black soldiers
    were sterilized (black soldiers had been
    stationed in the Rhineland after the First World
    War)

46
Mentally Ill
  • Mental illness was considered heredity and
    incurable
  • Mentally ill (or those considered to be so) were
    sterilized
  • 1945300 000 people sterilized
  • By the time war started the mentally ill were
    considered of no use so they were killed
  • The Public Ambulance Service Ltd. was set up to
    carry out this serviceby 1941 70 000 people were
    killed

47
Homosexuals
  • The Weimar republic allowed homosexuals some
    freedomthere is evidence of a gay club
  • Some leading Nazis were homosexual, however, the
    Nazis made homosexuality illegal
  • The role of adults was to procreate
  • 1943Himmler ordered the death penalty for all
    homosexuals found in the SS and police

Commemorative plaque in Berlin.
48
The Treatment of Jews
  • 1933Jewish people made up 1 of population,
    however, they made up 16 of lawyers and 10 of
    doctors
  • Many Germans were reported to be jealous of their
    success and suspicious of their religion
  • 1933Hitler ordered SA to turn customers away
    from Jewish shops
  • They also smashed windows
  • people were ordered to stop using Jewish lawyers
    and Jewish doctors and nurses were ordered to
    only attend to Jewish patients

49
  • 1935 Nuremberg Laws passed
  • Illegal for Jews to marry non-Jews, or even have
    sexual intercourse with them
  • Jews deprived of German citizenship and lost
    right to vote
  • Jews were stopped from using swimming pools,
    restaurants, and other public facilities
  • Jews were defined as anyone who had at least one
    Jewish grandparent
  • In schools, children were taught to hate Jews
  • 1933 to 1938, 30 of all Jews emigrated from
    Germany

50
Kristallnacht
  • 1938 a German diplomat in Paris was shot and
    killed by Herschel Grynszpan
  • Grynszpan had heard that 17 000 Jews, including
    his family, were deported from Germany to the
    boarder of Poland and the Poles refused them
  • The German response was the Night of the Broken
    Glass when 7500 Jewish businesses were destroyed
    and 30 000 Jews were sent to concentration camps

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