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The Cardiovascular System

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The Cardiovascular System Chapter 15 Heart Wall Cardiac cycle Conduction system of the heart Regulation of Heart Rate Sympathetic N.S. increases heart rate and force ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cardiovascular System


1
The Cardiovascular System
  • Chapter 15

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Heart is two pumps in one Right side pulmonary
circulation Left side systemic
circulation Heart? Arteries ? Arterioles ?
Capillaries ? Venules? Veins ? Heart Artery any
vessels that carries blood away from the
heart. Vein any vessels that carries blood
toward the heart
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Parietal pericardium outer fibrous layer inner
serous layer Pericardial cavity Visceral
pericardium (epicardium) Pericarditis Cardiac
Tamponade
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Heart Wall
3 Layers Epicardium serous
membrane Myocardium muscle layer Endocardium
continuous throughout circulatory system
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Cardiac Muscle involuntary, striated Intercala
ted discs gap junctions functional
syncytium desmosomes spot welds
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Anastomoses collateral circulation Ischemia
reduced blood flow Hypoxia reduced oxygen
supply Angina pectoris strangled
chest Myocardial infarction death of an area
of tissue due to interrupted blood flow
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Cardiac cycle
One complete heart beat systole (contraction)
and diastole (relaxation) of both atria and
systole and diastole of both ventricles
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Heart Murmurs abnormal sounds caused by the
flow of blood. Mitral stenosis Mitral valve
prolapse
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Conduction system of the heart
Sinoatrial (SA) node pacemaker
? Atrioventricular (AV) node ? Atrioventricular
(AV) Bundle - Bundle of His? Purkinje fibers
conduction myofibers Ectopic pacemaker
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Regulation of Heart Rate
  • Sympathetic N.S. increases heart rate and force
    of contraction secrete epinephrine accelerator
    nerves
  • Parasympathetic N.S. decrease heart rate and
    force of contraction through the vagus nerve.
    Sends continuous impulses. Secretes acetylcholine

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Other factors that influence heart rate
  • Temperature
  • Ions K and Ca
  • Hormones
  • Hypoxia, acidosis and alkalosis slow heart
  • Age
  • gender
  • Physical fitness

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Anatomy of blood vessels
  • Arteries carry blood away from the heart
  • Hole is called the lumen
  • Three layers or tunics
  • Tunica interna (intima)
  • Tunica media
  • Tunica externa (adventitia)

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Tunica interna
  • Simple squamous epithelium called endothelium
  • Secretes biochemicals that inhibit platelet
    aggregation
  • Also substances that dilate or constrict vessels

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Tunica media
  • Bulk of vessel wall
  • Smooth muscle fibers
  • Innervated by the sympathetic N.S.
    vasoconstriction decreased impulses
    vasodilation
  • Thick layer of elastic connective tissue

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Tunica externa
  • Thin layer
  • Connective tissue
  • Attaches artery to surrounding tissue
  • Contains tiny vessels vasa vasorum that form
    capillaries and provide blood to external cells
    of the vessel

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Arteries
  • Large arteries are elastic (conducting) arteries
    pressure reservoirs
  • Medium arteries are muscular (distributing)
    arteries more smooth muscle

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Arterioles
  • Have all three layers, but thin as they divide
  • Branches called metarterioles join capillaries
  • Arteriovenous shunts

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Capillaries
  • Only a single layer of endothelium and a basement
    membrane
  • Connect arterioles and venules
  • Microcirculation
  • Functional part of system for exchange of gases,
    wastes and nutrients
  • True capillaries begin at a precapillary sphincter

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Types of capillaries
  • Continuous - intercellular clefts, but otherwise
    uninterrupted

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Types of capillaries
  • Continuous - intercellular clefts, but otherwise
    uninterrupted
  • Fenestrated capillaries have windows or pores
    act in filtration
  • Sinusoids or discontinuous capillaries have
    spaces between cells, and basement membrane is
    incomplete or absent
  • Tight junctions form a barrier

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Venules
  • Small vessels that join capillaries and veins
  • Add layers

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Veins
  • Have same three tunics as arteries, but have a
    thinner tunica media
  • Contain valves
  • Act as blood reservoirs

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Hemodynamics Physiology of Circulation
Velocity of blood flow is inversely related to
the cross-sectional area of the blood vessels
(total area). Slow flow through capillaries
allows for exchange. The circulation time right
atrium to foot and back is about one minute in
a resting person.
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Blood pressure
  • Pressure on walls of a vessel
  • Arterial pressure rises and falls as the left
    ventricle contracts
  • Highest during systole Systolic pressure
  • Lowest during diastole Diastolic pressure
  • Mean arterial pressure is about 93 mm Hg

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Factors that influence arterial blood pressure
Cardiac Output SV (ml/beat) X HR (beats/min)
CO(ml/min.) 70 ml X 75 5250
ml or 5.25 liters Within limits, the greater the
stretching of the muscle fibers, the greater the
force of contraction Starlings Law
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Hormonal Regulation of B. P.
  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • Renin-angiotensin system
  • ADH antidiuretic hormone - vasopressin
  • ANP atrial natriuretic peptide
  • Others

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Hepatic Portal Circulation
  • Drains spleen, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder and
    small and large intestines
  • 2nd capillary bed in liver
  • Glucose is removed, and stored as glycogen
  • Blood is detoxified
  • Leaves through hepatic vein ? inferior vena cava

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Fetal Circulation
  • Obtains oxygen and nutrients from maternal
    circulation
  • Two arteries off internal iliac arteries run
    through umbilical cord
  • Umbilical vein returns oxygenated blood
  • Several shunts in fetal circulation

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  • Ductus venosus bypasses fetal liver and dumps
    blood from umbilical vein into inferior vena
    cava.
  • Foramen ovale hole in atrial septum, blood
    passes from right atrium to left atrium,
    bypassing the developing lungs
  • Ductus arteriosus connects pulmonary artery
    with aorta
  • If does not close patent ductus arteriosus
    get mixing of venous and arterial blood.

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Circle of Willis
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