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Health Psychology (3)

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Health Psychology (3) Christine L. Whitley After studying Chapter 1, students should Be able to articulate the definition of health psychology Be able to trace (in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Health Psychology (3)


1
Health Psychology (3)
  • Christine L. Whitley

2
After studying Chapter 1, students should
  • Be able to articulate the definition of health
    psychology
  • Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
    of the field of health psychology from the days
    of the ancient Greeks
  • Understand the strengths and weaknesses of
    different research methods in health psychology
  • Be familiar with general medical terminology
  • Be able to identify many of the different
    positions that health psychologists fill and the
    roles that they play
  • Be familiar with the general training trajectory
    for a health psychologist
  • Be able to describe the difference between a
    Western and non-Western approach to medicine
  • Be able to differentiate between health
    psychology, psychosomatic medicine, and
    behavioral medicine
  • Understand the ways in which changing patterns of
    disease and illness, along with the emergence of
    managed care, have affected our approach to
    health

3
Be able to articulate the definition of health
psychology
  • Illness cognitive and emotional phenomena such
    as schizophrenia, anxiety, or depression.
  • Psychologist add the relation to the body
  • Health psychology physical health and well-being
  • a complete state of physical, mental, and social
    well-being and not merely the absence of disease
    of infirmity(WHO, 1948)

Biopsychosocial model
4
(No Transcript)
5
The Immune System
Biological
  • The Immune system is a group of cells and organs
    that work together to fight infections in our
    bodies. Some of these organs are the thymus,
    spleen and lymphocytes.
  • The Immune System protects our body from
    pathogens, disease-causing agents, such as
    bacteria.  
  • There are two parts of the Immune System called
    nonspecific defenses and specific defenses. 
  • Nonspecific defenses, also known as the innate
    immune system, guard infections.  These defenses
    can find foreign tissues, but do not recognize a
    particular invader. 
  • Specific defenses, also known as the adaptive
    immune system, can track down pathogens that
    passed through the nonspecific defenses. 

Nervous system, brain, hormone, chemicals,
genetics
Resources http//nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medi
cine/laureates/1996/illpres/introduction.html
6
Evolutionary
Survival
Found on http//www.paniccure.com/Approaches/CBT/
Intro_Understandg_P.htm
7
Psychodynamic
Sexual, instincts
8
Promoting healthy behaviors and Preventing
unhealthy behaviors
Behavior
  • Identifying unhealthy behaviors
  • Understanding the (immediate) consequences of
    unhealthy behaviors
  • Designing programs to change the unhealthy
    behavior
  • Identifying the healthy behavior
  • Understanding the (immediate) rewards from the
    healthy behaviors
  • Designing programs that would combine both
    promotion of healthy behaviors and prevention of
    unhealthy behaviors.

Learning
9
Stress Appraisal
Cognitive
information
10
Needs
Humanistic
  • Hunger
  • If we dont eat, we (individuals) die
  • Sex
  • If we dont reproduce, we (species) die
  • Belonging
  • If we dont get along, we
  • (group) kill each other and die
  • Achievement
  • If we dont adjust to change
  • we (humanity) die

growth
11
Health Psychology (p.3)
  • This field involves research and practice dealing
    with the role of psychology in health and
    illness.
  • Health psychology has as its goal a deeper
    understanding of psychological processes as an
    aid to improving physical health outcomes for
    individuals.
  • Health psychologists subscribe to a
    biopsychosocial model, which is a philosophical
    point of view that posits the importance and
    interrelatedness of biological, psychological,
    and social/societal factors in determining health.

12
Healthy habits
Environmental factors
Different responses to diseases and illness
Changing a persons health behavior
Coping styles
13
UnHealthy habits
Environmental factors
Different responses to diseases and illness
Changing a persons health behavior
Coping styles
14
Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
of the field of health psychology from the days
of the ancient Greeks
8000 BC Prehistoric medicine Based on cave paintings and symbolic artefacts Believed in spirit and supernatural forces Drinking blood of wild animals would give powers to the hunters or eating special plants Primary brain surgery, trepanning, would have allowed the evil spirits to leave a sick person.
15
Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
of the field of health psychology from the days
of the ancient Greeks
2000 BC Egyptian medicines Based on papyrus describing medical techniques similar to those used today Believed that the goddess Sekhmet cause or cure diseases and priests played a large part in Egyptian medicine Modern chemist prescription of ointments, potions, inhalers and pills Afterlife Mummification of bodies of pharaohs and important people. (knowledge of internal structures and organs, preserved in a jar and buried with the body)
16
Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
of the field of health psychology from the days
of the ancient Greeks
450BC to 300AD Greek and Roman Based on books Believed that the gods were punishing people. Hippocrates Hippocratic oath 4 humors blood, phlegm, black bile, yellow bile. Disease imbalance Diagnosis careful case histories from the patients. (similar to nowadays examination)
17
Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
of the field of health psychology from the days
of the ancient Greeks
500-1400 AD The Middle Ages After the fall of the Roman Empire, public hygiene, bath, clean water drinking was lost. Starvation, diseases, and epidemic Punishment from God comforted and taken care of by the religious nursing staff Herbal and potions remedies Operations amputations, setting broken bones, replacing dislocations and binding wounds Opium used as an anesthetic
18
Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
of the field of health psychology from the days
of the ancient Greeks
700- 1500 Arabic medicines The Encyclopedia of medicine from Ibn Sina (formulation of medicines, diagnosis, therapies) After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Arabic world was the center of the scientific and medical knowledge Regulation of diet, exercise, and the prescription of medicinal herbs in treatment of their patients. Hospital were not only for the wealthy
19
Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
of the field of health psychology from the days
of the ancient Greeks
1400- 1700 the Renaissance Gutember printing press, book reproduced and Arabic books translated Andreas Vesalius and Leonardo Da Vinci dissected human bodies and were called sinners and criminals by the church Four humors prevailed New continents spread the diseases! Surgery improved and techniques such as tying wounds to stop bleeding begun to be used
20
Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
of the field of health psychology from the days
of the ancient Greeks
1700-1900 18th and 19th centuries Industrial revolution from small villages to towns, poor sanitation and overcrowded Dutch clockmaker, Anton Van Leeuwenhoek first microscope Louis Pasteur Microbiology and pharmaceutical discovering bacteria and germs 80 of the soldiers died from infection until antiseptic technique were discovered Jenner in 1796 cowpox ) no smallpox VACCINATION!
21
Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
of the field of health psychology from the days
of the ancient Greeks
1700-1900 18th and 19th centuries Immune system X-rays Modern scanners
22
Be able to trace (in general terms) the evolution
of the field of health psychology from the days
of the ancient Greeks
1900-2000 20th century Penicillin Insulin Technology DNA HIV/AIDS
23
Western medicine
  • Western medicine is based on scientific
    observation and experimentation. We no longer
    live in the mystical spirit world of the ancients
    but that does not mean that beliefs no longer
    play a part in healing. Many people still visit
    faith healers or follow alternative therapies
    that claim to tap into invisible forces of
    nature.

24
Understand the strengths and weaknesses of
different research methods in health psychology
  • Complex and sensitive nature (mind/matter)
  • Challenging subject
  • Definitive answers cannot be reached
  • Aiming at a better understanding
  • Sound design and methods are important for
    avoiding pitfalls and erroneous conclusion
  • True experimental, quasi experimental and
    correlational (p.10)

25
Read this cartoon...
Do you agree with the little boy's explanation?
What are the facts, the cause and the consequence?
Correlation does not imply causation!
Are the facts related to each other? Or do they
just occur simultaneously? Or which one would be
the cause of the second one? What if there was a
third factor?
26
Understand the strengths and weaknesses of
different research methods in health psychology
  • Retrospective data collection subjects are asked
    to report on something in the past and to recall
    what happened and how they experienced it
    (state-dependant memory)
  • Prospective research the predictor measure will
    be assessed well in advance of the outcome
  • Longitudinal conducted over time. Framingham
    Heart Study (p.15)
  • Cross-sectional measuring one variable in a
    large population

27
Be familiar with general medical terminology
  • P.20
  • Read the prefixes and focus on the one that are
    not clear and logical to you!

28
Be able to identify many of the different
positions that health psychologists fill and the
roles that they play
  • Independent clinicians
  • Consultants to health care teams, researchers
  • Training psychology, biology, chemistry,
    sociology, statistics, research methods, ethics
  • PhD postdoctoral training

29
Be able to describe the difference between a
Western and non-Western approach to medicine
Western Non-Western
Western medicine is based on scientific observation and experimentation. We no longer live in the mystical spirit world of the ancients but that does not mean that beliefs no longer play a part in healing. Inclusive and holistic Psychosocial aspects often addressed Promotion of health Low-tech Herbal therapies, acupuncture, acupressure, massage
30
Mind Body Connection
  • Animism the belief that every movement is caused
    by animating spirit
  • Monism the idea that the mind and body are one
    entity
  • Dualism the idea that mind and body are separate
    and independent entities

31
Be able to differentiate between health
psychology, psychosomatic medicine, and
behavioral medicine
  • Health psychology deeper understanding of
    psychological processes as an aid to improving
    physical health outcomes for individuals
  • Psychosomatic medicine proposed that certain
    factors caused specific diseases now it
    emphasizes that psychological factor contribute
    to a range of diseases
  • Behavioral medicine applied behavioral theory to
    health problems, usually focusing on changing
    specific health behaviors

32
Understand the ways in which changing patterns of
disease and illness, along with the emergence of
managed care, have affected our approach to health
  • More emphasis on prevention
  • Financial constraints limit the kind of treatment
    available
  • Not only physical health but also satisfaction
    and well-being
  • Biopsychosocial model

33
Promoting Health
34
BASIC PRINCIPLES IN PREVENTION
  • PREVENTION
  • Two Definitions
  • 1) Prevention is a proactive process which
    focuses on capacity-building for individuals,
    families, institutions, and organizations--
    including specifically identified high-risk
    individuals and/or groups within the population.
  • 2) Prevention is an active process of creating
    conditions and personal attributes that promote
    the well-being of people.
  • Prevention strategies may operate in the host,
    (e.g., individual, group), the agent, (e.g.,
    alcohol, cocaine), or the environment, (e.g.,
    university campus, city).

35
Three Levels of Prevention
  • Primary prevention Efforts to preclude the onset
    of substance abuse.
  • Targeted Prevention Efforts targeting
    individuals of groups which are characterized by
    identifiable risk factors for substance abuse.
  • Early Intervention Efforts targeting individuals
    or groups which are characterized by problematic
    use of alcohol or other drugs in order to reduce
    the likelihood that patterned abuse or dependence
    will develop.

36
Some basic premises regarding prevention have
been established
  • Prevention strategies must be comprehensively
    structured to reduce individual and environmental
    risk factors and to increase resiliency factors
    in high-risk populations.
  • Community involvement is a necessary component of
    an effective prevention strategy a shared
    relationship among all parties is essential in
    the promotion of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug
    prevention efforts.
  • Prevention must be intertwined with the general
    health care and social services delivery systems
    and it must provide for a full continuum of
    services.
  • Prevention approaches and messages that are
    tailored to differing populations groups are most
    effective.

37
Prevention Strategies
  • Information Dissemination This strategy
    provides for a.) awareness and knowledge of the
    nature and extent of unhealthy behavior b.) their
    effects on individuals, families, and communities
    c.) information to increase perceptions of risk
    associated unhealthy behavior d.) knowledge and
    awareness of prevention policies, programs, and
    e.) set and reinforce norms
  • Prevention Education This strategy aims to
    affect critical life and social skills, including
    decision making, refusal skills, critical
    analysis (for example, of media messages), and
    systemic and judgmental abilities.
  • Alternatives This strategy provides for the
    participation of targeted populations in
    activities that would encourage healthy choices.
    Constructive and healthy activities offset the
    attractive and/or otherwise meet the needs
    usually filled by, AOD use.
  • Problem Identification and Referral This
    strategy calls for identification, education, and
    counseling for those who have indulged in
    age-inappropriate behaviors. Activities under
    this strategy would include screening for
    tendencies toward unhealthy choices.
  • Community-Based Process This strategy aims to
    enhance the ability of the community to provide
    prevention and treatment services more
    effectively. Activities include organizing,
    planning, enhancing efficiency and effectiveness
    of services implementation, interagency
    collaboration, coalition building, and
    networking. Building healthy communities
    encourage healthy lifestyle choices.
  • Environmental Approach This strategy sets up or
    changes written and unwritten community
    standards, codes, and attitudes. Being aware of
    your community and environment and working
    proactively is an essential part of prevention
    efforts.

38
Web Resources
  • http//cwabacon.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/di
    matteo_ab/
  • http//www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/4/biology/a
    bpi/history/timeline.html
  • http//www.mo-media.com/plab/medterms/medterms_pre
    fixes.htm
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