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American History (1945-1980s)

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Title: American History (1945-1980s)


1
American History (1945-1980s)
  • Chapter 17

2
The Origins of the Cold War
  • Conflicts between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
    during WWII
  • Clash of interests between the two countries
    after WW?

3
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan
  • The Truman Doctrine
  • The Marshall Plan

4
Truman giving Truman Doctrine
5
  • On March 12, 1947, President Harry S. Truman
    presented this address before a joint session of
    Congress. His message, known as the Truman
    Doctrine, asked Congress for 400 million in
    military and economic assistance for Turkey and
    Greece.
  • President Truman declared, "It must be the policy
    of the United States to support free peoples who
    are resisting attempted subjugation by armed
    minorities or by outside pressures." The sanction
    of aid to Greece and Turkey by a Republican
    Congress indicated the beginning of a long and
    enduring bipartisan cold war foreign policy.

6
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7
The Berlin Blockade and the Founding of the NATO
  • The Berlin Blockade
  • The founding of the NATO

8
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10
Berlin Airlift
11
German men and women were removing the rubble
barricades between the American Sector and the
Soviet Sector of Berlin at the end of the Berlin
Blockade, May 1949.
12
U.S. Support of Chiang Kaishek and the Korean War
  • U.S. support of Chiang Kaishek
  • The founding of the People's Republic of China
  • The Korean War

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16
Korean War Chinese troops
17
McCarthyism
  • The comprehensive investigation initiated by
    President Truman
  • Joseph R. McCarthy and McCarthyism

18
  • Alger Hiss Educated at John Hopkins University
    and Harvard Law School .
  • He worked for the Supreme Court Justice, Oliver
    Wendell Holmes, before serving in the departments
    of Agriculture, Justice and State, in the
    administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Hiss
    also served as Roosevelt's adviser at the Yalta
    Conference in 1945. After working briefly as
    secretary-general of the United Nations, in 1949
    Hiss became president of the Carnegie Endowment
    for International Peace.
  • Alger Hiss died on 15th November, 1996

19
Senator Joseph McCarthy (left) with his attorney
Roy Cohn, at a House Un-American Activities
Committee hearing in 1951.
20
  • It should be noted, however, that a framework of
    laws, political force fields, anti-Red rhetoric
    and theatrical anti-Communist methods predated
    McCarthy's rise. He was first to discover neither
    the presence nor political value of the Red
    Menace.

21
  • From 1938 to 1942, in the era of the Nazi-Soviet
    Pact and the onset of World War II, the federal
    government's legislative and executive branches
    had set up programs to exclude Communists (and
    fascists) from federal jobs. The House of
    Representatives launched the Committee on
    Un-American Activities in 1938. The 1940 Smith
    Act outlawed seeking or advocating overthrow of
    government by force or violence.

22
  • In 1942 a loyalty program was instituted to weed
    Communists and other "subversives" out of
    government jobs. The Cold War heightened
    pressures to rein in Communist influences.
    President Truman instituted a tougher loyalty
    program in 1947. In 1948 his Justice Department
    prosecuted leaders of the Communist Party under
    the Smith Act. Congress passed the Internal
    Security Act in 1950.

23
The Civil Rights Movement (1950s)
  • The end of segregation in education
  • The end of segregation in public transportation

24
Brown v. Board of Education
  • In Topeka, Kansas, a black third-grader named
    Linda Brown had to walk one mile through a
    railroad switchyard to get to her black
    elementary school, even though a white elementary
    school was only seven blocks away. Linda's
    father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the
    white elementary school, but the principal of the
    school refused. Brown went to McKinley Burnett,
    the head of Topeka's branch of the National
    Association for the Advancement of Colored People
    (NAACP) and asked for help. The NAACP was eager
    to assist the Browns, as it had long wanted to
    challenge segregation in public schools. With
    Brown's complaint, it had "the right plaintiff at
    the right time." Other black parents joined
    Brown, and, in 1951, the NAACP requested an
    injunction that would forbid the segregation of
    Topeka's public schools.

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28
  • Although the famous court case, Brown vs. The
    Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, had
    declared that school segregation in the South was
    unconstitutional, many Southern states refused to
    integrate their schools. Little Rock Central High
    School in Arkansas was one such school.

29
  • After several years of stalling, it was to have
    the 1957 school year desegregated. On September
    2, the night before the first day of school,
    Governor Faubus announced that he had ordered the
    Arkansas National Guard to monitor the school.
    When a group of nine black students arrived at
    Central High on September 3, they were kept from
    entering by the National Guardsmen.

30
  • On September 20, an injunction(??)against
    Governor Faubus was issued and three days later
    the group of nine students returned to Central
    High School. Although the students were not
    physically injured, a mob of 1,000 townspeople
    prevented them from remaining at school. Finally,
    after many diplomatic efforts, President
    Eisenhower intervened militarily, ordering 1,000
    paratroopers and 10,000 National Guardsmen to
    Little Rock, and on September 25, Central High
    School was desegregated.

31
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32
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929
    April 4, 1968) was the most famous leader of the
    American civil rights movement, a political
    activist, a Baptist minister, and was one of
    America's greatest orators.

33
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34
American SocietyDuring the Postwar boom
(1945-1960s)
  • The economic boom
  • The baby boom

35
The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
  • Khrushchev and missile sites in Cuba
  • President Kennedy and the blockade
  • Removal of missiles from Cuba

36

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38
The Vietnam War (1950-75)
  • Beginning of American involvement in Vietnam
  • Outbreak of the Civil War in the south
  • "Americanization" of the war
  • "Vietnamization" of the war and the cease-fire
    agreement
  • Impact of the Vietnam War on American society

39
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41
United States' Relations with China
  • The Taiwan problem and U.S. support of Chiang
    Kaishek
  • Change in U.S. policy towards China and Nixon's
    visit
  • Three conditions for normalization and remaining
    problems

42
  • The Taiwan problem and U.S. support of Chiang
    Kaishek
  • Since Truman sent the 7th Fleet to the Taiwan
    Straits and declared that the status of Taiwan
    was undecided, the Taiwan problem had been a key
    problem in U.S.-China relations.

43
  • In December 1954, the U.S. government signed a
    Mutual Defense Treaty with the Chiang Kaishek
    regime on Taiwan, committing itself to the
    defense of Taiwan and Penghu.
  • In the two Taiwan Straits crises of 1954 and
    1958, the U.S. provided Chiang with military aid
    considered, on several occasions, the use of
    tactical nuclear weapons against military targets
    on Mainland China.

44
Change in U.S. policy towards China and Nixon's
visit
  • In the late 1960s and early 1970s, with the deep
    involvement in the Vietnam War and the expansion
    of influence of the Soviet Union in the world,
    the U.S. began to look for a way to improve
    relations with China so as to get China's help
    for its withdrawal from South Vietnam and to work
    with China against Soviet expansion.

45
  • In February 1972, President Nixon visited China
    and the two countries issued the Shanghai
    Communiqué. The visit ended twenty-three years of
    hostility and led to the establishment of
    diplomatic relations in January 1979.

46
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47
Three conditions for normalization
  • From 1972 to 1979, the key problem that
    affected the progress in U.S.-China relations
    remained the Taiwan problem. The Chinese side
    insisted that, to establish diplomatic relations,
    the U.S. must withdraw its troops from Taiwan and
    the Taiwan Straits, end diplomatic relations with
    Taiwan and cancel the Mutual Defense Treaty. It
    was not until November 1978 that the Carter
    Administration finally accepted the three
    conditions.

48
Remaining problems
  • But soon after the establishment of diplomatic
    relations, Congress, supported by the Carter
    Administration, adopted the Taiwan Relations Act
    which, in words and spirit, violates the spirit
    of the agreement for the establishment of
    diplomatic relations.

49
Reform, Radicalism and Disappointment (1961-1973)
  • Reform-a period of liberal atmosphere
  • Radicalism and Disappointment

50
Reform-a period of liberal atmosphere
  • The New Frontier
  • The term New Frontier was used by John F. Kennedy
    in his acceptance speech in 1960 to the
    Democratic National Convention at the Los Angeles
    Memorial Coliseum as the Democratic nominee.
    Originally just a slogan to inspire America to
    get behind him, the phrase developed into a label
    for his administration's domestic and foreign
    programs.
  • We stand at the edge of a New Frontierthe
    frontier of unfulfilled hopes and dreams. It will
    deal with unsolved problems of peace and war,
    unconquered pockets of ignorance and prejudice,
    unanswered questions of poverty and surplus.

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52
  • Lyndon Johnson
  • a Texan who was majority leader in the Senate
    before becoming Kennedy's vice president, was a
    masterful politician. As president, he wanted to
    use his power aggressively to eliminate poverty
    and spread the benefits of prosperity to all.

53
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Lyndon Johnson was
    determined to secure the measures that Kennedy
    had sought. Immediate priorities were bills to
    reduce taxes and guarantee civil rights. Using
    his skills of persuasion and calling on the
    legislators' respect for the slain president, in
    1964 Johnson succeeded in gaining passage of the
    Civil Rights Bill. Introduced by Kennedy, it was
    the most far-reaching piece of civil rights
    legislation enacted since Reconstruction. The
    bill outlawed discrimination not only in public
    housing, but also in employment on the basis of
    race, color, religion, sex or national origin.

54
  • On April 24, 1964, Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson
    visited Inez, Ky., and the property of Tommy
    Fletcher, a father of eight whose living
    conditions epitomized the squalor that
    characterized Appalachia for decades. On
    Fletcher's porch, Johnson declared the War on
    Poverty.

55
  • The War on Poverty The War on Poverty greatly
    reduced hunger and suffering in the United
    States. Especially significant was the doubling
    of federal spending on social security, health,
    welfare, and education, that occurred between
    1965 and 1970.

56
  • On the economic front, Johnson pushed
    successfully for a tax cut, then pressed for a
    poverty program Kennedy had initiated. "This
    administration today, here and now, declares
    unconditional war on poverty in America," he
    announced. The Office of Economic Opportunity
    provided training for the poor and established
    various community-action programs to give the
    poor themselves a voice in housing, health and
    education programs.

57
  • Medical care came next. Truman had proposed a
    centralized scheme more than 20 years earlier,
    but had failed to gain congressional passage.
    Under Johnson's leadership, Congress enacted
    Medicare, a health insurance program for the
    elderly, and Medicaid, a program providing
    health-care assistance for the poor.
  • Similarly, Johnson succeeded in the effort to
    provide aid for elementary and secondary
    schooling where Kennedy had failed. The measure
    that was enacted gave money to the states based
    on the number of their children from low-income
    families. Funds could be used to assist public-
    and private-school children alike.

58
Radicalism and Disappointment
  • The rise of Black Power The period of liberal
    atmosphere was short-lived. As liberal laws were
    resisted by white supremacists and actual
    benefits to the blacks were slow in coming, some
    black civil rights activists proclaimed the rise
    of Black Power. The black Muslims led by Malcolm
    X advocated violence in self-defense and
    attempted to separate themselves from white
    society. The wellspring of this new militancy was
    Black Nationalism, the concept that black people
    everywhere in the world shared a unique history
    and cultural heritage that set them apart from
    whites.

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60
  • Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
  • Free Speech Movement
  • Anti-Vietnam War Movement
  • The National Organization for Women (NOW)

61
  • The Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
  • In 1962, a group of radical students met in Port
    Huron, Michigan to form the Students for a
    Democratic Society.
  • The Port Huron Statement adopted the position of
    "anti-anti-Communism," refusing to support the
    West in the Cold War. The statement denounced
    bigotry in the United States, world hunger and
    American abundance, materialism, personal
    alienation, industrialization, the threat of
    nuclear war, military spending, and the Cold War.

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63
The Free Speech Movement (FSM)
  • a student protest which took place during the
    1964-1965 school year on the campus of the
    University of California, Berkeley under the
    informal leadership of several students. In
    protests unprecedented at the time, students
    insisted that the university administration lift
    a ban on on-campus political activities and
    acknowledge the students' right to free speech
    and academic freedom.

64
Students protest for free speech on the Berkeley
campus
65
Anti-Vietnam War Movement
  • political movement protesting United States
    involvement in the Vietnam War (1959-1975). The
    anti-Vietnam War movement was the most vocal and
    sustained antiwar movement in the nations
    history. It began in the early 1960s in response
    to increased U.S. participation in Vietnam. The
    movement eventually encompassed thousands of
    different groups and millions of people who
    participated in loosely organized protests to
    convince their fellow citizens, as well as their
    elected officials, that the war was wrong. By
    1972 opposition to U.S. involvement in Vietnam
    had become a mainstream, if still controversial,
    political viewpoint.

66
anti-Vietnam war demonstration
67
  • The Counterculture In the wake of the Free
    Speech Movement and the anti-Vietnam War Movement
    appeared the movement of Counterculture which
    revolted against the moral values, the aesthetic
    standards, the personal behavior and the social
    relations of conventional society.
    Revolutionaries like Mao Zedong and Fidel Castro
    became models for some of them, while millions of
    college students experimented with marijuana and
    hallucinogenic drugs. And music, particularly
    rock music, became the chief vehicle for the
    counterculture attack on the status quo.

68
  • The National Organization for Women (NOW)
    Following the adoption of the 19th Amendment in
    1920, the women's rights movement had faded. But
    in the 1960s feminism was reborn. In the Feminine
    Mystique (1963), Betty Friedan wrote that the
    American home had become a "comfortable
    concentration camp". This book inspired the
    founding in 1966 of the National Organization of
    Women, which was a reform organization battling
    for equal rights in partnership with men. This
    radical movement produced a new literature in
    which feminists challenged everything from
    women's economic, political, and legal inequality
    to sexual double standards and sex role
    stereotypes.

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70
Watergate Scandal (1971-73)
  • The illegal breaking into the Watergate
  • The taping system in the White House and the
    resignation of Nixon
  • Impact of the Watergate Scandal

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  • The illegal breaking into the Watergate
  • On the night of June 17, 1972, police at the
    Watergate apartment-office complex in Washington
    D.C. arrested five men who illegally broke into
    the offices of the Democratic National Committee.
    Later, these five men proved to be working for
    the Republican Richard Nixon's Committee to
    re-elect the President. The illegal breaking
    turned out to be part of an official plot to
    defeat the Democrats in an election.

74
  • The taping system in the White House and the
    resignation of Nixon
  • In 1973, one of Nixon's aides, Alexander
    Butterfield, disclosed that Nixon had a taping
    system installed in the White House, and that
    conversations about Watergate had been recorded.
    After refusing to surrender his tapes, Nixon was
    taken to court by the Watergate special
    investigator. On August 5, Nixon finally handed
    over the complete tapes to the House Judiciary
    Committee. Forty days later, Nixon resigned, the
    first president to do so in U.S. history.

75
  • Impact of the Watergate Scandal
  • After Watergate, Americans' disillusionment
    grew. Most had grown up believing their system
    was the most powerful, the best, and the most
    democratic in the history of humankind. By the
    early 1980s, far fewer Americans clung to such
    beliefs, and many wondered why they had not shed
    their innocence earlier.

76
New Conservatism and the Election of Ronald
Reagan
  • Declining of American economy and prestige
  • The New Right and their program

77
  • Declining of American economy and prestige
  • From the mid-seventies onwards, the U.S. suffered
    from "stagflation" and inflation at the same
    time. Economic growth was slowing, while prices
    and unemployment were rising. The income of
    American working people went down with the
    declining of the real spendable earnings. The
    economic recession affected a large section of
    the middle class who became more and more
    disappointed and dissatisfied.

78
  • Besides, as a result of the Vietnam War and the
    Watergate scandal, American prestige became much
    lower abroad, and in the face of Soviet
    aggressive expansion the U.S. seemed impotent.
    This made many Americans feel humiliated and want
    to strike back.

79
  • The New Right and their program
  • In the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a
    rise in New Right conservatism. The New Right
    consists of two groups of people the firm
    believers of Protestant religious teachings who
    were more concerned with social and moral issues
    and the intellectuals who were more concerned
    with political and foreign policy issues.

80
  • The New Right demanded equal time in school for
    the teaching of man created by God in contrast to
    the teaching of evolution, opposed abortion and
    "affirmative action (i.e. preferential treatment
    for minorities and women in education and
    employment), and demanded tax cuts, social
    security spending cuts, and the rebuilding of
    American military strength.

81
  • It was this trend of conservatism that brought
    Ronald Reagan into the White House in 1981.

82
  • On February 6, 1911, Ronald Wilson Reagan was
    born to Nelle and John Reagan in Tampico,
    Illinois. He attended high school in nearby Dixon
    and then worked his way through Eureka College.
    There, he studied economics and sociology, played
    on the football team, and acted in school plays.
    Upon graduation, he became a radio sports
    announcer. A screen test in 1937 won him a
    contract in Hollywood. During the next two
    decades he appeared in 53 films.

83
  • As president of the Screen Actors Guild, Reagan
    became embroiled in disputes over the issue of
    Communism in the film industry his political
    views shifted from liberal to conservative. He
    toured the country as a television host, becoming
    a spokesman for conservatism. In 1966 he was
    elected Governor of California by a margin of a
    million votes he was re-elected in 1970.

84
  • Ronald Reagan won the Republican Presidential
    nomination in 1980 and chose as his running mate
    former Texas Congressman and United Nations
    Ambassador George Bush. Voters troubled by
    inflation and by the year-long confinement of
    Americans in Iran swept the Republican ticket
    into office. Reagan won 489 electoral votes to 49
    for President Jimmy Carter.

85
  • On January 20, 1981, Reagan took office. Only 69
    days later he was shot by a would-be assassin,
    but quickly recovered and returned to duty. His
    grace and wit during the dangerous incident
    caused his popularity to soar.

86
  • Dealing skillfully with Congress, Reagan obtained
    legislation to stimulate economic growth, curb
    inflation, increase employment, and strengthen
    national defense. He embarked upon a course of
    cutting taxes and Government expenditures,
    refusing to deviate from it when the
    strengthening of defense forces led to a large
    deficit.

87
  • A renewal of national self-confidence by 1984
    helped Reagan and Bush win a second term with an
    unprecedented number of electoral votes. Their
    victory turned away Democratic challengers Walter
    F. Mondale and Geraldine Ferraro.

88
  • Have you mastered these points?

89
  • 1. Conflicts arose between the United States and
    the Soviet Union because___.
  • A. their common enemies Nazi Germany and Japan
    were defeated
  • B. They had very different concepts of postwar
    world order
  • C. the United States wanted cooperation with
    the Soviet Union but the Soviet Union refused.
  • D. the soviet Union wanted cooperation with the
    United States but the Untied States refused

90
  • 2. The essence of the Truman Doctrine was ______.
  • A. to provide economic and military support for
    any country which was fighting internal Communist
    rebels or external Communist pressure
  • B. to provide aid for Greece and Turkey which
    were fighting against Communism
  • C. to provide economic aid to needy countries
  • D. to give moral support to the struggle of free
    people

91
  • 3. President Truman on March 21, 1947 issued an
    executive order, initiating a comprehensive
    investigation of the loyalty of all federal
    employees. This was the beginning of ______.
  • A. McCarthyism
  • B. Clearing out Soviet spies
  • C. widespread persecution of Communists and
    progressive people
  • D. persecution of federal employees

92
  • 4. The Supreme Court played a role in whipping up
    the anticommunist hysteria by ______.
  • A. upholding the constitutionality of the Smith
    Act
  • B. convicting 11 high-ranking Communist leaders
  • C. supporting the trial of Alger Hiss
  • D. supporting President Truman's executive order

93
  • 5. When ______,this was the beginning of American
    involvement in Vietnam.
  • A. the United States decided to provide France
    with military aid in their fight in Vietnam
  • B. the United States started to provide aid for
    the South Vietnamese government after the Geneva
    Conference in 1854
  • C. the United States sent more and more
    military advisers to South Vietnam
  • D. the United States began to Americanize the
    war in Vietnam
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