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Sign Language

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Sign Language By: Shannon Chesna ASL American Sign Language uses signs in visual or spatial form. Independent of English Derived from French Sign Language 5 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sign Language


1
Sign Language
  • By Shannon Chesna

2
ASL
  • American Sign Language uses signs in visual or
    spatial form.
  • Independent of English
  • Derived from French Sign Language
  • 5 parameters of signs
  • Hand configuration, place articulation, movement,
    orientation (palm up or down), and facial
    expression

3
Differences from Spoken Language
  • Most spoken languages are arbitrary
  • No relationship between set of sounds and the
    object that the sound represents
  • Example catepillar (big word for small object)
  • ASL is mainly iconic
  • The signs represent the objects
  • Example tree (forearm upright with hand spread)
  • Even though these signs may represent something,
    they are not always transparent in meaning.
  • Klima and Bellugi performed a study where results
    showed that only 10 of iconic symbols were
    identified by hearing observers.

4
Differences cont.
  • Frishberg claimed that the level of iconicity has
    declined in the past 200 years.
  • To become more conventionalized
  • Example Home used to be the signs eat followed
    by sleep. Now it is cupping your hand and
    touching two places on your cheek.
  • ASL is now a dual system of reference
  • Part iconic and part arbitrary

5
Differences cont.
  • In spoken languages there are just 1 serial
    stream of phonemes (sequential)
  • Sign Language can have multiple things going on
    at the same time (simultaneous)
  • ASL has its own morphology (rules for creation of
    words), phonetics (rules for hand shapes), and
    grammar that are unlike spoken languages

6
Differences cont.
  • Spoken languages have sound as basic building
    block for emotion or feeling
  • Sign language is visual so it relies on facial
    expressions and movement to convey emotion

7
Similarities to Spoken Language
  • Morphology
  • Distinctions from first and second person are
    differentiated by movement
  • Ex ask me- movement of sign towards self and
    ask you- movement of sign away from self
  • Reciprocity is whether the subject is the cause
    or recipient of the object or if it is mutual
  • Ex They pinched each other- sign with movement
    back and forth across signers body
  • English uses the distinction with pronouns

8
Similarities
  • English uses subject-verb-object by word order
  • ASL sometimes uses this with verbs that need a
    direct object, they are signed subject-object-verb
    .

9
Similarities
  • ASL uses spatial processes to indicate certain
    nouns
  • Ex He said he hit him, and then fell down.
  • In English this is ambiguous but because ASL uses
    these spatial processes, it is a clear
    interpretation.

10
Error similarities
  • Thompson, Emmory, and Gollan Study
  • Found the tip of the finger experiences to be
    similar to tip of the tongue experience.
  • Signers were more likely to retrieve a target
    signs hand configuration and place of
    articulation than its movement.
  • Results provide evidence that parameters are
    independent

11
Error similarities
  • Slip of the tongue errors occur in sign language
    as well however slips of hand
  • Ex Deaf woman
  • Points to possibility that both types of
    languages take form because of basic cognitive
    limits on how or how much linguistic information
    may be structure or used.

12
Syntax
  • Primarily conveyed through a combination of word
    order and non-manual features
  • Pro-drop and doesnt have a capula (linking to
    be verb)
  • Ex My hair is wet. Signs- MY HAIR WET.

13
Syntactic word order
  • Places Adj. after noun
  • Ex I have brown dogDOG BROWN I HAVE
  • Adv. Occur before verbs
  • Ex I enter the house quietly HOUSE I QUIET
    ENTER
  • Modal verbs come after main verb of clause
  • Ex I can go to the store for you. FOR YOU,
    STORE I GO CAN

14
Syntax
  • Negation
  • Ex I dont have any dogs DOG I HAVE NONE
  • Questions
  • Ex What are you eating? YOU EAT WHAT?
  • Raised eyebrows are used for rhetorical questions
  • Subject pronoun tags
  • Ex The boy fell downBOY FALL

15
Syntax
  • Conjunctions
  • and does not exist in ASL instead there are two
    sentences combined by a short pause. or and
    but often signed with slight shoulder twist
  • Ex I have two Cats and they are named Billy and
    Bob. CAT TWO I HAVE. NAME B-I-L-L-Y B-O-B
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