Variables that affect the nature of reading - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Variables that affect the nature of reading

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A reader's linguistic knowledge continues to develop with age and experience: ... George Washington confessed to his father that he had cut down a cherry tree. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Variables that affect the nature of reading


1
Variables that affect the nature of reading
  • Reader Variables
  • (factors within the reader)

2
Schemata and background knowledge
  • The nature of the knowledge that readers have
    will influence not only what they remember of
    text, but the product their understanding of
    the text and the way they process it.
  • Schemata are seen as interlocking mental
    structures representing readers knowledge.
  • When readers process text, they integrate the new
    information from the text into their preexisting
    schemata. More than that, their schemata
    influence how they recognize information as well
    as how they store it.

3
Formal schemata
  • knowledge of language and linguistic
    conventions, including knowledge of how texts are
    organized, and what main features of particular
    genres are.

4
Knowledge of language
  • A readers linguistic knowledge continues to
    develop with age and experience vocabulary size
    and depth develop, knowledge of the conventions
    associated with particular types of text develops
    well into adulthood, and the ability to process
    the more complex linguistic structures associated
    especially with written language must inevitable
    develop with increasing literacy.
  • Unknown words will obviously affect comprehension
    and take the pleasure out of reading.

5
Knowledge of language
  • Readers need to know 95 of the words in text to
    gain adequate comprehension and to be able to
    guess unknown words from context.
  • What learners need to know in order to read texts
    in their subject disciplines was knowledge of the
    language of that discipline initially lexis, and
    then later syntactic and rhetorical features.

6
Knowledge of genre / text type
7
Content schemata
  • Readers need knowledge about the content of the
    passage to be able to understand it. Such
    knowledge does not simply need to be available
    it needs to be activated by the reader, or the
    text, if it is to be used in accurate
    understanding.

8
Knowledge of subject matter / topic
  • If one knows absolutely nothing about the topic
    of a text, one will find it difficult to process.
  • Readers will find it easier to read texts in
    areas they are familiar with, for example those
    they have studied.
  • Subject matter familiarity.
  • Some texts outside their subject disciplines
    proved easier to understand than texts within the
    disciplines, despite being of roughly equivalent
    difficulty.

9
Knowledge of the world
  • Background knowledge, or knowledge of how the
    world works, has an effect is essential to
    reading.
  • Example The policeman held up his hand and the
    car stopped.
  • Assumed that the car has a driver, and a
    policeman holding up his hand is a signal to the
    driver to stop the car.

10
Cultural knowledge
  • World knowledge typically refers to your world
    the way your world works. Such knowledge may be
    limited.
  • Other peoples worlds may work differently due to
    personal history and experiences unique to one
    person.
  • Subjects were able to recall more, and more
    accurately, from the familiar setting than the
    unfamiliar one.
  • Reading texts in unfamiliar cultural settings can
    result in difficulty of processing and recalling.

11
Reader skills and abilities
  • Abilities to learn new knowledge and process
    information.
  • Much of reading is a general cognitive,
    problem-solving ability.
  • Skills recalling word meanings, drawing
    inferences from the content recognizing a
    writers purpose, tone and mod following the
    structure of the passage.

12
Reader purpose in reading
  • The reason you are reading a text will influence
    the way you read it, the skills you require or
    use, and the ultimate understanding and recall
    you have of that text.
  • Objectives that direct students attention to
    aspects of text they would otherwise ignore have
    been shown to be somewhat effective in enhancing
    comprehension.
  • Students are encouraged to read the questions
    before they process text.

13
Text Variables(aspects of the text)
  • Text topic and content
  • Text type and genre
  • Literary and non-literary texts
  • Text organization

14
1.Text topic and content
  • 1.1 Concrete texts
  • Describing real objects, events or activities
    imaginable, interesting and readable.
  • 1.2 Texts of everyday topics
  • Located in familiar settings
  • preferable and available

15
1.Text topic and content
  • 1.3 Non-specialized texts of
  • empirical studies
  • Arts, humanities and social science of
    stronger possibility to read popular fiction,
    journalism,advertisements and simple expository
    prose than scientific and technical texts

16
1.Text topic and content
  • 1.4 Texts of moderate
  • explicitly- stated information
  • More clearly stated less inference is
    needed
  • Exception legal texts texts appeal to
    commonly held assumptions are easier to process

17
2. Text type and genre
  • 2.1 Narrative texts than
  • expository ones are more
  • recommended
  • Conventionalized text units,
  • simpler story grammars,
  • seeing scenes in head
  • facilitate comprehension

18
3. Text organization
  • 3.1 Two types
  • Chronological ordering
  • Texts organized according to the sequence of
    events easier to understand

19
3. Text organization
  • Spatial ordering
  • Descriptions of objects that follow a clear
    logical sequence, from outside in, or left to
    right
  • easier to recall and understand

20
3. Text organization
  • 3.2 Coherent texts are much
  • easier to comprehend
  • Texts presenting facts with little explanation
    of relationships between them enable
    readers to make many connecting inferences and
    induce schemata

21
3. Text organization
  • 3.3 Texts with cohesive ties
  • Lack of connectives may have weak effects to
    make bridging inferences since conjunctions do
    facilitate discourse processing
  • average-ability readers vs. less familiar
    topics esp.

22
Question Types-
  • Traditional paper-and-pencil test

23
Cloze Types
  • Rational deletion ( selected deletion)
  • ?Discrete-point testing
  • ?Tends to test grammar abilities
  • ?Strengths
  • A better understanding of what is tested
  • Useful in the entrance exam
  • ?Weaknesses
  • Poor reading comprehension
  • Only for the test

24
Cloze Types
  • Fixed ratio deletion (nth word deletion)
  • ?Integrative testing
  • ?Test one or more levels of language
  • ?Strengths
  • Easy to design
  • Better reading comprehension
  • ?Weaknesses
  • Too restrictive
  • Hard to score

25
Sample of Cloze Test
  • Most airplane crashes occur unexpectedly
    during takeoffs and landings. Although airplanes
    seldom break up on impact, they generally (21)
    immediately. Most fatalities are due to smoke
    (22) .
  • 21. (A) build a fire (B) set fire (C)
    catch fire (D)
  • cease fire
  • 22. (A) inhibition (B) exhibition (C)
    exhalation (D)
  • inhalation

26
Sample of Cloze Test
  • Since crashes usually occur with little
    or no warning. It is best to prepare (23) for
    the unthinkable. After (24) an airplane,
    study as much safety information as possible.
    (25) the four emergency exists that are
    nearest to your seat and know how they operate.
    Instructions are printed on the safety
    information card which is located In the each
    seat-pocket. The card also provides valuable
    information about such things as flotation
    collars and life rafts.
  • 23. (A) in advance (B) on purpose (C) right
    away (D) once
  • in a blue moon
  • 24. (A) boarding (B) landing (C) embarking
    (D) disembarking
  • 25. (A)Located (B) Locate (C) locating
    (D) To locate

27
Multiple-choice
  • Strengths
  • ?Easy and fast to score
  • ?Objectively
  • ?Reduce the chance of guessing correct answer in
    comparison to true-false items
  • ?Students preference
  • Weaknesses
  • ?Subjective judgment hides under the appearance
    of objectiveness
  • ?Hard to design

28
Sample of Multiple-choice
  • Have you ever told somebody one of the
    following facts?
  • Some people never dream. Lightning never
    strikes in the same place twice. Until
    Columbus, everybody thought the world was flat.
    William Tell shot an arrow through an apple on
    top of his sons head. George Washington
    confessed to his father that he had cut down a
    cherry tree.
  • None of them is true! Everybody dreams
    every night some people just cant remember
    their dreams. The Eiffel Tower is just one
    example of a structure that has been stuck many
    times by lightning. A thousand years before
    Columbus, there were scholars who, after much
    study, thought the world was round by Columbus
    time, most educated people agreed. That famous
    Swiss hero William Tell never existed! Legends
    about people shooting apples are common in
    Switzerland and other countries. George
    Washington never cut down a cherry tree a writer
    of a biography about Washington invented that
    story.
  • Now, people often say that heroes can
    sleep standing up but is this true?

29
Sample of Multiple-choice
  • 53. The best title is
  • (A) Facts Everyone Knows. (B)
    Remembering Dreams.
  • (C) Facts That Arent True. (D)
    Heroes of history
  • 54. The story about George Washington was made up
    by
  • (A) a biographer. (B)
    Washington himself.
  • (C) a Swiss storyteller (D)
    Washingtons father
  • 55. The story suggests that the answer to the
    last question
  • (A) is yes. (B)
    is no.
  • (C) is well-known (D)cannot
    be proven.

30
Non-paper-and-pencil Reading Assessment
Techniques used in the informal assessment of
readers
  • Techniques for instruction-based ongoing
    assessment of readers, especially those who are
    learning to read, or those with particular
    reading disability.

31
  • 1. Read Aloud The learners need to read some
    certain texts loudly. (Different from reading
    silently.)
  • Strength Teacher can find which word or
    which part that students are not familiar with.
  • Weakness
  • 1.Some learners or readers are too shy to perform
    well in public.
  • 2. It is a subjective and impressionistic
    judgment to students.
  • 3. Teacher dont know if students understand or
    not.

32
  • 2. Answer the questions on a passage (possibly
    in pairs, orally) The teacher can ask learners
    some questions related to the texts.
  • StrengthIt is easy to find out the learners
    abilities of reading comprehension.
  • Weakness The learners need time to response.
    It is sometimes time-consuming.

33
  • 3. Notes from Classroom Observation Teachers
    frequently keep records of their learners
    performance, based on observation and description
    of classroom behaviors.
  • Strength
  • It is a fairly comprehensible profile and a
    record of monitored progress.
  • It is easy to see the improvement and reading
    diets of student (how much can they read during a
    particular period).
  • Weakness It may include some subjective
    points of view from teacher to certain students.

34
  • 4. Group Reviews/Meetings Forming some groups to
    discuss the content of a passage.
  • Strength
  • It is one of the simplest and most effective ways
    of obtaining a wealth of information.
  • It can help to solve individual difficulties.
    Besides, students can learn better reading habits
    or strategies from their peers.
  • Weakness Students can be misled by their
    group members.

35
  • 5. Interviews/Conferences with students
  • Strength It can reveal students reading
    disabilities or difficulties.
  • Weakness
  • Contributions of group members may not be fair.
  • Some people may not feel comfortable or easy to
    have conference with the teacher.
  • If the teacher asked too many closed questions,
    it would not be very useful for students reading
    comprehension. Open-ended and Wh-questions are
    recommended.
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