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Criminal Justice Today


Chapter 1 Criminal Justice Today * * * 3 * 3 * 9 * 8 18 18 * 7 17 17 * 8 18 18 * 8 18 18 * 11 20 20 * 11 20 20 * 11 20 20 * 4 7 7 Could also mention the Commissions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Criminal Justice Today

Chapter 1
  • Criminal Justice Today

Chapter Objectives
  • Define crime and the different types of crime.
  • Outline the three levels of law enforcement.
  • List the three classifications of crime according
    to the seriousness of the offense.
  • Describe the Law Enforcement Assistance
    Administration and the LEEP Program.
  • Explain the history of criminal justice education
    in the United States.
  • Explain Californias first crime wave and its
    impact on the state.
  • Describe the difference between a crime of
    commission and a crime of omission.
  • Know the number of counties that make up the
    State of California.

What is crime
  • A phenomenon of Society
  • Each society decides what conduct is criminal
  • Society also determines
  • enforcement
  • adjudication
  • punishment

What is crime
  • It its simplest definition, crime is any
    specific act prohibited by law for which society
    has provided a formally sanctioned punishment.
    This can include the failure of a person to
    perform an act specifically required by law.
  • If we were alone on an island, would we need laws?

The Rule of Law
  • The United States is a country governed by the
    rule of law.
  • Choosing which laws to abide by and which ignore
    is not a privilege that is granted to anyone in a
    society supported by the rule of law.
  • Its why individuals will do almost anything to
    reach our shores. They know the rule of law
    promotes a civil society.
  • The United States has 5,525 miles of border with
    Canada and 1,989 miles with Mexico.
  • The busiest border crossing in the world is the
    United States Mexico crossing at San Ysidro,

Coming to America
Does anyone know where this inscription is
Coming to America
Methods of entry into the United States has
changed over years but not the desire.
Coming to America
Crime is not new
  • 1849 California Gold Rush
  • Californias first crime wave
  • 89,000 Miners
  • 20 dead in first six months (mostly homicide)
  • Crime rate led to the creation of our states
    first prison.

San Quentin Prison
  • Currently houses death row
  • Inmates with AIDS
  • Serves as a classification facility for all other
    state prisons

What is crime
  • Before the criminal justice system can function
    we must first define what is

What is crime
  • Burglary
  • Murder
  • Robbery
  • Grand Theft
  • Auto Theft

It is also
  • Sneaking into a movie theater
  • Taking towels from a hotel
  • Illegal parking
  • Littering
  • Skateboarding in unlawful areas

California Penal Code Section 15
  • A crime or public offense is an act committed or
    omitted in violation of a law forbidding or
    commanding it and to which is annexed, upon
    conviction, either of the following punishments
  • Death or
  • Imprisonment
  • Fine
  • Removal from office
  • Disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of
    honor, trust, or profit in this state

California Penal Code Section 15
A crime or public offense is an act committed or
omitted in violation of a law forbidding or
commanding it. Research Section 15 here. Men,
check your registration status by clicking
As society becomes more complex, so do our laws
  • In 1990, California became the first state to
    enact a specific stalking law.
  • Research California Penal Code Section 646.9

As society becomes more complex, so do our laws
As society becomes more complex, so do our laws
As society becomes more complex, so do our laws
Types of Offenses
  • Crimes are classified by the seriousness of the
    offenses as follows
  • A felony is the most serious offense, for which
    the offender may be sentenced to state prison or
    death. Felonies generally include violent
    crimes, sex offenses, and many types of drug and
    property violations.

Types of Offenses
  • A misdemeanor is a less serious offense for which
    the offender may be sentenced to probation, up to
    one year in county jail, a fine, or some
    combination of the three. Misdemeanors generally
    include crimes such as assault and battery, petty
    theft, and public drunkenness.

Types of Offenses
  • An infraction is the least serious offense and is
    generally punishable only by a fine. Many motor
    vehicle violations are considered infractions.

Most of us are familiar with this legal document.
Types of Crime
  • Violent Crime
  • Property Crime (the most common form of criminal
  • Public Order Crime
  • High-Tech Crime
  • Organized Crime
  • White-collar Crime

What Stands between the Criminal and the People?
What Stands Between the Criminal and the People?
Criminal Justice System
Charlie Manson
  • Manson Family
  • First of the celebrity serial killers
  • End of the Flower Power 60s
  • Arrested by LA Sheriffs Deputies in 1969 at the
    Spahn Movie Ranch
  • You can read more about Charlie Manson and his
    family by clicking here.

Spahn Movie Ranch
Raid on Spahn Ranch
Raid on Spahn Ranch
Raid on Spahn Ranch
  • Door removed and booked as evidence in Sharon
    Tate murder
  • You can clearly see the Helter Sclder spelled
    wrong in blood from the Tate residence.

Components of the Criminal Justice System
Components of Criminal Justice
The Criminal Justice System
The Criminal Justice SystemPurpose and Goals
  • To control crime
  • To prevent crime
  • To provide and maintain justice

Structure of the Criminal Justice System
  • Police
  • Local Law Enforcement
  • State Law Enforcement
  • Federal Law Enforcement
  • Courts
  • State Courts
  • Federal Courts

Structure of the Criminal Justice System
  • Corrections
  • Federal Prison System
  • Sometimes referred to as penitentiaries
  • State Prison System
  • County Jails

The Criminal Justice System Size and Expense
  • 55,000 different public agencies
  • 147 billion annual budget
  • 2.2 million employees
  • 20,000 police agencies
  • 17,000 courts

The Criminal Justice System Size and Expense
  • 8,000 prosecutorial agencies
  • 5,700 correctional institutions
  • 3,500 probation and parole departments
  • 15 million arrests per year
  • 3 million for felonies
  • Correctional population of over 2 million
  • Additional 4 million on probation or parole

The Criminal Justice System Size and Expense
  • Law Enforcement employs approximately 1 million
    sworn personnel, not counting civilian employees
  • Corrections employs over 717,000 people
  • Court systems employ 455,000
  • It costs 70,000 to build a jail or prison cell

Role of Law Enforcement
  • Protect lives and property
  • The only criminal justice component that deals
    with persons not charged with a crime.

Role of Law Enforcement
  • Duties are becoming more complex
  • Greater use of discretion
  • If possible use alternatives other than arrest.
  • When necessary arrest law violators

Role of the Courts
  • To seek truth obtain justice
  • To adjudicate sentence
  • Consists of
  • municipal courts
  • superior courts
  • appellate courts
  • supreme court

Judge Judy makes over 47 million a year as a
television personality.
Role of the Courts
  • Santa Clara County has no municipal court system.
  • All trial courts have been unified into a
    consolidated Superior Court system after
    passage of proposition 220.
  • We will learn more about the courts as we
    progress further into the course.

All of Californias 58 counties have consolidated
their trial court systems.
Delaware has the fewest counties 3 - Texas has
the most with 254
There are 3,033 counties in the United
States. They are called parishes in Louisiana
Role of the Courts
  • Plea Bargain accepted in 90 of criminal cases.
  • Also referred to as Bargain Justice.
  • Prosecution and defense form adversary system
    of justice

Is this your idea of Corrections?
  • It is also home arrest
  • Community supervision
  • Probation
  • Parole
  • And lastly, Confinement

Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today
  • Terrorism
  • In response to the attack on America, President
    Bush created the Department of Homeland Security.

Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today
  • Department became effective November, 2002.
  • You will need to research the Department of
    Homeland Security website to learn who is the
    current Secretary. (It will be a test question)

Trends and Issues in Criminal Justice Today
  • Media Distortion of Crime
  • False perception of a crime epidemic
  • Suggestion that crime rates are increasing
  • Impression that most crime is violent
  • TV crime programs
  • Movies with crime themes or scripts

Government CrimeThe Crime Commissions
  • The Presidents Commission on Law Enforcement and
    the Administration of Justice (1967)
  • Appointed by President Lyndon Johnson
  • Safe Streets Act passed by congress in 1968
  • Created Law Enforcement Assistance Administration
  • Concluded that most people had lost confidence in
    the ability of the police to maintain law and

Crime Commission Recommendations
  • To deal more effectively with crime and criminals
    the criminal justice system needs more
  • Professionalism
  • Training
  • Education
  • Personnel

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)
  • 14 year history
  • Helped invent field of criminal justice.
  • Created the term Criminal Justice System.
  • Provided grant money for colleges to develop
    criminal justice programs.

Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)
  • One of the recommendations of the President's
    Commission on Law Enforcement and the
    Administration of Justice, established in 1967,
    was "that all police personnel with general
    enforcement powers have baccalaureate degrees.
  • Developed the LEEP program to achieve these goals.

Law Enforcement Educational Program (LEEP)
  • LEEP (the Law Enforcement Education Program), as
    part of the omnibus crime act of the following
    year, provided the funding that began to make the
    recommendations of the President's Commission a

Law Enforcement Educational Program (LEEP)
  • Tuition Grants
  • in-service law enforcement officers
  • no criminal justice major requirement
  • loan paid off at 25 per year of service
  • choice of any accredited educational institution

Law Enforcement Educational Program (LEEP)
Law Enforcement Educational Program (LEEP)
  • Law Enforcement Educational Program (LEEP)

Criminal Justice Today
  • Before LEAA and LEEP, criminal justice classes
    and programs were called Police Science

Criminal Justice Today
Notice that classes begin with PS for Police
Science. And yes, I didnt do so well in my
early days as a student!
Criminal Justice Today
I think I should have stayed in school
But, after 3 years of service in the Army, I was
ready to return and get serious about life and
Criminal Justice Today
Criminal Justice Today
  • Over 1000 colleges and universities offer
    criminal justice programs.
  • The West Valley AJ Building was built with LEAA

Criminal Justice Today
  • The first four year university to offer a degree
    in Criminal Justice was San Jose State

Criminal Justice Today
  • Largest is John Jay College of Criminal Justice
    in New York City.

Chapter 1
  • Criminal Justice Today