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Qualitative Research Methods

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Qualitative Research Methods Qualitative Research a particular tradition in social science that fundamentally depends on watching people in their own territory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Qualitative Research Methods


1
Qualitative Research Methods
2
As a general rule, practitioners of quantitative
investigations, particularly natural scientists,
have looked upon qualitative inquiry as less
rigorous or objective, less generalizable, and
hence less meritorious Holman, 1993
3
Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research - the
dichotomy
Qualitative Quantitative
Social theory Action Structure
Methods Observation, Interview Experiment, Survey
Question What is X ? (classification) How many Xs? (enumeration)
Reasoning Inductive Deductive
Sampling method Theoretical Statistical
Strength Validity Reliability
4
Qualitative Research
  • a particular tradition in social science that
    fundamentally depends on watching people in their
    own territory and interacting with them in their
    own language, on their own terms (Kirk and
    Miller)

5
When in doubt, observe and ask questions. When
certain, observe at length and ask many more
questions.
Qualitative inquiry cultivates the most useful
of all human capacities- the capacity to learn
from others.
6
Methods
  • Participant Observation
  • Key Informant Interviews
  • Open ended Interview
  • Focus Group Discussions
  • Pile sort

7
Participant Observation
  • insiders view of a culture emic approach
  • an integral part of study of a culture and its
    practices

8
Key Informants Interview
  • Quick insights into a phenomenon
  • Selecting an ambassador who represents the best
    knowledge on a phenomenon
  • Face-to-face interviews
  • Pre-designed format
  • Assumes a prior knowledge of phenomenon and rests
    on the knowledge of the ambassador
  • Used in conjunction with other methods

9
In-depth Interviews
  • Open ended
  • Structured
  • About what people feel and think, how they see
    events and world around them
  • Informal/ formal
  • Prelude to quantitative assessment to delineate
    areas of further enquiry

10
Focus Group Discussions
  • Theme / topic discussions
  • Informed discussants
  • Rapid method to assess outlook on a topic in a
    cross-section of representative population
  • Multiple applications
  • Fast emerging as an effective technique

11
Pile - Sort
  • Informed participants
  • Quick classification of concepts
  • Precursor to instrument development and
    classification

12
Data Processing
  • Raw field notes should be corrected
  • edited and typed
  • Tape recordings need to be transcribed
  • and corrected
  • Texts by field worker should not be changed to
  • make it write-able or readable

13
Data Reduction
  • Process of selecting, focussing, simplifying,
    abstracting and transforming data from field
    notes and transcripts
  • By this researcher retains some data chunks,
    pulls out some and gets an idea of story to tell

14
Analysis Steps
Free listing
Domain Evolution
Coding
Tabulation
Summarizing
15
GHW10 In you opinion, who are the people that
generally do not bring their
children for polio drops on NIDs ?
Sometimes, it happens that parents are unaware
of it (PPI) or neglect it or there are some
parents who do not give importance to it or they
go outstation. Till now, they have not understood
the importance of the polio drops. Some parents
feel we have given three doses (routine doses) to
our children and if these are not given it is
alright. These are the people who dont bring.
Usually they are from slum areas. Others are
educated, they know about it, constantly hear on
TV/radio, so they bring. The area which I had got
was a Mohammedan area. So the women do not go out
of the house. They did not even know that it had
to be given. There was an announcement through
the mosque but people might not have heard or
something else, so many children did not turn up.
(1316)
16
GHW10 In you opinion, who are the people that
generally do not bring their
children for polio drops on NIDs ?
Identified Domains
  1. Do not know
  2. None (everybody received OPV)
  3. Laborers / daily wagers / beggars (affordability)
  4. No one at home / Adult sickness
  5. Migrants / tribal (accessibility / out of station
    / traveling)
  6. People with remote residence / adverse weather /
    transport difficulties (accessibility)
  7. Bad past experience (due to / fear of side
    effects) / fear of polio even after polio drops
    acceptability
  8. Non believers (no faith / believers of other
    systems / superstitions / rumors / socio-cultural
    / religious / death / caste)
  9. Misinformed groups (rich / educated / do not like
    to go to IP / go to practitioner / wrong
    impression)
  10. Lack of Awareness / Illiterate
  11. Children with illness / new born (acceptability)
  12. Negative influences of the other family members /
    decision / decision of family members
  13. Pampered groups (mop-up)
  14. Low motivation / Domestic chores / Low priority
    (festivals / functions etc.) / many children /
    female children

17
GHW10 In you opinion, who are the people that
generally do not bring their
children for polio drops on NIDs ?
Sometimes, it happens that (9) parents are
unaware of it (PPI) or (13) neglect it or there
are some parents who do not give importance to it
or (4) they go outstation. (9) Till now, they
have not understood the importance of the polio
drops. (8) Some parents feel we have given three
doses (routine doses) to our children and if
these are not given it is alright. These are the
people who dont bring. (2) Usually they are from
slum areas. Others are educated, they know about
it, constantly hear on TV/radio, so they bring.
(7) The area which I had got was a Mohammedan
area. So the women do not go out of the house.
They did not even know that it had to be given.
There was an announcement through the mosque but
people might not have heard or something else, so
many children did not turn up. (1316)
18
Quotable Quotes
  • Give a vivid, meaningful flavor
  • which is far more convincing than
  • pages of summarized numbers
  • - These should not be distracters
  • - Should not take the reader away from the real
    issues in hand

19
  • This is an unprecedented event where all people
    irrespective of caste, creed and religion take
    part in PPI program on the same day (NID)
    throughout the country
  • Health worker (150) Burdwan
  • He (my husband) told me that everybody is going
    for polio drops. Then why should we be left out ?
    After all, everybody is not a fool
  • Utilizer (1422) Delhi
  • We have not at all immunized our son. My husband
    was very stubborn. He said those who are
    immunized are also getting this disease (polio)
    and whatever happens let it happen. He has not
    allowed me to get the child immunized
  • Non utilizer (630) Hyderabad

20
Data Display
  • This is an organized, compressed assembly of
    information that permits conclusion drawing and
    action
  • Matrices, graphs, charts and networks are used

21
Summary
  • Qualitative methods aim to make sense of, or
    interpret, phenomena in terms of the meanings
    people bring to them
  • Qualitative research may define preliminary
    questions
  • which can then be addressed in quantitative
    studies
  • A good qualitative study will address a
    clinical
  • problem through a clearly formulated question
    and
  • using more than one research method
    (triangulation)
  • Analysis of qualitative data can and should be
    done
  • using explicit, systematic, and reproducible
    methods

22
Closing remarks
  • It is not Qualitative vs Quantitative but
    Qualitative and Quantitative
  • Qualitative methods are rapid, exploratory and
    hypothesis generating
  • Can be used as Impact evaluation research
  • Allow the researcher to palpate the unique
    cross-cultural features

23
Applying Qualitative Methods in Intervention
Research
  • Glorian Sorensen, PhD, MPH
  • Harvard School of Public Health
  • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
  • Boston, Massachusetts, USA

24
Overview
  • Uses of qualitative methods
  • Toolbox of qualitative methods
  • Integration of qualitative and quantitative
    methods
  • Focus group methods
  • Examples from my research in the US and India

25
Qualitative versus quantitative When to use what?
Qualitative Quantitative
Subject matter is unfamiliar Subject matter clearly defined
Exploratory research, when relevant concepts are unknown or their definitions unclear When measurement problems are minor and have been resolved
When meaning rather than frequencies are sought When detailed numerical description of a representative sample is required
When flexibility of approach is needed to allow for discovery of unexpected in-depth investigation When repeatability of measurements is important
For studying selected issues, cases or events in detail When generalizability of results and comparison across populations is needed
26
Study design
  • Research question and guiding theoretical
    framework
  • Qualitative research study design and methods
  • sampling (non-random, purposive,
    theoretically-based)
  • gaining access
  • choosing data collection methods (interviews,
    documents, observation, etc)
  • ethical considerations
  • validity
  • Analysis
  • Reporting

27
Qualitative methods toolbox
  • Individual interviews (structured,
    semi-structured)
  • Group interviews (focus groups and non-focus
    groups)
  • Observation (participant, unstructured,
    structured)
  • Document and archive reviews

28
On combining qualitative and quantitative
  • Explore or refine constructs for surveys
  • Pre-test surveys
  • Pre-test intervention materials
  • Plan for survey administration
  • Interpret quantitative results
  • Understand process of change that may be measured
    through surveys

29
Illustrative example combining qualitative and
quantitative methods
  • Research problem High rates of smoking among
    construction laborers
  • Research aims
  • conduct formative research to assess smoking
    patterns and factors associated with smoking
    among laborers
  • develop and test a smoking cessation
    intervention, using an RCT design

30
Laborers and smoking How can qualitative methods
enhance study?
  • Survey constructs and administration
  • Develop intervention strategies and messages
  • Assess intervention components
  • Interpret quantitative study results

31
Focus groups What and why?
  • Facilitated small group discussion
  • Experiences and perspectives
  • Exploring specific area of interest in detail
    particularly useful for sensitive topics
  • Interaction among members is key
  • Not for generalizing findings

32
Focus groups vs. other methods
  • Individual interviews
  • multiple perspectives
  • observe interactions
  • participants help each other clarify ideas
  • - difficult to manage
  • - reluctant to reveal in group setting
  • - social norms influence responses

33
Focus groups vs. other methods
  • Observation
  • more efficient
  • easier access
  • - relying on reports of behavior vs. actual
    observations of behavior
  • - not a natural setting

34
Ethical considerations
  • Informed consent
  • Provide project description at start of group
  • Clarify confidentiality and anonymity (within
    group as well)

35
Application of qualitative methods Example
  • Research questions
  • how do construction laborers view health risks
    associated with occupational exposures, poor
    nutrition, and tobacco use?
  • what kinds of health promotion strategies will
    effective in decreasing in tobacco use and
    increase in consumption of fruits and vegetables?

36
Qualitative methods
  • Direct observation of worksites (for project
    staff to learn about range of work tasks, and
    understand where/when/with whom workers smoke,
    what they eat at break/meals, sources of food)
  • Group and individual interviews (two waves of
    interviews)
  • Formed a qualitative research working group for
    project

37
Sampling
  • Observation convenience sample close by no
    major differences by region
  • Group and individual interviews stratified by
    region include racial/ethnic, gender, and age
    mix current and former smokers
  • Recruitment and gaining access through
    international union training sites (bias?)

38
Topic guide development
  • Based on theoretical model we developed by mixing
    existing models (behavioral theories and work
    environment policy theory)
  • Working group developed topic guide
  • Pilot tested and refined guide
  • Revised throughout data collection (iterative)

39
Data collection and analysis
  • Trained staff to conduct interviews and code data
  • Collected data and almost immediately began
    analysis
  • group discussions
  • coding (structural and thematic, multiple coders)
  • creation of themes document
  • revision of focus group guides
  • retrieving codes for thematic analysis

40
Application of results to the intervention
  • Identify themes in qualitative data
  • Define intervention methods
  • Incorporate into intervention messages
  • Reflect in visuals in materials
  • Use in staff training
  • Apply to quality assurance

41
Examples within the laborers intervention
materials
  • Value of being fit for work
  • Being a Laborer is a demanding job. You face
    hazards every day, and being healthy and fit
    enough to meet challenges is important Being
    healthy means youve got the strength you need to
    get the job done and take care of other
    responsibilities too.
  • General Presidents introduction to the TFR

42
Examples within the laborers intervention
materials
  • Value of family and friends
  • Tobacco use can be a problem for your family
    members and your LIUNA brothers and sisters too.
    Thats because secondhand smoke causes over
    53,000 deaths a year among people who dont even
    use tobacco spouses, co-workers, buddies.

43
Examples within the laborers intervention
materials
  • Health concerns
  • One thing you can do is make good decisions
    about your health. Sometimes that means talking
    to your steward if youre worried about
    on-the-job exposures or hazards. Other times, it
    means taking control of your personal health, and
    doing what you can to make your body stronger and
    healthier. This is where the program counselor
    can help.

44
Examples within the laborers intervention
materials
45
Planned tobacco control research in India
  • Analysis of Global School Personnel Survey
  • Focus groups to elucidate observed relationships
  • Apply to intervention development

46
Summary Applications of qualitative methods in
intervention research
  • Understanding the social context of the
    population
  • Survey development
  • Intervention design
  • Staff training
  • Understanding the process of observed changes

47
Focus groups Size and number
  • Six to eight participants
  • Over-recruit slightly and reminder about group
    day before
  • Three to five groups per topic of interest
  • Saturation when stop hearing new info

48
Constructing a topic guide
  • Avoid close-ended questions going for experience
    and perspectives
  • Based on your research questions
  • Topic areas, then questions within each topic,
    list probes
  • Start with icebreakers and easy question

49
Data management and analysis
  • Transcribe recordings and check
  • In-depth analysis
  • Analysis across groups by theme

50
Focus groups Composition
  • Purposive
  • Sub-groups return to your research question
  • Homogenous vs. heterogeneous

51
Logistics
  • Eligibility screening
  • Conducted in primary language of group
  • Length 1-2 hours, no more
  • Location convenient
  • Tape record
  • Take notes (note-taker)
  • Incentives

52
Focus group facilitation
  • Two people facilitator and note-taker
  • Show interest and respect
  • Introduce group members and yourself
  • Actively listen follow leads but stay on topic
  • Encourage between-participant discussion avoid
    group interview dynamic
  • Eye contact tip

53
THANK YOU
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