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Inclusive Practices for [Computer Science] Education

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Title: Inclusive Practices for [Computer Science] Education


1
Inclusive Practices for Computer Science
Education
  • Katherine Deibel
  • Computer Science Engineering
  • University of Washington

2
Who I am
  • 7th Year Graduate Student in CSE at UW
  • Dissertation

Understanding and Supporting the Adoption of
Assistive Technologies for Adults with Reading
Disabilities
3
Who I am (cont.)
  • Disability Advocacy and Service (UW)
  • Disability Advocacy Student Alliance
  • Graduate Student Representative, Advisory
    Committee on Disability Issues
  • Research Background
  • Assistive Technologies
  • Experiences of Students with Disabilities
  • Computer Science Education
  • Collaborative Learning
  • Learning Styles
  • Engineering Design Learning

4
Who are you?
5
University Students with Disabilities
  • Increased enrollments (entering freshmen)
  • 1978 2.3
  • 1998 9.8
  • Estimates of 4-year undergraduates with
    disabilities
  • 10.6 (2004)
  • 11.3 (2003)

How can universities best serve students with
disabilities?
Sources Scott et al, 2003 NSF 2004-316 NCES
2006-184
6
What is Inclusive Education?
  • Provide an equitable educational experience for
    all students of all abilities
  • Proactively minimize the need for students with
    disabilities to request accommodations

7
Inclusive Classroom Extreme Version 1
Anticipate everything by making all classes
include
  • Stuff to Learn
  • Lesson 1
  • Lesson 2
  • Lesson 3

Blah blah blah Blah Lesson 2
  • ASL signers
  • Audio amplification
  • Live captioning
  • Braille displays
  • Modular seating
  • ...

zzz
Lesson 2
ASL
ASL
Built-in Classroom Accommodations
8
Inclusive Classroom Extreme Version 2
Avoid anything that is non-accessible

???
  • PowerPoint
  • Graphs or diagrams
  • Verbal lectures
  • Physical movement
  • Psychic communication

???
???
???
???
???
Avoid Anything Inaccessible
9
Principles of Inclusive Education
  • Equitable education for all students of all
    abilities
  • Consider all types of disabilities
  • Minimize (not eliminate) need for accommodations
  • Be proactive instead of reactive
  • Utilize sound pedagogical practices
  • Using access technologies when appropriate
  • Awareness of disabilities and education

10
Awareness
  • Disability types and prevalence
  • Accommodation laws and policies
  • Social aspects of disabilities
  • Student perspectives on
  • Accommodations
  • Their disabilities
  • Teaching
  • Good, inclusive pedagogy techniques

11
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Experiences of Computing Students with
    Disabilities
  • Study Description
  • Introduction of Students
  • Accommodation Policies
  • Disability Types and Prevalence
  • Social Aspects of Disabilities
  • Student Perspectives on their Education
  • Inclusive Pedagogy and Techniques
  • Conclusions

12
Research Study
  • Question
  • How successful is UWs CS Education at including
    students with disabilities?
  • Published in
  • K. Deibel. Course Experiences of Computing
    Students with Disabilities Four Case Studies.
    Proceedings of the 39th SIGCSE Technical
    Symposium on Computer Science Education, p.
    454-458, 2008.
  • K. Deibel. Studying Our Inclusive Practices
    Course Experiences of Students with Disabilities.
    Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference on
    Innovation and Technology in Computer Science
    Education (ITiCSE), p. 266-270, 2007.

13
Methodology
  • Gather student perspectives
  • One-on-one interviews
  • 60 minutes
  • Students with disabilities in their first or
    second computing course
  • Participants interviewed twice
  • Analysis
  • Simultaneous with data collection
  • Themes emerge from data

Semi-Structured Interviews
Grounded Theory Analysis
Illustrative Case Study
14
Semi-Structured Interviews
  • One-on-one interviews
  • Prepared questions only a guide
  • Subject drives conversation
  • Two interviews conducted
  • Mid-quarter
  • End of term

Semi-Structured Interviews
Grounded Theory Analysis
Illustrative Case Study
15
Semi-Structured Interviews
  • How does your instructor run the course? What do
    you like? Not like?
  • How does your disability affect your education?
  • Assuming that your instructor(s) knew about your
    disability, how would you want them to respond to
    you as a student?

Semi-Structured Interviews
Grounded Theory Analysis
Illustrative Case Study
16
Grounded Theory Analysis
  • Inductively develop themes from data
  • Occurs throughout the data collection process
  • Themes evolve as more data is considered
  • Explore and challenge themes with new data

Semi-Structured Interviews
Grounded Theory Analysis
Illustrative Case Study
17
Illustrative Case Study
  • In-depth investigation of a phenomenon
  • Looks at only a few instances
  • Findings are
  • To enhance current knowledge
  • To support or challenge theories
  • To stimulate conversation
  • Case studies are NOT to be generalized

Semi-Structured Interviews
Grounded Theory Analysis
Illustrative Case Study
18
Participant Overview
Alan Animation course Art Developmental Disability Registered with DRS Dave CS1 Psychology OCD, depression, anxiety Not registered with DRS
Seth CS1 Intended CS major Deaf in one ear Not registered with DRS Pam CS2 Intended CS or EE major Generalized anxiety disorder Not registered with DRS
19
Student Profile Alan
  • 26 year old male junior (commuter)
  • Developmental disability affecting memory and
    reading/writing ability
  • Enrolled in computer animation
  • Art major
  • Registered with disability services
  • Books-on-tape
  • Note takers

20
Student Profile Seth
  • 18 year old male freshman
  • Deaf in left ear
  • Enrolled in CS1
  • Interested in computer engineering
  • Plays saxophone in a jazz band
  • Used a hearing aid as a child
  • Chooses not to use a hearing aid now
  • Talked with disability services but ineligible
    for accommodations

21
Student Profile Pam
  • 19 year old female freshman
  • General anxiety disorder
  • Enrolled in CS2
  • Interested in CS or EE
  • Recent diagnosis of anxiety disorder and panic
    attacks
  • Discloses only to family and close friends
  • Only beginning to view anxiety as a disability
  • Not registered with disability services

22
Student Profile Dave
  • 19 year old male freshman
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and
    low-level depression
  • Enrolled in CS1 (out of curiosity)
  • Psychology / Pre-Med major
  • Father called up for deployment to Iraq
  • Completed only 1 of 2 interviews
  • Applied for a hardship course withdrawal

23
Wait are these good cases?
Alan Animation course Art Developmental Disability Registered with DRS Dave CS1 Psychology OCD, depression, anxiety Not registered with DRS
Seth CS1 Intended CS major Deaf in one ear Not registered with DRS Pam CS2 Intended CS or EE major Generalized anxiety disorder Not registered with DRS
24
Potential Criticisms of Cases
  • Not blind, deaf, mobility-impaired, etc.
  • 2 of 4 students do not consider themselves as
    having a disability
  • 3 of 4 students not registered with disability
    services

25
Disabilities in the Classroom
  • What disabilities do expect to see among
    students?

26
Disability Distribution in U.S. Colleges
Disabilities of Students Registered with
Disability Services at 4-year U.S. Universities
Other 5
Health 6
Mental/Emotional 10
Hearing 6
Learning 55
Visual 5
Speech 1
Mobility 12
Disabilities at U.S. Colleges Universities
(NCES Report 1999-046)
27
The Cases
Dave
Pam
Alan
Seth
28
Potential Criticisms of Cases
  • Not blind, deaf, mobility-impaired, etc.
  • Student disability distribution favors learning
    disabilities, mental health, etc.
  • 2 of 4 students do not consider themselves as
    having a disability
  • 3 of 4 students not registered with disability
    services

29
Legal Definition of Disability
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
  • Any physiological disorder or condition,
    cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss
    affecting one or more of the following body
    systems neurological, musculoskeletal, special
    sense organs, respiratory (including speech
    organs), cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive,
    genitourinary, hemic and lymphatic, skin, and
    endocrine
  • Any mental or psychological disorder, such as
    mental retardation, organic brain syndrome,
    emotional or mental illness, and specific
    learning disabilities

30
The Not-So-Big Three Disabilities
  • People tend to think of disability as
  • Mobility impairments 12
  • Visual impairments 5
  • Hearing impairments 6
  • 23
  • Reasons for Focus
  • Readily visible to others
  • Conditions are easy to relate to
  • Accommodations are straightforward

31
Phrasing of Diagnoses
Developmental disability affecting memory and
reading
Deaf in left ear
Psychological disorders
32
Potential Criticisms of Cases
  • Not blind, deaf, mobility-impaired, etc.
  • Student disability distribution favors learning
    disabilities, mental health, etc.
  • 2 of 4 students do not consider themselves as
    having a disability
  • There is a cultural perception of what a
    disability is / isnt
  • 3 of 4 students not registered with disability
    services

33
Reasons for not registering with DRS
Is registered with DRS
Can self-accommodate adequately
Do not view selves as disabled
34
Accommodation Request Process
  • In K-12
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
  • Schools responsible for accommodations
  • Parents often advocate for their child
  • In College
  • Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Student must request accommodations
  • Independence from parents
  • Motivation to be ones own advocate

35
Challenges in Requesting Accommodations
  • Not knowing what to request
  • Poor experiences with previous accommodations
  • Not familiar with process
  • Providing proof of disability
  • Certification and medical exams can be
    prohibitively expensive
  • Repercussions of being labeled as disabled

36
Hiding a Disability
  • Invisible disabilities are not apparent to others
  • Learning disabilities
  • Chronic health conditions
  • Psychological conditions

37
Invisible Disabilities and Accommodations
  • Rebecca Cory, Disability Services Coordinator at
    North Seattle Community College
  • PhD Thesis
  • Identity, Support And Disclosure Issues Facing
    University Students With Invisible Disabilities
  • Students with invisible disabilities often
    attempt to hide as normal
  • Avoid disability stigma
  • Limit knowledge to trusted others
  • Delay asking for help until crisis necessitates it

38
Invisible Disability and Stigmas
  • Disability label shapes perception of person
  • To be pitied or in need of extra help
  • Less intelligent or capable
  • Lowered expectations
  • McDermott. The Acquisition of a Child by a
    Learning Disability. 1993.

39
Invisible Disability and Stigmas
  • Disbelief and accusations
  • You dont look like anything is wrong with you.
  • But you speak so intelligently.
  • Accusations of fraud and deceit
  • Students are faking it
  • Articles in Chronicle of Higher Education

Sources Williams Ceci, 1999 Zirkel, 2000
40
Difficulty in Explaining Disability
  • Difficult to relate to most invisible
    disabilities
  • Misunderstandings on impact of disability
  • Andrew Imparato, President of AAPD
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Once asked in a job interview, Everyone sees a
    therapist nowadays, whats the big deal?
  • Liz, Political Science Graduate Student
  • Learning and attention disabilities
  • Instructor told her that everyone has preferred
    learning styles and good students need to learn
    to adjust

41
Potential Criticisms of Cases
  • Not blind, deaf, mobility-impaired, etc.
  • Student disability distribution favors learning
    disabilities, mental health, etc.
  • 2 of 4 students do not consider themselves as
    having a disability
  • There is a cultural perception of what a
    disability is / isnt
  • 3 of 4 students not registered with disability
    services
  • Student responsibility and choice to register
  • Challenges in accommodation process
  • Invisible disabilities and help avoidance

42
Introductions Insights
?
Introductions
  • Accommodation Policies
  • Disability Types Prevalence
  • Social Aspects of Disabilities

43
How does this distribution really look?
Disabilities of Students Registered with
Disability Services at 4-year U.S. Universities
Other 5
Health 6
Mental/Emotional 10
Hearing 6
Learning 55
Visual 5
Speech 1
Mobility 12
Disabilities at U.S. Colleges Universities
(NCES Report 1999-046)
44
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Experiences of Computing Students with
    Disabilities
  • Study Description
  • Introduction of Students
  • Accommodation Policies
  • Disability Types and Prevalence
  • Social Aspects of Disabilities
  • Student Perspectives on their Education
  • Inclusive Pedagogy and Techniques
  • Conclusions

45
Themes from Student Perspectives
  • Self-Advocacy
  • Family Support
  • Friend Support
  • Personal Definitions of Disability
  • Attention to Different Learning Styles
  • Access to Course Artifacts and Materials
  • Frustration with Collaboration Policies
  • Podcasting

46
Themes from Student Perspectives
  • Self-Advocacy
  • Family Support
  • Friend Support
  • Personal Definitions of Disability
  • Attention to Different Learning Styles
  • Access to Course Artifacts and Materials
  • Frustration with Collaboration Policies
  • Podcasting

47
Self-Advocacy
  • Taking personal responsibility for managing ones
    disability (for better or worse)
  • Contacts instructors before start
  • of every term about accommodations
  • Chooses not to use a hearing aid
  • Usually chooses seating positions that favor his
    good ear
  • Sometimes sits by friends instead

48
Self-Advocacy
  • Taking personal responsibility for managing ones
    disability (for better or worse)

Would you ask an instructor or TA for help
regarding your anxiety?
Q
Because of the person I am, I probably would
not tell them and try to deal with the problem
myself... Id just think Id be kind of
embarrassed and feel like I was just
complaining...
49
Self-Advocacy
  • Taking personal responsibility for managing ones
    disability (for better or worse)
  • Failure in self-advocacy leads to embarrassment

Describing the aftermath of failing to receive
the animation textbook on tape in time.
50
Self-Advocacy
  • Taking personal responsibility for managing ones
    disability (for better or worse)
  • Failure in self-advocacy leads to embarrassment
  • Takeaway
  • Students with disabilities decide when and if to
    ask for assistance
  • Inclusive practices offer a way to provide
    assistance without the need for requests

51
Attention to Different Learning Styles
  • The students readily identify what teaching
    styles work or do not work for them

52
Attention to Different Learning Styles
  • The students readily identify what teaching
    styles work or do not work for them
  • Views in-class problems as productive
  • OCD can lead to him obsessing over why a solution
    does not work
  • Uses provided slides to look ahead and understand
    the solution
  • Thus avoids being distracted

53
Attention to Different Learning Styles
  • The students readily identify what teaching
    styles work or do not work for them
  • Takeaway
  • Teaching with multiple learning styles in mind
    helps make the classroom inclusive
  • Polling the students about their preferred
    learning styles could be fruitful

54
Access to Course Artifacts and Materials
  • Many of the course materials in CS1 and CS2
    available on the course website
  • Fallback in case he mishears or misses something
    in lecture
  • Reduces anxiety about getting lost or missing a
    lecture for both Dave and Pam

55
Access to Course Artifacts and Materials
  • Many of the course materials in CS1 and CS2
    available on the course website
  • Even minor breakdowns in access lead to problems
  • CS1 and CS2 use a password protected online
    textbook
  • Pam used CS1 text to prepare for exams and
    assignments
  • CS2 TA forgot to give out password
  • Increased Pams anxiety over CS2 exams and
    assignments

56
Access to Course Artifacts and Materials
  • Many of the course materials in CS1 and CS2
    available on the course website
  • Even minor breakdowns in access lead to problems
  • Animation course lectures were mainly software
    tutorials
  • Difficult for Alan to take notes
  • A set of tutorials on DVDs were available but
    only during TA lab hours
  • Availability further limited by Alan being a
    commuter student

57
Access to Course Artifacts and Materials
  • Many of the course materials in CS1 and CS2
    available on the course website
  • Even minor breakdowns in access lead to problems
  • Takeaway
  • More reasons to have course repositories
  • Simple breakdowns can be noticeably damaging to
    students with disabilities

58
Podcasting
  • UW Podcasting Initiative
  • Automatic audio recording and online posting of
    lectures for some courses
  • Motivated primarily to be cutting-edge
  • Not considered originally as a disability
    support
  • Usage and performance being studied and evaluated

59
Podcasting
  • None of the computing courses used podcasting
  • Students other courses have used podcasting
  • Lessens stress of note taking
  • Fallback in case he mishears or misses something
    in lecture

60
Podcasting
  • None of the computing courses used podcasting
  • Students other courses have used podcasting

When asked if he has ever listened to podcast
lectures in his other courses
Ive never done that because Ive never had
this much trouble with a class before but I
definitely would with computer science if that
were an option... It would be so much nicer to
have a podcast.
61
Podcasting
  • None of the computing courses used podcasting
  • Students other courses have used podcasting
  • Provided note takers do not capture all the
    material in a lecture
  • Podcasts helpful for filling in gaps
  • Advantageous for commuter students

62
Podcasting
  • None of the computing courses used podcasting
  • Students other courses have used podcasting

I actually recently purchased an iPod for
podcasts, and Ive taken lectures with
podcasting before and have done really well
when it has been podcasted because I have been
able to keep up and I can listen to it
anywhere on the bus"
63
Podcasting
  • None of the computing courses used podcasting
  • Students other courses have used podcasting
  • Takeaway
  • Podcasting has potential as a disability
    accommodation
  • Educational technology initiatives can have
    unexpected benefits towards inclusion

64
Themes Redux
  • Self-Advocacy
  • Students Attend to Their Learning Styles
  • Access to Courses Artifacts and Materials
  • Breakdowns
  • Podcasting

65
Findings and Takeaways
  • Cases align with current knowledge about
    university students with disabilities
  • There are students who do not register with
    disability services in computing courses
  • Disabilities still lead to problems and
    difficulties
  • Inclusive pedagogies reaches all students
    regardless
  • No findings specific to computing education
  • Possibility still of field-specific barriers to
    inclusion
  • Inclusive education practices are readily
    applicable

66
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Experiences of Computing Students with
    Disabilities
  • Inclusive Pedagogy and Techniques
  • General Approaches
  • Accessibility
  • Tips and Advice
  • Compromise
  • Assessments
  • Conclusions

67
Discussion Break
  • Talk with your neighbors
  • What have you learned just now that stands out
    the most to you?
  • What would you like to know next?

68
Your Questions
69
Inclusive Pedagogy
  • Considers all students of all abilities
  • Proactively think about impact of teaching
    choices
  • Utilizes many best practices
  • Reflective learning
  • Collaborative learning
  • Attention to different learning styles
  • Etc.
  • Raises the overall quality of education

70
Attend to Learning Styles
  • Be aware of different learning styles
  • Felder-Silverman Learning Styles
  • Gardners Multiple Intelligences
  • Many disabilities are similar to certain learning
    styles
  • E.g., reading disabilities preference for aural
    learning

71
Pause and Reflect
  • Make deliberate pauses after
  • Asking a question
  • Making an important point
  • Allows time for
  • Reflection
  • Taking notes
  • Forming ones thoughts or response
  • Vary pause length to favor active and reflective
    learners

72
Write and Say, Say and Write
  • If you are writing something down, say it
  • Avoid deictic terms there, here, etc.
  • If you are saying something, write it down
  • Do not write everything
  • Write down key words, numbers, names, etc.
  • Benefits
  • Both verbal and visual learners
  • Vision and hearing disabilities

73
Artifacting the Classroom
  • Course webs are priceless
  • Include syllabi, assignments, lectures, etc.
  • Consider recording parts of lectures
  • Audio podcasts
  • Tutorials
  • Videos

74
Accessibility
  • All web sites should meet Section 508 or WAI
    accessibility standards
  • Textbooks
  • Ideally present information visually and verbally
  • Decide on course texts early to give time for
    digitization
  • Consider books that have electronic versions
  • Commercial Software
  • Help menus can be inaccessible
  • Provide access to alternative help, tutorials,
    videos, etc.

75
Rethinking Assessment
  • We teach with learning goals in mind
  • Assessments let students demonstrate their
    progress towards learning goals
  • Learning goals should be clear in the design of
    assignments and exams

76
Refining Assignments and Homework
  • Identify key learning goals for assignment
  • Provide scaffolding
  • Offer multiple alternatives
  • E.g., A presentation instead of an essay
  • Make the assignment piece-wise Require some
    pieces to be completed
  • Optional to complete other pieces

77
Refining Exams
  • Exams test students mastery of applying their
    knowledge in a limited time period
  • Time limits negatively impact many disabilities
  • Learning disabilities
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Sensory difficulties
  • Time limits impact non-disabled students too

78
Refining Exams
  • Expand time limits for all students
  • Take home tests
  • Offer alternatives to tests
  • Projects, reports, etc.
  • Let students decide between exam options

79
Hey wait
  • What about cheating?
  • Can we trust the students to do their own work?
  • Wont this take a lot of time to implement?
  • Youre asking a lot of me, arent you?

80
Inclusion is about Compromise
  • Compromise with yourself
  • Identify your preferences for teaching
  • Move closer to inclusive practices as comfortable
  • Be willing to invest more effort in the short
    term for benefits in the long term
  • Examples with PowerPoint
  • Andrew Imparato prefers no slides
  • Writes down important terms as he gets to them
  • Myself prefers wordy slides
  • I try to speak engagingly to everything on my
    slides

81
Inclusion is about Compromise
  • Compromise with the students
  • Listen to the students about what works
  • Adjust as far as you are comfortable
  • Complement partially inaccessible approaches with
    more accessible ones
  • Example Pointer Diagrams in Data Structures
  • Diagrams are problematic for the
    visually-impaired
  • Pointer diagrams are useful for understanding and
    debugging pointer manipulation
  • Work with visually-impaired students to identify
    an alternative approach

82
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Experiences of Computing Students with
    Disabilities
  • Inclusive Pedagogy and Techniques
  • Conclusions

83
Principles of Inclusive Education
  • Equitable education for all students of all
    abilities
  • Consider all types of disabilities
  • Minimize (not eliminate) need for accommodations
  • Be proactive instead of reactive
  • Utilize sound pedagogical practices
  • Using access technologies when appropriate
  • Awareness of disabilities and education

84
Not just about the classroom
  • Inclusion and access extends to
  • Campus buildings
  • University services
  • Student clubs and organizations

Universal Design in Higher Education From
Principles to Practice Sheryl E. Burgstahler and
Rebecca C. Cory
85
The Importance of Community
  • ACM SIGCSE
  • Special Interest Group in Computer Science
    Education
  • Growing body of disability / accessibility
    interest
  • M.A. Egan, Students with Asperger's syndrome in
    the CS classroom, SIGCSE 2005
  • M.E. Califf, M.M. Goodwin, J. Brownell, Helping
    Him See Guiding a Visually Impaired Student
    Through the Computer Science Curriculum, SIGCSE
    2008

86
  • DO-IT at University of Washington
  • Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking
    Technology
  • Resources, community, advice
  • http//www.washington.edu/doit/Faculty/
  • AccessComputing
  • Increase presence of people with disabilities in
    computing
  • Funding for internships for students
  • Mentoring and communities of practice
  • http//www.washington.edu/accesscomputing/

87
The Most Important Community
  • Yourself
  • Your students
  • Your colleagues
  • Your institution

88
Thanks
  • For more information, please contact
  • Kate Deibel ltdeibel_at_cs.washington.edugt
  • http//www.cs.washington.edu/homes/deibel
  • Questions? Comments?
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