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The Parameters of Projects


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Title: The Parameters of Projects

The Parameters of Projects
Project Parameters Needs, Opportunities,
All projects undertaken by organizations in the
corporate, public and non-governmental sector are
in response to an internal or exter-nal
customers or users need, or in order to exploit
an opportunity. Sometimes projects are done in
order to conform to some statu-tory requirement.
Examples of projects undertaken to satisfy an
internal need or opportunity include
introduc-tion of an Enterprise Resource Planning
System in a large corporation, training of a
companys employees in Total Quality Management
and expansion of a plants manufacturing
Project Parameters Needs, Opportunities,
Examples of projects undertaken to satisfy an
external need or opportunity include the
development of a new product or service, and
contract work for a building construction
project. Examples of projects undertaken to
conform to statutory requirements include
installation of a filter to reduce the firms
pollution emission levels and remodelling a
worker hostel as a precautionary measure against
fire hazard.
Why Are Projects Undertaken?(Example Compliance
with Laws and Regulations)
Projects are sometimes undertaken in order to
comply with legal requirements. For example, a
new law or regulation requiring that factories
immediately reduce their pollution emission
levels may compel these factories to undertake
projects which are aimed at bringing about
structural and process modifications. Similarly,
a law or regulation requiring that student
hostels reduce the risk of fire hazard would
necessitate projects aimed at complying with
Relating Needs to Projects(Example The Higher
Education Sector in Pakistan)
Pakistans National Economic Development (there
is an acknowledged need, inter alia, for highly
skilled engineers)
Long-term envisaged impact
Federal Policy and Planning Framework
Improve Existing Infrastructure
Institutional Re- gulatory Reforms
Develop Human Resources
Other Fields
Acquisition of advan- ced technical skills
competency in the designated priority fields
with emphasis on quality education
Projects to establish Engineer- ing
Universities of international standard in
Pakistan in coopera- tion with leading Austrian,
Chinese, French, German, Italian and Swedish
Establish New Universities
Upgrade Existing Universities
Project Parameters Goal
All projects have one prime goal for e.g., the
development of a new camera, con-struction of a
railway station, regeneration of a derelict
neighbourhood, or process re-engineering for a
large organization.
The goal must be as specific as possible so that
there is no ambiguity about what the project
intends to achieve. In addi-tion to the prime
goal, projects may have subgoals and sub-sidiary
goals (objectives). The project goal and project
deliverables along with all the requirements and
specifica-tions, which must be met by the project
for it to be consider-ed complete, determine the
projects scope. A project which does not achieve
its goal is seen as failed.
Project Parameters Goal(Important Topics)
  • Project Proposal
  • Project Contract
  • Project Charter
  • Elicitation of Project Requirements and
  • Project Statement of Work
  • Project Scope Statement
  • Project Work Breakdown Structure
  • Scope Creep, Control and Verification
  • Project Change Management
  • Project Integration Management

Project Output Outcome Highway Example
Project Phase
Project Life-Cycle Initiation, Planning,
Implementation and Closure of the Project
Project Output
Operations Phase
Economic Impact on investment, trade, local
businesses, tourism, employment, inflation,
wealth accumulation and distribution
Selected Project Outcomes ( and -)
Social Impact on services like health and
education, travel, crime, social relations,
communities out-look and values
Not Projects Routine main-tenance repair
Environmental Impact on fauna and flora,
pollution levels, waste accumulation and disposal
Projects Highway extension, widening,
recarpeting, con-struction of bridges, additional
exit and entrance ramps, petrol stations and
rest stops etc.
Project Parameters Cost
All projects necessarily incur a cost because
they consume resources. There can be a multitude
of cost items which are incurred on projects,
some of which are regular, others periodic, and
others non-recurring (i.e. which are incurred
usually once in the course of the project
life-cycle) in nature.
Estimating the cost of a complex project with a
high degree of accuracy can be quite difficult in
its early stages due to a paucity of information.
Project Management offers several methods for
estimating a projects cost. However, cost
over-runs are common on projects and are
considered a manifes-tation of project failure.
Project Parameters Cost(Examples of
Non-Recurring Regularly Recurring Costs)
Usually Non-Recurring
Usually Regularly Recurring
  • Land acquisition
  • Establishment of project and furnishing site
  • Recruitment, selection and training of key
    project staff
  • Procurement of hardware, software and other
    technical equipment for project
  • Consultancy
  • Special project audit
  • Licenses and permits from officials concerned
  • Salaries of project staff
  • Rent for project facilities
  • Operating expenses (incl. utilities)
  • Travelling and meetings
  • Project inputs and raw material being supplied on
    regular basis
  • General administrative and miscellaneous

Project Parameters Cost(Important Topics in
Project Cost Management)
  • Categorization of Project Cost Items
  • Top-Down Project Cost Estimation Methods
  • Bottom-Up Project Cost Estimation Methods
  • Deterministic / Probabilistic Project Cost
  • Project Cost Baseline
  • Synchronization of payments due with release of
  • Earned Value Method

Project Parameters Time
All projects have a life span, namely, the
inter-val between the point in time the project
for-mally commences and the point in time when
it is completed or prematurely terminated.
The project life-span can range from very short -
for e.g., one week for recataloguing books in a
public library - to very long, for e.g., eight
years for the construction of a large dam with
attached electric power generating station. As
with cost, it is often difficult to determine the
life-span of a project with a high level of
accuracy, especially in the pro-jects early
stages. Schedule overruns are common in pro-jects
and, like cost overruns, they too are also
considered a manifestation of project failure.
Project Parameters Time(Important Topics in
Project Time Management)
  • Project Activities
  • Dependency Relationships Between Project
  • Project Activity Duration Estimation
  • Project Milestones
  • Project Schedule Baseline
  • Project Gantt Charts
  • Network Diagrammes (Arrow-on-Arrow,
  • Critical Path Method
  • Programme Evaluation Review Technique
  • Crashing the Project
  • Earned Value Method
  • Time Management Training for Project Staff

Project Parameters Uniqueness
All projects are unique! No two projects are
completely alike even if they have the same
goal and scope, same life-span and allocated
budget, and same project manager and team.
Every project will always differ in some respect,
however small, from another similar project, for
e.g., in the projects location, incurred cost
and time, in the manner in which it was managed,
planned and implemented and the metho-dology
which was applied to it, in the project
stakeholders and the frequency and intensity of
interaction with them over the project
life-cycle, in the risks, issues and problems
which surfaced in the course of the project
life-cycle, and so forth.
What Projects Are Not
  • Projects must not be confused with an
    organizations on-going and recurring operations.
    For example
  • Customer invoicing and billing
  • Fabrication or assembly of automobiles
  • Routine procurement of agricultural inputs for
    a brewery
  • Airline flights
  • Advising a bank client of stock market
    investment opportunities
  • Treatment of patients in a hospital emergency
    ward, and
  • Counselling of soldiers on a tour of wartime
  • are not projects even though they may exhibit
    project characteris-tics (goal, time-frame, cost).

Simple, Complex and Impossible Projects
Project Complexity Examples of Simple Projects
Project Complexity Examples of Complex Projects
Project Complexity Examples of Complex Projects
Large Factories
Power Grids
Transnational Oil Gas Pipelines
Movie Blockbuster
Weapon Systems
Impossible Projects Some Examples
Make a Machine to turn Water to Wine
Create the Pill of Immortality
Design a Spaceship for Intergalactic Travel
Invent a Time Travel Machine
Construct a Teleportation System
On Possibility Impossibility of Projects
The level of sophistication of technology and
depth of knowledge determine, among other
factors, the possibility of impossibility of
projects. Some projects which were deemed
impossible in the past such as NASAs moon
mission have become possible in our time. And
although the projects in the previous slide may
be impossible to achieve now given our
present-day technology and knowledge, they may
certainly become possible in the coming years
and decades as science advances.
Projects and the Phenomena of Change
Projects go hand in hand with change. Change may
have a profound effect on organizations
irrespective of whether they are in the private,
public or non-governmental sector.
Change can also have an enormous and long-lasting
impact on the economies, societies, politics and
environment of countries, regions, continents and
even the whole world.
Typical Attributes of Complex Projects
  • Broad scope, large number of delivera-bles,
    complex and changing require-ments
  • Long life-span highly capital-intensive with
    involvement of lending institutions and venture
  • Human resource, information and
  • Substantial specialization, expertise and
    experience needed from project team
  • Sophisticated project management methodology
  • Thorough project planning, a well-structured
    project organization and clear delineation of
    roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders is
    a prerequisite for success
  • Numerous stakeholders (some supportive, others
    adversarial) and need for extensive communication
    and coordination
  • High levels of risk and uncertainty
  • Quality considerations have high priority
  • Constant monitoring and evaluation along with
    application of controlling measures indispensable
  • Flexibility to adapt to changing situations and
  • Formation of international consortiums and
    cultural management considerations
  • High potential for conflict
  • Strong leadership skills required of project
    manager and motivation and tenacity of the
    project team
  • Large net of suppliers, vendors and contractors
  • Political and social pressures
  • Bureaucratic hassles
  • Anticipated and unanticipated Issues

Major Projects in History
Projects in Historical Context
Projects are presumably as old as mankind itself.
Even the cavemen could be considered as project
planners and implementers of sorts. Great
civilizations have come and gone over the
millenia but the imposing structures they left
behind for posterity will always instill in us a
permanent sense of awe. Projects in antiquity,
and later in the medieval period tended, by and
large, to be architectural in nature.
Projects in Historical Context
Projects in the contemporary age are much more
complex, diverse in nature, and
resource-intensive than they were in olden times.
Possible Reasons The industrial revolution,
the relentless advance of science and technology,
the knowledge explosion and consequent
diversification and specialization of skills,
vast resource availability, consumerism,
orientation towards development and the emergence
of management as a way of getting things done.
Origins of Project Management
Management has been excercised in the planning
and implementation of complex project
undertakings for thousands of years. A comparison
with modern project management is not possible as
few and incomplete records exists of the project
management methodologies which were used in
ancient times. The fact that structures like
the pyramids and Sphinx of Egypt and the Roman
Aqueducts in western Europe have withstood the
passage of centuries to this day is a testimony
to the design, engineering and project management
skills of ancient civilizations.
The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
The Medieval European Cathedrals
The great gothic cathedrals of Europe are
architectural masterpieces whose ornate presences
have graced ancient town - and cityscapes in
Austria, Belgium, England, France, Germany, Italy
and Switzerland since they started appearing in
the 12th century. Construction of, and extension
work on, these massive edifices continued often
over decades and even centuries. Generations of
architects, craftsmen and masons worked
tirelessly on erecting these cathedrals, whose
towers dwarfed all other structures in their day.
Their vaulted ceilings, massive columns,
imposing portals, myriad statues, splendid
stained glass windows and other impressive
features aptly testify to the determination and
ingenuity of yesteryears Europeans.
The Muslims
For over one thousand years the lands of the
Muslims have spawned a cornucopia of cultural
treasures. From the fertile provinces of Spain
to the verdant Indonesian archipeligo, and from
the windy steppes of Central Asia to the
scorching hot desert of North Africa, the
graceful domes and soaring minarets of the
mosques, magnificent palaces, enchanting gardens,
imposing forts, majestic marble tombs and
mausoleums, and colourful arabesque decorative
artwork have inspired countless millions for
genera-tions. Without them our world would
culturally be a much poorer place. An
interesting feature of Muslim architecture is its
reflection of the influence of different styles
which, in turn, reflect the distinctive
traditions and subcultures prevalent across the
The Aztecs, Incas and Mayas
The vast stretch of land from Northern Mexico to
the southern reaches of Chile was once home to
three great civilizations the Aztecs, Incas and
Mayas. Cities which once counted amongst the
largest of their day, a plethora of pagan
deities, divine absolutist monarchs,
dread-inspiring Priests presiding over
sacrificial alters splashed crimson with the
blood of human victims, colourful feather-studded
costumes, fearsome warriors and merciless wars of
conquest and subjugation, and a huge repository
of arcane knowledge are their legacy as are the
monumental pyramid-shaped structures and other
great buildings which have withstood the ravages
of time and attract hordes of tourists every
The Romans
Rome eternal city and power hub of the ancient
worlds mightiest Empire. Spread over three
continents, ancient Rome was feared for its
conquests, brutality and sub-jugation and held
in awe for its artistic accomplishments, superb
urban planning and unrivalled engineering
prowess. Romes legal, political and
administrative systems have significantly
influenced its modern-day western counterparts.
1500 years after its collapse, Romes legacy
lives on. The remains of its roads, imposing
fortresses, walls, bridges, aquaducts and
archways, its famous public baths, libraries and
amphiteatres, its luxurious villas and gardens,
its simple garrison stations, and its splendid
temples, palaces and cities dot a vast area
around the Mediterranean Sea.
The Hindus
In the second and first millenia B.C.,
contin-uous treks of Aryan migrants from Central
Asia, Afghanistan and Iran settled in North-ern
and North-West India. With them, the great
religion of Hinduism gradually evolved.
Hinduism is perhaps the most complex of all
religions. It has no single founder, encom-passes
many schools of thought and trad-itions, is based
on a colossal set of scrip-tures, is polytheistic
and has a complex pattern of social relationships
and rituals. Hindus have made major
contributions to art and science. Their
architectural edifices are perhaps the most
visible and enduring sym-bol of their ancient
legacy and grace a vast swath of land extending
from modern-day Pakistan deep into South-East
The Ancient Egyptians
As the worlds oldest civilization, ancient Egypt
has fascinated and mystified mankind for
thousands of years down to the con-temporary age.
Famed for its wealth, efficient administra-tion
and Nile irrigation system, vast accumu-lation of
knowledge, and ruled for thousands of years by
generations of Pharaos who en-joyed god-like
status over their minions, ancient Egypt was for
a long time the super-power of the ancient world.
Ancient Egypts heritage is the prime focus
of interest for tens of thousands of curious
foreign visitors who flock to Egypt every year to
behold the multitude of well preser-ved
monumental columned and hierograph-ed temples,
palaces and pyramidal graves.
The Ancient Chinese
China Kingdom of the Middle and land that for
centuries attracted the interest, awe and envy of
much of the world. Known for the splendour of its
imperial courts, its tea, spices, silk, wisdom,
numerous inventions and generally for the finer
things of life, China evolved one of the richest
cultures. The Chinese were great builders and
left behind myriad magnificent edifices for
pos-terity. The Great Wall of China which snakes
its way across thousands of miles of
inhos-pitable mountainous terrain remains
unsur-passed in extent and power as does the
Forbidden City in Beijing in its grandeur.
Colourful palaces, temples, pagodas, mau-soleums
and other structures testify to the ingenuity of
the ancient Chinese whose urban centers were the
largest in the world.
Origins of Modern Project Management
Project Management, as we are familiar with it
today, is a comparatively recent addition to
management science. Project Management arose
out of the need to effectively and efficiently
manage very large and complex projects for which
the conventional management approach was
considered inadequate. Project Management tools
and techniques were first systematically applied
by the United States Department of Defence.

Major Projects in the Contemporary Age
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How Important are Projects?
  • Projects are the building blocks of the myriad
    achievements in the architectural, artistic,
    economic, scientific, technological, and in many
    other fields which characterize our human
  • Life, with all the comforts and niceties
  • as we know it today, would not be
  • possible without projects!

Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Every building in the world from the crudest
garden shed to the ritzy glitzy cloud-piercing
behemoths constructed from steel, concrete and
glass that shape cityscapes across the globe
started their existence as projects. Buildings
are the most ubiquitous symbols of projects on
our planet. They serve many fun-ctions for
example, residential, work, offi-cial,
educational, cultural, medical, industrial,
shopping, recreational and religious. Building
are constantly getting taller and out-landish in
their appearance as cities are ra-cing to compete
with each other in the battle of superlatives.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example Civil
Every nation needs a robust, well-conceived and
maintained, and expanding physical infrastructure
in order to grow and prosper. The entire stock
of a countrys physical infrastructure is based
on projects. For example, dams, irrigation
systems, electricity generating stations and
transmission systems, airports, seaports, railway
and highway systems, bridges and tunnels,
shipping canals, factories, buildings and urban
development all started their existence as
projects. Subsequent modifi-cation or expansion
work on them is also done through projects.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Electricity Generation)
Can anyone imagine life without electricity? For
our contemporaries who takes this ubiquitous
source of energy for granted, the notion would be
hard to swallow! After all, we use it to power
our electrical appliances at home and in our
workplaces, to run the machines in our factories,
to light up our homes, streets and cities, and so
forth. Without electricity a modern economy would
grind to an abrupt halt. Vast sums are being
spent annually world-wide on projects for
building thermal, hydro and nuclear power
stations and the requisite transmission
infrastructure for distributing the electricity
produced in these stations.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Electricity from Renewable Sources)
Electricity is, without a shred of doubt,
indis-pensable for modern societies. But it also
comes at a high price, not only in monetary terms
but also in terms of the permanent depletion of
limited natural resources and the adverse impact
which the conventional electricity generating
stations have on our physical environment. For
years interest has been steadily growing in
tapping alternative or renewable sources of
generating electricity, namely, solar, wind,
geothermal, biomass and tidal, which do not
exhibit the drawbacks of their conventional
counterparts. However, the overall share of
renewable energy is comparatively small.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example Crude
Crude Oil The worlds Black Gold and precious
natural resource that keeps the global economy
functioning as well as our motor vehicles. It
is the source of the inesti-mable wealth of
degenerate Arab Princes and powerful oil
companies and the propeller of the Middle Easts
economic bonanza. Governments and the corporate
sector have invested vast sums in on- and
off-shore oil exploration and extraction
projects, and to develop the requisite processing
and distribu-tion infrastructure, such as
petroleum refine-ries, storage containers,
tankers and pipe-lines, some of which carry oil
across national borders over thousands of miles.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Natural Gas)
Natural Gas, like crude oil, is a hydrocarbon and
is important though on a comparatively lessor
scale - for keeping the global economy
functioning. Natural gas is used, inter alia, to
generate electricity in thermal power sta-tions,
as an industrial input and for heating homes and
offices in winter. Compared to crude oil, natural
gas is considered an environmentally-friendlysou
rce of energy. As with oil, vast sums have been
invested over time in projects for on- and
off-shore natural gas exploration and extraction,
for developing processing facilities and for
trans-porting natural gas through pipelines, some
of which are also thousands of miles long.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example Roads)
All of us travel down two roads the bumpy road
of life, and the asphalted roads criss-crossing
our planet through its plains, de-serts, forests
and hilly and mountainous terains, connecting our
villages, towns and cities and other places.
Constructed since ancient times, roads serve as
the prime guarantor for the mobility not only for
the individuals travelling on them but also for
ideas, knowledge, innovations, trade and
commerce. The advent of the automobile and
colossal investment in road construction and
expansion projects across the globe over the past
100 years has assured man mobility on a scale
never seen before.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Few of us who have travelled on roads or on rail
tracks would not have crossed a bridge at some
point in time. Bridges are an integral part of
the road and rail system and are usually
constructed at critical points along the route,
such as rivers, bays, gorges and narrow valleys,
where con-tinuity of the road or rail tracks is
not feasi-ble or desirable. Building bridges can
be a challenging under-taking for civil engineers
and requires a high degree of skill and precision
to minimize the risk of collapse. In recent years
a number of bridge megaprojects have been
completed around the world.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Tunnels like bridges - are an integral part of
the road and rail system and most of us would
have driven through a tunnel at some point in
time. Unlike bridges, which are erected to
enable traffic over otherwise impassable terrain,
tunnels are constructed to enable traffic to pass
through big obstacles such as hills and
mountains. Tunnels form the basis for the sewage
and subway systems which have been constructed in
many cities. For civil en-gineers, tunnel
construction projects present complex challenges
for too. The most famous tunnel is the one under
the English Channel linking the UK with France.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Airports they are the gateways for quick, cheap
and convenient travel and transport to
destinations within countries, regions,
con-tinents and the whole world. Whether for
business or pleasure, for study-ing, emigrating,
visiting family and friends, or for myriad other
reasons, people are taking to the skies in ever
increasing num-bers. Airports service hundreds of
millions of passengers and hundreds of millions
of tonnes of freight every year. All over the
world, huge investments are being made in
projects for constructing new (greenfield)
airports or forn upgrading and modernizing
existing airports.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Information Communications Technology )
An enormous number of projects are being
undertaken by all types of organizations in the
field of information and communication
technology. We live in the digital age where
for years the focus of interest is shifting
towards the knowledge economy. Information on a
scale hitherto unimaginable is being stored and
processed in, and being transferred from, vast
corporate and government com-puter databases.
Without ICT, economic growth and prosperity would
not be possible on the scale which we have grown
accustom-ed to.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example Mines)
Our planet is endowed with diverse natural
resources in vast quantities. Yet it does not
give up its treasures easily considerable
ef-fort and cost is needed to access them from
under the surface. For thousands of years, man
has used the technique of mining to extract the
Earths re-sources. Over time the tools used to
develop mines evolved from crude implements to
sophisticated and massive drilling and
exca-vation machinery. The economic prosperity of
many countries depends on mine products which
include precious/semi-precious metals and stones
besides copper, iron, salt and uranium and other
less precious products.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Factories are the places where production inputs
are transformed into outputs. They are a pillar
of the global economy and responsi-ble for much
of the value creation that goes with
it. Factories come in all shapes and sizes.
Pro-ducts like aircraft, automobiles, bricks,
capi-tal goods, cement, chemicals, components,
consumer electronics, foods and beverages,
machinery, office supplies, paper,
pharma-ceuticals, IT-Hardware, shoes, steel,
textiles, and weapons are all produced in
factories. Every factory starts initially as a
project until its completion and commencement of
pro-duction (i.e. operations phase).
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Since man walked the earth he is in a perpe-tual
state of conflict with his species. Wars, within
and between states, some lasting years and even
decades, have been (and are being) fought and
countless millions have perished in a frenzied
orgy of violence which has overshadowed the
course of our history. Todays weapons have
evolved into a level of technological
sophistication and devastative power on a scale
never witnessed before. Billions of monies are
spent every year in the research centres and labs
of weapon manu-facturers in the USA, Europe and
Asia on pro-jects for developing new, even more
potent tools of death.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example Law
Effective Law Enforcement is the requirement of
any civilized society. The practical
responsibility for maintaining law and order in a
country lies primarily with its police forces.
Law enforcement projects encompass many fields,
notably information management, forensics,
development of ad-vanced communication systems,
and major event security. Due to the sensitivity
of law enforcement work, many of its projects are
subject to intense public scrutiny. Examples
The Interpol Database, Schengen Information
System, AFIS, and establishment of
state-of-the-art forensic laboratories.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example Social
A nations social development would be
in-conceivable without projects. This is a field
dominated by the public-sector and
non-governmental organizations. For example,
the provision of universal primary and secondary
education, creation of medical facilities and
schemes in remote rural areas to create awareness
about disease prevention, provision of sanitation
and clean drinking water, promotion of gen-der
empowerment, creation of institutions for
providing microcredits for generating income and
employment for the impoverished are all the
result of projects.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Managers like to assert that human resources are
an organizations most valuable resource.
Likewise, it seems reasonable to assert that an
educated and technically skilled popula-tion is a
societys most valuable resource. The fact that
countries with few natural re-sources like Japan,
Germany, South Korea and Singapore count among
the worlds most prosperous aptly illustrates the
point. The education sector offers many
opportuni-ties for projects. Construction of new
primary and secondary schools, vocational
training centres and universities is a case in
point as are projects for expanding and improving
existing facilities and the quality of teaching.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example Health)
Good health is the most precious thing any human
being can have. All the wealth in the world can
offer no solace if a person suffers from acute
and chronic ailments. Huge sums are being
invested in health pro-jects. New clinics,
dispensaries, hospitals, and rehabilitation
centers are being con-structed. Specialized and
highly sophisti-cated machines for medical
diagnostic and operative purposes are being
developed and introduced. In research
laboratories across the globe, medical
researchers are hard at work searching for cures
for a host of disea-ses and trying to devise new,
more effective techniques of treatment.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example New
Product Development)
We live in the age of consumerism. As
indivi-duals we constantly want access to a
larger, better and cheaper spectrum of products
and services. The sky is the limit as far as our
demands are concerned. The development of all
new products is typi-cally a project-based
undertaking. It starts with the recognition of a
market demand for new items for example, for a
sweeter, frothy non-alcoholic beverage or a
sleek, sexy hand-held high-definition digital
cam-corder which doubles up as a camera. As the
product life-cycle decreases, companies are
coming under increasing pressure to inno-vate and
outperform the competition.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example Crisis
Relief and rehabilitation projects are undertaken
in response to emergencies or crisis situations
occurring periodically across the globe, caused
by nature (for e.g. earthquakes, floods,
torna-does, hurricanes, cyclones, avalanches,
land-slides, volcanic eruptions, famines caused
by drought, epidemics and pandemics) or by man
(for e.g. civil strife and transnational wars).
Projects of this nature are quite difficult, are
initiated usually at very short notice, can be
dangerous and are emotionally distressing for
both the project staff and beneficiaries.
More-over, the task of coordinating with the
officials of host countries and other
stakeholders poses numerous challenges.
Projects in the Contemporary Age(Example
Processes are frequently the focus of pro-jects.
Processes determine in large measure the
effectiveness and efficiency of the operations of
organizations in the private, public and
non-governmental sectors. Often, organizations
discover that there is a need for them to modify,
optimize, redesign or completely reeengineer
their existing pro-cess assets with the help of
projects in order to ensure their competiveness,
growth or survival.
Major Projects in Pakistan (Examples)
  • Tarbela Dam
  • Mangla Dam
  • Ghazi-Barotha
  • Kot Addu
  • Chashma Nuclear Power Station
  • Islamabad-Lahore Motorway
  • Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway
  • Karakorum Highway
  • Jinnah International Airport
  • Allama Iqbal International Airport
  • Muslim Commercial Bank
  • National Stadium Karachi
  • Shah Faisal Mosque
  • Shaukat Khanum Memorial Hospital
  • JF-17 Sino-Pakistan Combat Aircraft

Mangla Dam
Mangla Dam in Azad Jammu Kashmir is the worlds
twelfth largest dam. One of the two major dam
projects based on the Indus Basin Treaty of 1960,
construction of this dam was completed in 1967
across the Jhelum River with a loan from the
World Bank. It is located about 160 kilometres
south-east of Islamabad.
The Mangla Dam serves two major objectives (1)
increasing the availability of water from the
Jhelum River for irrigation and (2) generating
electricity. Main structures include 4 embankment
dams, 2 spillways, 5 power-cum-irrigation tunnels
and a power station.
The Mangla Dam is 10,300 feet (3140 m) long and
454 feet (138 m) high (above core trench) with a
reservoir of 97.7 square miles (253 km²). Tens of
thousands of persons were displaced in
consequence of the dams construction and scores
of settlements flooded.
Due to sedimentation losses of approx. 20, a
project to raise the level of the Mangla Dam by
about 30 feet was initiated in 2004. Expected to
be completed in mid-2007, the project will cost
approx. 62 billion Rupees.
Chashma Nuclear Power Complex
Located at Kundial in Punjab province, the
Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP) comprises
one existing nuclear power station. An additional
facility is presently under construction.
CHASNUPP is Pakistans second nuclear power
generation plant after the Canadian-designed
KANUPP in Karachi.
Based on Chinese technology and using the
pressurized water system design, construction on
the 300 MW CHASNUPP-1 commenced in 1993 and it
was connected to the national power grid on 14th
June 2000.
In 2004, an agreement between China and Pakistan
was signed to set up a second 300 MW nuclear
power generation facility (CHASNUPP-2) adjacent
to CHASNUPP-1. The project cost of CHASNUPP-2
is estimated at US Dollars 600 million and the
plant is expected to become operational in 2010.

Islamabad-Lahore Motorway
Constructed by a consortium led by the South
Korean Daewoo company over the period 1992 97
at an estimated cost of around Rs. 30 billion,
the Islamabad-Lahore Motorway was a massive
project involving 3 major river bridges, 8
interchanges, 27 flyovers, 17 bridges on canal,
39 bridges on drains and 4 overhead railway
crossing, 183 subways and cattle creeps, 22
culverts on canals and 73 culverts on drains.
Daily traffic capacity on the 338 kilometer long
motorway was estimated at 8,000 to 12,000
vehicles per day. Speed is limited to 120
kilometers per hour.
Karakorum Highway
The Karakorum Highway is the highest asphalted
road in the world. Also called the friendship
highway, it was constructed as a Sino-Pakistan
partnership venture. The highway was commissioned
in 1986 after 20 years of construction work and
runs about 1300 kilometers from Havelian near
Islamabad, passes through the Khunjerab Pass at
the Chinese-Pakistan border (4800 meters) and
ends at Kashgar in Chinas Xinjiang province.
More than 800 Pakistani and 50 Chinese workers
died in the construction effort. A project to
expand the breadth of the highway was signed by
the Governments of Pakistan and China in 2006.
Jinnah International Airport, Karachi
The largest domestic and international airport
Pakistan, Jinnah International Airport in Karachi
has a passenger capacity handling of 12 million
per annum, of which about 6 million are presently
being serviced. It has 16 passenger gates and can
service 30 planes at the same time. The airport
is used by a large number of foreign airlines and
it is the hub of the Pakistan International
Airlines and several domestic airlines.
Shah Faisal Mosque
Shah Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is one of the
largest mosques in the world. Proposed by Saudi
Arabias late King Faisal during a state visit to
Islamabad in 1966, and designed by a Turkish
architect, construction on the mosque lasted from
1976 to 1988 and cost approx. US Dollars 120
million which was paid by Saudi Arabia. The
architecturally imposing mosque, which is
Islamabads main landmark, has an area of about
5,000 square meters and can accommodate up to
100,000 persons on its premises, initially housed
the International Islamic University.
Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital
The Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and
Research Centre in Lahore is the brainchild of
Pakistani politician and philanthropist Imran
Khan after whose deceased mother the complex is
named. The first facility dedicated to cancer
treatment in Pakistan, its mission is to provide
best possible care to cancer patients and those
patients who cannot financially afford treatment.
Construction of the state-of-the-art hospital
commenced in 1991 and it was opened on 29th
December 1994. The project cost was about US
Dollars 24 million. A massive fundraising
campaign was launched in Pakistan and throughout
the world.
The hospital provides free medical treatment to
most of its patients and is financed largely from
donations in and outside Pakistan. Since 1994,
tens of thousands of cancer patients have been
treated at the hospital.
Major Projects in Pakistan(under consideration
or in planning)
  • Basha Dam
  • Kalabagh Dam
  • Islamabad International Airport
  • Turkmenistan to Pakistan/India gas
  • Pipeline
  • Iran to Pakistan Gas Pipeline
  • Universities of Engineering, Science
  • and Technology
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