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The Sun-Earth-Moon System

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Title: The Sun-Earth-Moon System


1
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
  • Chap. 28

Tools of Astronomy The Moon Sun-Earth-Moon System
2
Tools of Astronomy 28.1
Objectives
  • describe electro-magnetic radiation.
  • explain how telescopes work
  • describe space exploration

http//www.physics.unr.edu/cshirley/images.html
3
  1. Electromagnetic Radiation (light)

4
  1. Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  1. Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)

5
  1. Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  1. Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  2. Most light cannot be seen by the human eye

6
  1. Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  1. Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  2. Most light cannot be seen by the human eye
  3. Different light has different wavelengths

7
  1. Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  1. Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  2. Most light cannot be seen by the human eye
  3. Different light has different wavelengths
  4. Frequency is related to wavelength

The longer the wave the the frequency
8
  1. Electromagnetic Radiation (light)
  1. Only part of the spectrum is visible (ROY G BIV)
  2. Most light cannot be seen by the human eye
  3. Different light has different wavelengths
  4. Frequency is related to wavelength

The longer the wave the shorter the frequency
9
  1. Telescopes

Yerkes observatory (WI), 1897
10
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction

11
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  1. Purpose to collect light and focus it

Globular Star Cluster M15, Milky Way
12
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  1. Purpose to collect light and focus it
  2. Telescopes magnify objects

This is the secondary function of a telescope
13
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types

14
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  1. Refractor

http//www.yesmag.bc.ca/how_work/telescope.html
15
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  1. Refractor
  1. Uses glass lenses

16
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  1. Refractor
  1. Uses glass lenses
  2. Often made from two lenses an objective and an
    eyepiece

http//www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm
17
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  1. Reflector

http//www.yesmag.bc.ca/how_work/telescope.html
18
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  1. Reflector
  1. Uses mirrors

19
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  1. Reflector
  1. Uses mirrors
  2. Light often strikes a series of mirrors

http//www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm
20
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  1. Reflector
  1. Uses mirrors
  2. Light often strikes a series of mirrors

http//www.astro-tom.com/telescopes/telescopes.htm
21
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  3. Benefits

22
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  3. Benefits
  1. Can utilize a variety of detectors

23
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  3. Benefits
  1. Can utilize a variety of detectors
  2. Can focus more light than the eye

24
  1. Telescopes
  1. Introduction
  2. Types
  3. Benefits
  1. Can utilize a variety of detectors
  2. Can focus more light than the eye
  3. Can make time exposure photos

http//www.wam.umd.edu/iblumgar/eclipse.html
25
  1. Telescopes
  1. Location

26
  1. Telescopes
  1. Location
  1. Away from cities

27
  1. Telescopes
  1. Location
  1. Away from cities
  2. On high mountains

28
Griffith Observatory So. California 1,100 feet
29
Mt. Wilson Observatory So. California 5,600
feet
30
http//www.ucolick.org/kibrick/
Keck Observatory Mauna Kea 14,000 feet
31
  1. Telescopes
  1. Location
  2. Other telescopes
  1. Radio-telescopes collect .

http//pics.bothner.com/2002/RadioTelescope/
32
  1. Telescopes
  1. Location
  2. Other telescopes
  1. Radio-telescopes collect radio waves
  2. Interferometry links multiple ________

33
  1. Telescopes
  1. Location
  2. Other telescopes
  1. Radio-telescopes collect radio waves
  2. Interferometry links multiple telescopes

34
VLA Radio Antennas Socorro, NM
35
  1. Collecting data beyond Earth

36
  1. Collecting data beyond Earth
  1. Space telescopes

37
  1. Collecting data beyond Earth
  1. Space telescopes
  2. Spacecraft/probes

38
  1. Collecting data beyond Earth
  1. Space telescopes
  2. Spacecraft/probes
  3. Space station

39
The End
40
The Moon 28.2
Objectives
  • describe the develop-ment of exploration of the
    Moon.
  • identify features on the Moon.
  • explain the theories about how the Moon formed.

41
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)

The first , launched by .
42
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)

The first satellite, launched by Russia
43
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)
  2. Vostok 1 (1961)

first man in space, he was
from .
44
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)
  2. Vostok 1 (1961)

Yuri Gagarin first man in space, he was from
Russia.
45
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)
  2. Vostok 1 (1961)
  3. Mercury (1961)

was the first American
in space.
46
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)
  2. Vostok 1 (1961)
  3. Mercury (1961)

Alan Shepard Jr was the first American in space.
47
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48
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)
  2. Vostok 1 (1961)
  3. Mercury (1961)
  4. Gemini (1963-1966)

This craft was designed to carry people.
49
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)
  2. Vostok 1 (1961)
  3. Mercury (1961)
  4. Gemini (1963-1966)

This craft was designed to carry 2 people.
50
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51
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)
  2. Vostok 1 (1961)
  3. Mercury (1961)
  4. Gemini (1963-1966)
  5. Apollo 11 (1969)

Landed the first man, ,
on the moon.
52
  1. Historic Missions
  1. Sputnik I (1957)
  2. Vostok 1 (1961)
  3. Mercury (1961)
  4. Gemini (1963-1966)
  5. Apollo 11 (1969)

Landed the first man, Neil Armstrong, on the moon.
53
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54
  1. Lunar Properties

55
  1. Lunar Properties
  1. Earths moon is larger than most

Only Jupiter and Saturn have larger moons.
56
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57
  1. Lunar Properties
  1. Earths moon is larger than most
  2. Earths moon is farther than most

Most moons are closer to their planets.
58
  1. Lunar Properties
  1. Earths moon is larger than most
  2. Earths moon is farther than most
  3. The moon is solid and rocky

Not icy or gaseous like many other moons.
59
  1. Lunar Properties
  1. Earths moon is larger than most
  2. Earths moon is farther than most
  3. The moon is solid and rocky
  4. Earths moon is one of the few moons of the inner
    planets.

Mercury and Venus have none, Mars moons are tiny
60
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61
  1. The Moons Surface

62
  1. The Moons Surface
  1. Has relatively low albedo (7)

Albedo describes amount of sunlight reflected.
63
  1. The Moons Surface
  1. Has relatively low albedo (7)
  2. Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

This is due to the moons lack of
.
64
  1. The Moons Surface
  1. Has relatively low albedo (7)
  2. Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)

This is due to the moons lack of an atmosphere.
65
  1. The Moons Surface
  1. Has relatively low albedo (7)
  2. Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)
  3. Highlands

Light in color, mountainous, and cratered.
66
  1. The Moons Surface
  1. Has relatively low albedo (7)
  2. Temperatures fluctuate a lot (from 400K to 100K)
  3. Highlands
  4. Maria

Dark, smooth plains, associated with rilles
(long, narrow straight valley
67
  1. The Moons Surface
  1. Impact craters knock out ejecta.

Material expelled from crater. Long strands of
ejecta are called rays.
68
  1. The Moons Surface
  1. Impact craters knock out ejecta.
  2. Moons craters are easier to see than Earths.

This is because there is more
on Earth.
69
  1. The Moons Surface
  1. Impact craters knock out ejecta.
  2. Moons craters are easier to see than Earths.

This is because there is more weathering on Earth.
70
  1. History

71
  1. History
  1. Believed to be 3.8 4.6 byo.

Based on radioisotope dating of rocks.
72
  1. History
  1. Believed to be 3.8 4.6 byo.
  2. Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800
    million years.

Most of the craters have dark ejecta meaning
theyre old.
73
  1. History
  1. Believed to be 3.8 4.6 byo.
  2. Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800
    million years.
  3. This action produced regolith.

This is the loose, ground up moon rock.
74
  1. History
  1. Believed to be 3.8 4.6 byo.
  2. Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800
    million years.
  3. This action produced regolith.
  4. Maria formed later from magma.

This explains the darker color.
75
  1. History
  1. Believed to be 3.8 4.6 byo.
  2. Bombarded heavily by projectiles for first 800
    million years.
  3. This action produced regolith.
  4. Maria formed later from magma.
  5. Flowing lava created rilles.

Not created by flowing water, but flowing lava.
76
  1. Formation Theories

77
  1. Formation Theories
  1. Capture Theory

Moon formed elsewhere and was captured by Earths
gravity.
78
  1. Formation Theories
  1. Capture Theory
  1. How did object slow down?

79
  1. Formation Theories
  1. Capture Theory
  1. How did object slow down?
  2. What explains similar composition to Earths?

80
  1. Formation Theories
  1. Capture Theory
  2. Simultaneous Formation Theory

Moon and Earth formed in space at same time, near
each other
81
  1. Formation Theories
  1. Capture Theory
  2. Simultaneous Formation Theory
  1. Explains same composition and proximity.

82
  1. Formation Theories
  1. Capture Theory
  2. Simultaneous Formation Theory
  1. Explains same composition and proximity.
  2. Does not explain Earths higher iron content.

83
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84
  1. Formation Theories
  1. Impact Theory

Earth was hit by Mars-size object, and layers of
crust/mantle material were ejected.
85
  1. Formation Theories
  1. Impact Theory
  1. Moon received iron-poor material.

86
  1. Formation Theories
  1. Impact Theory
  1. Moon received iron-poor material.
  2. Heat evaporated water from moon.

87
The End
88
Sun-Moon-Earth System 28.3
Objectives
  • Identify the relative positions and motions of
    Earth, the Sun, and the Moon
  • Describe the phases of the Moon.
  • Explain eclipses of the Sun and Moon.

89
  1. Motion

We are moving at a speed of mph
around the sun (and rotating about mph).
90
  1. Motion

We are moving at a speed of 67,000 mph around the
sun (and rotating about 1000 mph).
91
  1. Motion
  1. Evidence of motion

How do we know there is motion?
92
  1. Motion
  1. Evidence of motion
  1. Apparent motion of sun

93
  1. Motion
  1. Evidence of motion
  1. Apparent motion of sun
  2. Apparent motion of moon

http//www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/watchtheskies/
20jun_moonillusion.html
94
  1. Motion
  1. Evidence of motion
  1. Apparent motion of sun
  2. Apparent motion of moon
  3. Apparent motion of stars

http//www.sufism.org/society/articles/sema_camill
e.html
95
  1. Motion
  1. Evidence of motion
  2. Rate of motion

Each day the sun moves an apparent 360º. This
means it appears to move º/minute.
96
  1. Motion
  1. Evidence of motion
  2. Rate of motion

Each day the sun moves an apparent 360º. This
means it appears to move 0.25 º/minute.
97
  1. Motion
  1. Evidence of motion
  2. Rate of motion
  3. How do we know Earth is moving?

. . .and not the rest of the universe?
98
  1. Motion
  1. Evidence of motion
  2. Rate of motion
  3. How do we know Earth is moving?
  1. A Foucault pendulum

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foucault_pendulum
99
  1. Motion
  1. Evidence of motion
  2. Rate of motion
  3. How do we know Earth is moving?
  1. A Foucault pendulum
  1. Coriolis effect

http//www.atmos.ucla.edu
100
  1. Earths Tilt

101
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic

102
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  2. Earths axis of rotation is not perpendicular to
    its ecliptic

It tilts by .
103
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  2. Earths axis of rotation is not perpendicular to
    its ecliptic

23.5º
It tilts by 23.5º.
104
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  2. Earths axis of rotation is not perpendicular to
    its ecliptic
  3. In the Northern hemisphere the Suns altitude in
    the sky is higher in the .

105
Altitude is measured in degrees from the
observers horizon to the object..
106
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. Earth moves in a plane called the ecliptic
  2. Earths axis of rotation is not perpendicular to
    its ecliptic
  3. In the Northern hemisphere the Suns altitude in
    the sky is higher in the summer.

107
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices

108
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer

109
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  1. Longest day of the year (in Northern hemisphere)

110
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  1. Longest day of the year (in Northern
    hemisphere)
  2. Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer
    (23.5º N)

111
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  1. Longest day of the year (in Northern
    hemisphere)
  2. Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer
    (23.5º N)
  3. Occurs around June 21

112
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  1. Longest day of the year (in Northern
    hemisphere)
  2. Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Cancer
    (23.5º N)
  3. Occurs around June 21
  4. Sun never sets in Arctic circle

113
Summer Solstice
114
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  2. Winter

115
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  2. Winter
  1. Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)

116
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  2. Winter
  1. Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
  2. Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn
    (23.5º S)

117
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  2. Winter
  1. Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
  2. Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn
    (23.5º S)
  3. Occurs around December 21

118
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  2. Winter
  1. Most hours of darkness (in N. hemisphere)
  2. Sun is directly overhead at Tropic of Capricorn
    (23.5º S)
  3. Occurs around December 21
  4. Sun never rises in Arctic circle

119
Winter Solstice
120
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  2. Winter
  3. Equinoxes

121
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  2. Winter
  3. Equinoxes
  1. Occur at midpoint between solstices

122
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  2. Winter
  3. Equinoxes
  1. Occur at midpoint between solstices
  2. Sun directly overhead at equator

123
  1. Earths Tilt
  1. The solstices
  1. Summer
  2. Winter
  3. Equinoxes
  1. Occur at midpoint between solstices
  2. Sun directly overhead at equator
  3. Both hemispheres receive equal sunlight

124
Self Check
  1. At which point is summer solstice?

125
Self Check
  1. At which point is summer solstice?
  2. At which point is the vernal equinox

126
  1. Phases of the Moon

127
Go to diagram
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases

128
Go to diagram
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases
  1. New moon

The moon is between Earth and the Sun we dont
see the lit surface
129
Go to diagram
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases
  1. New moon
  2. Waxing crescent

Waxing means increasing
130
Go to diagram
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases
  1. New moon
  2. Waxing crescent
  3. First quarter

Observed ¼ of the way through a lunar month
131
Go to diagram
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases
  1. New moon
  2. Waxing crescent
  3. First quarter
  4. Waxing gibbous

Gibbous means more than ½ but less than full
132
Go to diagram
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases
  1. Full moon

The moon is on opposite sides of the Earth from
the Sun we see the entire lit surface
133
Go to diagram
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases
  1. Full moon
  2. Waning gibbous

Waning means decreasing in size/intensity
134
Go to diagram
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases
  1. Full moon
  2. Waning gibbous
  3. Third quarter

Observed ¾ into the lunar month
135
Go to diagram
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases
  1. Full moon
  2. Waning gibbous
  3. Third quarter
  4. Waning crescent

136
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Names of the Phases
  2. Synchronous Rotation

For each revolution of the moon it makes one
rotation.
137
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Timing

138
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Timing
  1. It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its
    (a lunar month).

139
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Timing
  1. It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its
    orbit (a lunar month).
  2. During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its
    orbit which º.

140
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Timing
  1. It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its
    orbit (a lunar month).
  2. During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its
    orbit which 13º.
  3. This means the Earth must rotate an extra 13º to
    catch up to the moon.

Each night the moonrise occurs about minutes
later.
141
  1. Phases of the Moon
  1. Timing
  1. It takes the moon about 27.3 days to complete its
    orbit (a lunar month).
  2. During 24 hours the moon moves 1/27.3 of its
    orbit which 13º.
  3. This means the Earth must rotate an extra 13º to
    catch up to the moon.

Each night the moonrise occurs about 50 minutes
later.
142
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143
  1. Eclipses

144
  1. Eclipses
  1. Solar Eclipse

145
  1. Eclipses
  1. Solar Eclipse
  1. The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the
    Earth

June 29, 2006 Solar Eclipse
146
  1. Eclipses
  1. Solar Eclipse
  1. The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the
    Earth
  1. The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

If the umbra passes over your location you see no
sun ( Eclipse)
147
  1. Eclipses
  1. Solar Eclipse
  1. The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the
    Earth
  1. The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the shadow.

If the umbra passes over your location you see no
sun (Total Eclipse)
148
  1. Eclipses
  1. Solar Eclipse
  1. The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the
    Earth
  1. The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the
    shadow.
  2. The Penumbra is the lighter, outer shadow.

If the penumbra passes over your location you see
some of the sun ( Eclipse)
149
  1. Eclipses
  1. Solar Eclipse
  1. The moon creates a shadow that covers part of the
    Earth
  1. The Umbra is the darker, inner part of the
    shadow.
  2. The Penumbra is the lighter, outer shadow.

If the penumbra passes over your location you see
some of the sun (Partial Eclipse)
150
Photos Taken During Partial Eclipse
151
Solar Eclipse
152
  1. Eclipses
  1. Solar Eclipse
  2. Annular Eclipse

Occurs when the Earth/Moon system are separated
by maximum distance.
153
  1. Eclipses
  1. Solar Eclipse
  2. Annular Eclipse
  1. Apogee

Furthest distance between Moon and Earth.
154
  1. Eclipses
  1. Solar Eclipse
  2. Annular Eclipse
  1. Apogee
  2. Perigee

Smallest distance between Moon and Earth.
155
  1. Eclipses
  1. Lunar Eclipse

Moon is partially blocked by the .
156
  1. Eclipses
  1. Lunar Eclipse

Moon is partially blocked by the Sun.
157
  1. Eclipses
  1. Lunar Eclipse
  1. These last longer than Solar eclipses because. . .

158
  1. Eclipses
  1. Lunar Eclipse
  1. These last longer than Solar eclipses because. .
    .
  2. Even though moon passes through umbra, it is not
    completely dark because. . .

159
The End
160
The Moons Phases (from above)
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