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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

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CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. How To Be Heart Smart! Chapter 8. THE 10 OZ. PUMP. DID YOU KNOW? ... Coronary Heart Disease. CHD is the Major form of Cardiovascular Disease ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE


1
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
  • How To Be Heart Smart!
  • Chapter 8

2
THE 10 OZ. PUMP
  • DID YOU KNOW?....
  • THE HEART PUMPS ABOUT 1 MILLION BARRELS OF BLOOD
    DURING AN AVERAGE LIFETIME!
  • THAT AMOUNT OF BLOOD IS ENOUGH TO FILL 3 SUPER
    TANKERS!

3
IN ONE DAY
  • BLOOD TRAVELS A TOTAL OF 12,000 MILES
  • THATS FOUR TIMES THE DISTANCE ACROSS THE U.S.
    FROM COAST TO COAST!

4
WHAT IS Cardiovascular Disease?
  • Includes
  • Coronary Heart Disease
  • Heart Attack
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Strokes
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Congestive Heart Failure

5
Coronary Heart Disease
  • CHD is the Major form of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Arteries are narrowed by fatty deposits such as
    cholesterol and triglycerides.
  • Blood supply is thereby limited to heart muscle
    precipitating a heart attack.

6
FACTS ABOUT CHD
  • 1 KILLER OF BOTH MEN AND WOMEN
  • 50 OF AMERICANS WILL DIE OF CHD

7
Leading Risk Factors for CHD
  • Physical Inactivity (greatest impact)
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Excessive Body Fat
  • Low HDL-Cholesterol
  • Elevated LDL-Cholesterol
  • Elevated Triglycerides
  • Elevated homocysteine
  • High sensitivity CRP

8
more risk factors
  • Diabetes
  • Abnormal Electrocardiograms (ECG)
  • Tobacco Use
  • Stress
  • Family History
  • Age
  • Gender

9
CHD Prevention
  • To understand how to prevent CHD, we must
    understand how it begins.
  • Atherosclerosis precursor to CHD triglyceride
    and cholesterol deposits in lining of walls of
    arteries

10
Control Your Cholesterol Levels
  • To prevent atherosclerosis, first you must
    control damaging cholesterol levels.
  • You should have blood lipid profile once every 5
    years beginning at 20 yrs of age.

11
Lipid Profile
  • Blood Lipids are fatty substances present in
    blood and body tissues. This includes cholesterol
    and triglycerides.
  • Blood Test includes
  • Total Cholesterol
  • HDL Cholesterol (high density lipoprotein)
  • LDL Cholesterol (low density lipoprotein)
  • Triglycerides

12
Cholesterol
  • What is Cholesterol?
  • -odorless, white, waxy powdery substance. It is
    tasteless/you cannot see it in the foods you eat.
    Your body needs some to function properly.
  • Lipoproteins are the carriers for
    cholesterol-protein coated packages/classified by
    their Density.

13
Know Your Numbers!
  • Total Cholesterol should be kept below 200mg/dl
  • TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
  • less than or 200mg/dl Desirable
  • 201-239 mg/dl Borderline High
  • 240 mg/dl High Risk

14
LDL Cholesterol
  • LDL speeds up the process of atherosclerosis.
    Think of LDL as the arsonist
  • LDL-Cholesterol
  • less than or 130 mg/dl Desirable
  • 131 159 mg/dl Borderline High
  • 160 or higher High Risk

15
HDL Cholesterol
  • Think of HDL Cholesterol as the scavenger the
    sweeper the firefighter
  • HDL Cholesterol
  • Greater than or 45mg/dl Desirable
  • 36-44 mg/dl Moderate Risk
  • Less than 35 mg/dl High Risk

16
FACTS about HDL Cholesterol
  • Research has shown that low levels of HDL
    cholesterol could be the BEST predictor of CHD.
  • Estrogen raises HDL!
  • HDL decreases with age
  • Black children and adult black men have higher
    HDL values than whites

17
How can I raise my HDL?
  • Aerobic exercise increases HDL levels!---the more
    the exercise, the higher HDL
  • Weight loss raises HDL
  • Niacin raises HDL
  • Quitting Smoking raises HDL

18
How do I lower LDL Cholesterol?
  • Diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol
  • Increase fiber intake (25-38 grams/day)
  • Get those MUFAs and PUFAs remember these lower
    LDL cholesterol!
  • Keep cholesterol under 200mg/day to lower LDL
  • Keep red meat consumption low (less than 3xwk
    No organ meats like kidneys and liver)

19
more on LDL reduction
  • Avoid commercially baked foods
  • Avoid trans-fatty foods
  • Drink low fat milk
  • Avoid coconut oil, palm oil, cocoa butter
  • Bake, broil, grill, poach or steam food
  • Avoid fatty sauces

20
Triglycerides
  • Main type of fat stored in body
  • Also called free fatty acids
  • Speed up plaque formation in arteries
  • Found in poultry skin, lunchmeats, shellfish
  • Manufactured in liver from refined sugars
    (including honey), starches and alcohol.

21
Triglyceride Levels
  • Less than or 150 mg/dl Desirable
  • 150 199 mg/dl Borderline High
  • 200 499 mg/dl High
  • Greater than or 500 mg/dl High Risk

22
The Big Picture
  • http//www.fda.gov/hearthealth/healthyheart/health
    yheart.html
  • http//www.fda.gov/hearthealth/conditions/atherosc
    lerosis.html

23
Other Risk Factors for CHD
  • If cholesterol levels are normal, researchers
    will look for other causeshigh levels of
    homocysteine may play a role in CHD.
  • Body uses homocysteine to build proteins and
    carry out cell metabolism
  • Homocysteine can damage the lining of arteries,
    stimulate plaque formation and encourages
    clotting.

24
Homocysteine
  • Eat recommended servings of fruits, veggies, meat
    and legumes. This provides sufficient folate and
    B6---that will remove and clear homocysteine from
    the blood.

25
C-Reactive Protein
  • IF cholesterol normal and arterial plaque
    normal inflammation may play a role in
    triggering heart attacks.
  • C-Reactive Protein increases in blood if
    inflammation occurring in body.
  • CRP will appear years prior to heart attack or
    stroke.

26
More on CRP
  • CRP tests predict the probability of plaque
    rupturing in arteryreleasing free floating
    plaque in blood thereby producing a stroke or
    heart attack.
  • Statin drugs (cholesterol and inflamation
    lowering) may help.
  • Omega 3 fatty acids (salmon, tuna, mackerel)
    inhibit inflammation.
  • Alcohol intake and high protein diets increase
    CRP.

27
Heart Attack Warning SignsAHA
  • 1. Chest discomfort. 
  • 2. Discomfort in other areas of the upper body.  
  • 3. Shortness of breath. May occur with or without
    chest discomfort.  
  • Other signs 
  • These may include breaking out in a cold sweat,
    nausea or lightheadedness       
  • Call 9-1-1... Get to a hospital right away.
  • If you can't access the emergency medical
    services (EMS), have someone drive you to the
    hospital right away. If you're the one having
    symptoms, don't drive yourself, unless you have
    absolutely no other option. 
  • American Heart Association

28
Signs of Cardiac Arrest
  • Cardiac arrest strikes immediately and without
    warning. Here are the signs
  • Sudden loss of responsiveness. No response to
    gentle shaking.
  • No normal breathing. The victim does not take a
    normal breath when you check for several seconds.
  • No signs of circulation. No movement or coughing.
  • If cardiac arrest occurs, call 9-1-1 and begin
    CPR immediately. If an automated external
    defibrillator (AED) is available and someone
    trained to use it is nearby, involve them.
  • American Heart Association

29
Stroke Warning Signs
  • Warning signs of Stroke
  • 1. Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm
    or leg, especially on one side of the body   
  • 2. Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or
    understanding   
  • 3. Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes   
  • 4. Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of
    balance or coordination   
  • 5. Sudden, severe headache with no known cause
  • If you or someone with you has one or more of
    these signs, don't delay! Immediately call 9-1-1
    or the emergency medical services (EMS)
  • The American Stroke Association

30
What is a Stroke?
  • A blood vessel leading to the brain is blocked or
    bursts preventing oxygen and nutrients from
    reaching the brain
  • 2 Types Ischemic and Hemorrhagic
  • Ischemic (blockage) accounts 83 of all strokes.
  • Hemorrhagic less common (17) vessel bursts
    blood leaks into brain

31
Ischemic Stroke
  • Cerebral Thrombosis Blood clot develops in
    vessel
  • Cerebral Embolism blood clot forms at another
    location in circulatory system (i.e., large
    arteries of upper chest and neck)clot breaks
    away and travels to vessels too small to carry it.

32
TIAs
  • Transient Ischemic Attacks minor strokes clot
    occurs for short time them resolves itself.
  • Symptoms may go away, but strong indicator of
    major stroke in future.

33
Risk Factors for Stroke
  • Same as all cardiovascular diseases
  • Smoking
  • Lifestyle habits
  • Diet
  • Blood Pressure
  • Physical Inactivity
  • Overweight
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