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POSTWAR SOCIETY AND CULTURE: CHANGE AND ADJUSTMENT

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CHAPTER 24 (640-667) POSTWAR SOCIETY AND CULTURE: CHANGE AND ADJUSTMENT CLOSING THE GATES TO NEW IMMIGRANTS Immigration rose from 110,000 in 1919 to 805,000 in 1921 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: POSTWAR SOCIETY AND CULTURE: CHANGE AND ADJUSTMENT


1
POSTWAR SOCIETY AND CULTURE CHANGE AND ADJUSTMENT
  • CHAPTER 24 (640-667)

2
CLOSING THE GATES TO NEW IMMIGRANTS
  • Immigration rose from 110,000 in 1919 to 805,000
    in 1921 and continued to rise
  • Congress passed an emergency act to place quotas
    on immigration 3 of the foreign born
    population as of 1910 in 1924 it was reduced to
    2 and the base year shifted to 1890 thus many
    southern and eastern Europeans were not allowed
    in
  • In 1929, the number was limited to 150,000
    actually far fewer were allowed to enter
  • The National Origins Act brought the foreign born
    population of America from about 13 in 1920 to
    4.7 in 1970 in 2005 it was 11
  • Anti-Semitism began to rise in America

3
NEW URBAN SOCIAL PATTERNS
  • 1920 census more Americans lived in urban
    rather than rural places for the first time
  • More and more people married for love and
    attraction than social status than ever
  • They married later and had fewer children
  • Intra-family democracy emerged
  • Advocates of trial marriages began to appear
  • scientific child rearing medical care and
    nutrition but also rigid training vs.
    permissive approach
  • Sexual freedom derived from anonymity

4
THE YOUNGER GENERATION
  • The Jazz Age young people sought freedom and
    entertainment
  • The old ways were no longer any good society
    was changing faster every year
  • Dating became the norm, rather than calling on
    the girl the man became responsible for driving
    and providing the entertainment
  • Women smoked, shortened their hair, wore make-up,
    and shortened their skirts
  • Sexual relationships became more open and
    accepted a push was made to legalize birth
    control

5
THE NEW WOMAN
  • Contraception was still focused on married
    couples
  • Margaret Sanger began to focus on poor women to
    educate them about birth-control she ran afoul
    of the law frequently and is associated with the
    eugenics movement.
  • Some scientists began promoting birth control as
    a means to curb the productivity of unfit types
    (read poor and/or immigrants)

6
THE NEW WOMAN
  • Divorce laws were being modified to be more equal
  • More women were working the Department of Labor
    established a Womens Bureau in 1920
  • More women graduated from college but they were
    forced into subjects that made them better
    housewives
  • There was still a huge double-standard
  • Women were paid less and limited to the types of
    jobs they could do
  • After the 19th Amendment was passed, many lost
    their desire to work for change, believing that
    the vote would fix everything it did not, at
    least not right away

7
POPULAR CULTURE MOVIES AND RADIO
  • The first motion pictures were made about 1900
  • As they became more popular, technological
    advances increased to allow actual movies with
    sound and effects
  • In the 1920s the film industry settled in
    Hollywood, CA
  • Theaters became popular, Daily ticket sales
    averaged 10 million by the 1930s, million
    dollar productions were common

8
POPULAR CULTURE MOVIES AND RADIO
  • As today, sex, crime, war, romance, comedy and
    luxurious living were common themes
  • Many complained that movies were corrupting the
    youth and glorifying materialism
  • Charlie Chaplin, Walt Disney
  • Radio was even more popular important during
    the war, it was an overnight sensation afterward
  • KDKA in Pittsburg was the first commercial radio
    station in 1920, soon there were hundreds
  • Radio instantly communicated news,
    advertisements, and music
  • In 1934 the Federal Communications Commission was
    formed to govern the radio industry

9
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10
THE GOLDEN AGE OF SPORTS
  • After the war, people had more money to spend and
    sports grew in popularity add to that the
    ability to broadcast events over the radio
  • Superstars began to emerge
  • Red Grange Illinois Football
  • Jack Dempsey Boxing
  • Big Bill Tilden Tennis
  • Bobby Jones Golf
  • Helen Wills Tennis
  • Gertrude Ederle Swimming
  • Babe Ruth Baseball
  • New stadiums were built, football became prominent

11
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12
URBAN-RURAL CONFLICTS FUNDAMENTALISM
  • Many rural people felt that the new city-oriented
    culture was sinful, materialistic, and unhealthy
    though admittedly fascinating
  • Out of this feeling a resurgence of religious
    fundamentalism grew a very conservative frame
    of mind, rejecting evolution, resenting many
    aspects of modern culture
  • William Jennings Bryan was a champion of many
    fundamentalist ideas especially the
    anti-evolutionist idea

13
URBAN-RURAL CONFLICTS FUNDAMENTALISM
  • The Scopes Trial
  • John T. Scopes, a biology teacher, was convinced
    to violate Tennessee law against teaching
    evolution he was arrested
  • Numerous big name lawyers came to his defense,
    including Clarence Darrow Bryan was brought in
    by the state
  • The whole trial was a show both the
    evolutionists and fundamentalists came out
    looking foolish and weak but both continued

14
URBAN-RURAL CONFLICTS PROHIBITION
  • The 18th Amendment (1919) prohibited the
    manufacture, sale, and transportation of
    alcoholic beverages
  • This was a rural triumph the temperance
    movement had been alive since Jackson
  • The war helped the movement because food
    production became so important and beer drinking
    was associated with Germans

15
URBAN-RURAL CONFLICTS PROHIBITION
  • Average consumption went from 2.6 gallons to
    under 1 gallon in the 1930s
  • Arrests for drunkenness fell sharply
  • Death from alcoholism fell also
  • Fewer workers squandered their wages on drink
  • Of course, strict enforcement was impossible, and
    smuggling became a major business
  • Consumption of sacramental wine increased by
    800,000 gallons
  • Doctors proscribed alcohol more freely
  • Saloons were replaced by speak easys secret
    bars overlooked by the police
  • Organized crime became more powerful

16
THE KU KLUX CLAN
  • Reformed in 1915, the Klan admitted only
    native-born white Protestants
  • By 1923 they claimed 5 million members
  • They appealed to masses of people who were
    frustrated and hostile but afraid to express
    themselves the Klan wore masks, hid behind
    crazy titles and mystical sounding jargon,
    intimidated people, burned crosses, and tried to
    influence people against blacks, Jews, and
    immigrants, and Catholics

17
THE KU KLUX CLAN
  • They had little support in the North or in large
    cities, but had large membership in smaller towns
    in the mid-west, west, and south
  • Their own activities led to factionalism and
    squabbling they also made many enemies
  • By 1930, they only had about 9,000 members and
    ceased to be important
  • The third KKK was revived in 1946

18
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19
LITERARY TRENDS
  • After the Civil War literature trended toward
    realism after WWI it trended toward
    disillusionment
  • Many became intense critics of society and many
    flocked to places like Rome, Berlin, and Paris
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald, Earnest Hemingway, Edith
    Wharton, H.L. Mencken, Sinclair Lewis

20
THE NEW NEGRO
  • With the Klan and the backlash against black
    labor after the war, the post-war period brought
    despair for many blacks
  • They were increasingly being forced into ghetto
    neighborhoods and treated poorly
  • W.E.B. Du Bois became more militant calling them
    cowards and jackasses if they dont rise up to
    fight
  • Marcus Garvey, another black leader, preached
    Back to Africa and built racial pride among the
    poorer blacks Du Bois couldnt stand him

21
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22
THE NEW NEGRO
  • Ghetto life had some perks
  • By congregating they could elect their own
    representatives to congress
  • They had economic opportunities
  • More freedom (within the ghetto)
  • Black writers, musicians, and artists found an
    audience there Jazz was created there
  • The ghetto was a black world where black men and
    women could be themselves
  • The Harlem Renaissance became the cultural
    capital, newspapers, theaters, magazines, and
    culture flourished

23
ECONOMIC EXPANSION
  • Business boomed, wages increased, unemployment
    declined 40 of the worlds wealth was in
    American hands
  • Laissez-faire government toward business
    bolstered confidence
  • The Federal Reserve kept interest rates low
  • Pent-up wartime demand further stimulated it
  • Continued mechanization and rationalization of
    industry kept it rolling industrial output
    almost doubled between 1921 and 1929
  • By 1929, the US was producing more electricity
    than the entire world combined

24
THE AGE OF THE CONSUMER
  • Needing to create new consumer demands,
    advertisers and marketers became very important
    to the business world
  • Manufacturers continued to improve their
    products, installment payment plans were
    developed
  • Radios, automobiles, electric appliances,
    gadgets, entertainment all these influenced
    business

25
THE AGE OF THE CONSUMER
  • The automobile industry was one of the most
    important
  • By 1929, there were 23 million private cars on
    the road nearly one per family
  • The auto industry created other whole industries
    and consumed huge amounts of natural resources
  • It triggered huge national road building projects
  • The tourist industry grew rapidly

26
THE AGE OF THE CONSUMER
  • The automobile changed recreational patterns
  • Created a new generation of tinkerers and
    mechanics
  • It gave Americans more freedom
  • There were also bad side effects
  • Numerous billboards clogging the scenery
  • Traffic jams and soaring accident rates
  • Air pollution

27
HENRY FORD
  • Henry Ford did not invent the automobile
  • Ransom E. Old produced the first low-cost car the
    Merry Oldsmobile
  • Fords contribution was in the realm of mass
    production he developed the assembly line
    system, cutting costs, increasing efficiency, and
    increasing production
  • Ford also recognized the importance of high wages
    to promote increased production

28
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29
HENRY FORD
  • Ford was also stubborn
  • He didnt change the Model T for nearly 20
    years, allowing other car makers to take a large
    portion of his business
  • He refused to deal with any unions
  • He employed spies to investigate the lives of
    his workers and thugs to enforce his rules - He
    fired any employee not driving a Ford
  • Ford was outspoken and not well liked a genius
    manufacturer, he was not a successful politician
    or humanitarian

30
THE AIRPLANE
  • The Write Brothers flew at Kitty Hawk in 1903,
    ushering in a new era
  • Malcolm and Haimes Lockheed built the first
    passenger plane the Model G - in 1913 they
    gave rides for 5
  • Airplane technology was greatly advanced during
    eh war years as its limits were tested in battle
  • Barnstormers circus people of the skies
  • Charles Lindbergh flew from New York to Paris in
    33 hours in May 1927 a striking achievement
    that increased the publics awareness and
    interest in flight
  • In July 1927, William E. Boeing began running
    passengers and mail between San Francisco and
    Chicago this spurred more creativity and
    invention in the aeronautical world

31
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