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Story Literary Elements

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Story Literary Elements Unit Vocabulary Genres: fiction, non-fiction, drama, poetry Stages of plot Conflict Flashback Foreshadowing Narrator Point of View Inferences ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Story Literary Elements


1
Story Literary Elements
2
Unit Vocabulary
  • Genres fiction, non-fiction, drama, poetry
  • Stages of plot
  • Conflict
  • Flashback
  • Foreshadowing
  • Narrator
  • Point of View
  • Inferences
  • Characteristics
  • Setting
  • Theme
  • Mood
  • Tone

3
Genres
  • What is fiction?
  • Made up events and characters
  • What is Non-fiction?
  • Tells about real people, events, and places
  • What is poetry?
  • Literature in which words are chosen and arranged
    in a precise way to create certain sounds and
    meanings
  • What is Drama?
  • Characters and conflicts are developed through
    dialogue and actions

4
Understanding Literature Narratives
  • Fiction genres
  • Novel
  • Short story
  • Science fiction
  • Fable
  • Myth
  • Legend
  • Folk tale
  • Fairy tale
  • Play (comedy, tragedy)
  • Mystery
  • Historical fiction
  • Adventure story
  • Fantasy
  • In class we use
  • Fiction
  • Realistic
  • Fantasy
  • Traditional
  • Non-fiction
  • Biography
  • Informational
  • Poetry

5
Nonfiction
  • Comprehension of nonfiction
  • Identify the authors point of view or
    perspective
  • Identify the main idea, primary hypothesis, or
    primary purpose (e.g., to persuade, to inform, to
    analyze, or to evaluate)
  • Evaluate the clarity of the information
  • Make valid inferences or conclusions based on the
    selection

6
Nonfiction
  • Identify, where appropriate, an authors appeal
    to reason, appeal to emotion, or appeal to
    authority
  • Evaluate the relationship between stated
    generalizations and actual evidence given
  • Evaluate organization of a selection
  • For informational texts, evaluate the
    effectiveness of their organizational and graphic
    aids

7
Nonfiction genres
  • Trade Book
  • Biography
  • Autobiography
  • Essay
  • News article
  • Editorial
  • Professional journal articles
  • Book review
  • Political speech
  • Technical manual
  • Primary source material
  • Lewis and Clark

8
Poetry
  • Construction of meaning in poetry
  • Main idea or theme
  • Symbolism
  • Tone, emotion

9
Poetry
  • Poetic elements
  • Verse, stanza
  • Meter
  • Line length
  • Punctuation

10
Poetry
  • Rhyme and Sound Patterns
  • Rhyme scheme
  • Onomatopoeia - words such as buzz or murmur that
    imitate the sounds associated with the objects or
    actions they refer to
  • Repetition of words
  • Alliteration - same kinds of sounds at the
    beginning of words
  • Assonance - repetition of identical or similar
    vowel sounds

11
Poetry
  • Imagery and figures of speech
  • Personification - Flowers danced about the lawn
  • Metaphor - All the world's a stage
  • Simile - How like the winter hath my absence been
    or So are you to my thoughts as food to life
  • Hyperbole - I could sleep for a year or This book
    weighs a ton.

12
Poetry
  • Elegy
  • Sonnet
  • Limerick
  • Haiku
  • Poetic types and forms
  • Lyrical
  • Concrete
  • Free verse
  • Narrative
  • Couplet

This is the BEST review site English Poetry
http//www.leavingcert.net/skoool/junior.asp?id14
77
13
Resource and research material
  • Reference works
  • Dictionary
  • Encyclopedia
  • Thesaurus
  • Atlas
  • Almanac

14
Fiction
15
What is a PLOT?
  • A sequence of events that is fueled by a conflict
    within a literary text.
  • 1. Exposition
  • 2. Rising Action
  • 3. Climax
  • 4. Falling Action
  • 5. Resolution

16
The First Stage of Plot Development
  • Exposition
  • What are the 3 literature elements in an
    exposition?
  • 1. Character
  • 2. Setting
  • 3. Conflict

17
Stories are run by the conflict.
Man vs. Man

Man vs. Nature
Man vs. Society
Man vs. Himself
18
External vs. Internal Conflict
  • External conflicts are
  • Man vs. Man
  • Man vs. Nature
  • Man vs. Society
  • Man vs. Technology
  • Man vs. Fate
  • Internal conflict is
  • Man vs. Himself

19
What are these 2 types of conflicts?
  • External
  • Internal

20
What is the next stage of the plot?
  • Rising Action
  • What is the rising action?
  • Where the characters go through obstacles that
    make the conflict more complicated.
  • The plot thickens

21
What is the next stage of the plot?
  • The Climax
  • Which is the.
  • Turning point of the story.

22
The climax is the most exciting part!! Most
intense or dramatic
23
Falling after the climax
  • Falling action
  • Which
  • Reveals the outcome of the storys climax

24
Finally the conflict within a plot takes us to
the
  • Resolution
  • Which is where
  • The storys final outcome and any loose ends are
    tied up.

25
Question
  • Does every story follow through a plot diagram
    from the exposition to the resolution?
  • No, some stories keep us hanging and dont
    complete to the resolution.
  • Name a story like this

26
Question
  • When a story goes through the sequence of events
    what is it called when a character remembers
    something from their past?
  • Flashback

27
Question
  • When a story offers information that gives hints
    and clues that has the reader thinking something
    is going to happen in the future of the story,
    what is this called?

28
foreshadowing
For example, if you hear this
Then you know someones about to get eaten!
29
Who brings a Character to life?
  • The Narrator or the Point of View the text is
    written in.

30
Cornell Notes page 162
  • Narrator
  • First person
  • the person who is telling the story
  • The narrator is a character in a work of
    literature.
  • Is a main or minor character
  • Uses the pronouns I and me to refer to himself or
    herself
  • Shares his or her thoughts, feelings, and
    opinions of the characters and events
  • Doesnt know the thoughts, feelings, and opinions
    of other characters

31
  • Third-person limited
  1. Is not a character in the story but an outside
    observer
  2. Zooms in on the thoughts, feelings and opinions
    of one character

32
  • Third-person omniscient
  • Is not a character in the story but an outside
    observer.
  • Is All Knowing that is he or she has access to
    the thoughts, feelings, and opinions of all the
    characters.

33
Steps to determining the point of view
  • Step 1
  • Notice the pronouns the narrator uses.
  • I ,me, and ,my ,the story is told by a first
    person narrator .
  • he, she, him, and her, the story is told by a
    third-person narrator

34
  • Step 2 Identify the narrator and the point of
    view
  • Ask Who is telling the story?
  • FIRST PERSON The narrator participates in the
    action of the story and uses pronouns, such as I,
    we, and us
  • THIRD PERSON The narrator is an outside observer
    and uses pronouns, such as he an she.

35
  • For the third person
  • Step 3 Identify third-person omniscient or
    third-person limited.
  • Omniscient The narrator knows the thoughts and
    feelings of all the characters in the story.
  • Limited The narrator know the thoughts and
    feelings only of one character in the story.

36
Practice Think Pair Share
  • 1.
  • A. Her son in kindergarten told her about a
    mischievous classmate named Charles.
  • B. My son in kindergarten told me about a
    mischievous classmate named Charles.
  • 2.
  • A. When we adopted the little boy, we never
    dreamed we would be such a wonderful gift.
  • B. When Bill and Angela adopted the little boy,
    they never dreamed they would find him to be such
    a wonderful gift.

37
  • 1. The brilliant detective Sherlock Homes and his
    humble friend, Dr. Watson, have solved many
    baffling mysteries together. One of their
    strangest cases began early one morning when a
    terrified young woman came to visit them. She
    said that her sister had been killed in her own
    locked room.
  • A. First Person B. Third-person
  • 2. When I inspected the room carefully, I
    suspected how the murder had been committed.
    Even though the door was locked and the windows
    were barred, I saw that something small and
    deadly could have crawled in through ventilator
    hole in the wall. Without sharing my ideas with
    Watson, I announced that we would spend the night
    in the room.
  • A. First Person B. Third-person

38
Red Riding HoodVersion 1
  • I skipped up to the door of my grandmothers
    house in the clearing singing out, Are you
    there, Grandma? Then I heard a strange, gruff
    voice bark out, Yes, my child, That cant be
    Grandmas voice, I thought. Cautiously, I
    asked, Why dont you open the door, Grandma?
    The voice replied, I'm sick in bed with a cold.
    Just lift the latch and walk in. For a moment,
    I thought about running home through the woods.
    Then I thought, Maybe Grandma is really sick.
    I lfted the latch and the door creaked open.

39
Version2
  • Little Red Riding Hood skipped up to the door of
    her grandmothers house in the clearing signing
    out, Are you there, Grandma? Inside, the wolf
    licked his lips, thinking how clever he was.
    Yes, my child, he replied. Red Riding Hood,
    startled, thought, That cant be Grandmas
    voice She hesitated, then she asked, Why dont
    you open the door, Grandma?" Hiding his
    impatience, the wolf moaned, Im sick in bed
    with a cold. Just lift the latch and walk inn.
    For a moment, Red Riding Hood thought about the
    running home through the woods. Then she
    thought, Maybe Grandma is really sick. She
    lifted the latch and the door creaked open.

40
Version 3
  • The wolf heard Little Red Riding Hood sing out,
    Are you there, Grandma? He licked his lips,
    thinking how clever he was. Yes, my child, he
    replied. There was a silence outside the door,
    then Red Riding Hood asked, Why dont you open
    the door, Grandma? Hiding his impatience, the
    wolf moaned, Im sick in bed with a cold. Just
    lift the latch and walk in. Again there was a
    long pause. The wolf waited, wondering whether
    he should spring out of bed, throw open the door,
    and grab Red Riding Hood before she could run
    away. Then he saw the latch slowly lift and the
    door creak open. The wolf was so pleased with
    the success of his plan that he could barely
    conceal a toothy grin.

41
  • Minor Characters
  • Character Traits
  • Less than important character
  • Qualities of a character such as personality

42
CHARACTERIZATION
  • The methods an author uses to reveal a
    characters personality.
  • There are two types of characterization.

43
Types of Characterization
  • Direct Characterization
  • The author or narrator makes direct statements
    about a characters traits
  • Indirect Characterization
  • The author or speaker reveals a characters
    personality through the characters own words,
    thoughts, and actions and through the words,
    thoughts, and actions of other characters.

44
Every story needs characters
  • People

Animals
Or Creatures
45
PROTAGONIST VS. ANTAGONIST
  • Protagonist- The central character in a literary
    work around whom the main conflict revolves. The
    protagonist is often the person with whom the
    audience members or readers sympathize or
    identify.
  • Antagonist A person or force in society or
    nature that causes a problem for the protagonist,
    or central character.

46
The protagonist is the good guy the MAIN
character
47
The antagonist is the bad guy or force
48
Identify Character Traits
  • From
  • 1. Direct Comments about the characters
    personality by the narrator.
  • 2. Physical Description of a characters
    appearance.
  • 3. Speech, Actions, or Thoughts of a character.
  • 4. How other characters React to the character

49
Types of Characters
  • Round character a character the reader gets to
    know very well will show varied and sometimes
    contradictory traits
  • Flat character reveals only one personality
    trait to the reader
  • Stereotype a character who is not developed as
    an individual, but as a collection of traits and
    mannerisms shared by a group.

50
Question on Traits
  • Despite her athletic build, sleek clothing, and
    racing bike, Kat never looked smooth or polished.
    She had dirt under her nails from fixing her
    bike, and always chewed a stray hair. She tended
    to stand knock-kneed if she ever stood in one
    place at all.

51
Answer
  • Trait awkward, fidgety, hardworking,
    introverted, quiet
  • How do we know Through the narrators
    description of the characters physical
    description.

52
Question
  • A natural athlete, Julie had been training for
    the bicycle race for months, for she was
    single-minded and determined beyond her fifteen
    years.

53
Answer
  • Trait determined, single-minded, serious
  • How do we know Direct comments about the
    characters personality by the narrator.

54
Question
  • She felt she had to prove that she was faster
    than anyone else. But she worried too. If I
    let up for even one day, she thought, someone
    stronger and faster will beat me.

55
Answer
  • Trait competitive, insecure
  • How do we know? Speech, actions, or thoughts of a
    character.

56
Question
  • Lora pulled up beside Esperanza, breathless from
    riding, but not a hair out of place. Im racing
    next month at fairhaven. Esperanza didnt reply,
    so Lora plunged ahead. I guess youre a racer
    too. Maybe we could, train together? Uh
    maybe, Esperanza mumbled. She hopped back on
    her bike. Lora watched her ride away, feeling a
    little stupid.

57
Answer
  • Trait Esperanza-awkward, abrupt, loner
  • Lora-friendly sensitive
  • How do we know?
  • How other characters react.

58
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59
SETTING
  • The time and place in which the events of a
    story, novel, or play occur. The setting often
    helps to create an atmosphere or mood. Setting
    is not just physical! It includes ideas,
    customs, values, and beliefs of a particular time
    and place.

60
Theme
  • The main idea or message of a literary work.
  • Theme is not the subject of the work, but instead
    is an insight about life or human nature.
  • There are two types of theme.

61
Types of Theme
  • Stated Theme- Theme that is expressed directly
    and explicitly. Very clear to the reader.
  • Implied Theme Revealed gradually through such
    other literary elements as plot, character,
    setting, point of view, imagery, figures of
    speech, or symbolism.

62
A Theme is a universal message or truth about life
63
Sometimes implied
  • Through metaphor
  • Through simile
  • Through personification
  • Through imagery
  • Through tone of voice
  • Through symbols

64
Implied through simile
  • Dream Deferred
  • What happens to a dream deferred?
  • Does it dry up
  • like a raisin in the sun?
  • Or fester like a sore
  • and then run?
  • Does it stink like rotten meat?
  • Or crust and sugar over
  • like a syrupy sweet?
  • Maybe it just sags
  • like a heavy load
  • Or does it just explode?
  • - Langston
  • Hughes

Back
65
Implied through personification
  • Sleeping in the Forest
  • by Mary Oliver
  • I thought the earth remembered me,
  • she took me back so tenderly,
  • arranging her dark skirts, her pockets
  • full of lichens and seeds.
  • ---

Back
66
Implied through tone of voice
Back
67
Implied through symbols
Back
68
Implied through metaphors
  • Life is a yo-yo. It's a series of ups and downs.

Back
69
Implied through Imagery
70
SUSPENSE
  • The growing interest and excitement readers
    experience while awaiting a climax or resolution
    in a work of literature.
  • To build suspense, an author may use
    foreshadowing as well as a number of other
    literary devices.

71
Symbol
  • An object, a person, a place, or an experience
    that represents something else, usually something
    abstract. A symbol may have more than one
    meaning, or its meaning may change from the
    beginning to the end of a literary work.

72
TONE
  • A reflection of a writers or speakers attitude
    toward a subject of a poem, story, or other
    literary work. Tone may be communicated through
    words and details that express particular
    emotions and that evoke an emotional response in
    the reader.

73
MOOD
  • The feeling or atmosphere that an author creates
    in a literary work. The mood can suggest a
    specific emotion, such as excited or fearful.
    Mood can also suggest the quality of a setting,
    such as somber or calm.

74
Irony
  • The general term for a literary technique that
    portrays differences between appearance and
    reality, expectation and result, or meaning and
    intention.
  • There are three main types of irony.

75
Types of Irony
  • Situational irony exists when the actual
    outcome of a situation is the opposite of what is
    expected.
  • Verbal irony exists when a person says one
    thing and means another
  • Dramatic irony exists when the reader knows
    something that a character does not know

76
Dialect, Dialogue, Local Color
  • Dialect A variation of a standard language
    spoken by a group of people, often within a
    particular region.
  • Dialogue Conversation between characters in a
    literary work. Dialogue brings characters to
    life by revealing their personalities and by
    showing what they are thinking and feeling as
    they react to other characters.
  • Local Color The use of specific details to
    re-create the language, customs, geography, and
    habits of a particular area.

77
Whether youre the reader, or the writer, a great
story includes all these literary elements!!!
foreshadowing
protagonist
Mood
conflict
theme
climax
characters
setting
Plot
antagonist
Tone
point of view
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