Chapter 29 Mount Everest: Climbing the World - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 45
About This Presentation

Chapter 29 Mount Everest: Climbing the World


They include monuments, groups of buildings, or an old city (ex: India s Taj ... Natural sites: areas with unique physical features (ex: Grand Canyon in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:188
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 46
Provided by: JayAp2


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 29 Mount Everest: Climbing the World

Chapter 29Mount Everest Climbing the Worlds
Tallest Physical Feature
I. Geoterms
  • a. Acclimatize the process of adjusting to lower
    oxygen levels at high elevation. Climbers adjust
    through exercise and rest as they gradually move
    higher. Prevents climbers from getting ill from
    the lack of oxygen.
  • b. Carrying capacity the number of people or
    animals the environment of an area can support. A
    places carrying capacity depends on the
  • c. Exposure the harmful effects (injury or
    death) of cold, wind, or other extreme weather
  • d. World Heritage Site a place of great natural
    or cultural value that has been placed on
    UNESCOs World Heritage List. UNESCO helps
    countries preserve these sites for future

II. Geographic Setting
  • a. Many Ways to the Top
  • i. Key facts
  • 1. Located in the Himalaya Mountains of southern
    Asia, along the border between Nepal and the
    Chinese region of Tibet. Also, it is within
    Nepals Sagarmatha National Park, which was named
    a World Heritage site in 1979.
  • 2. 1999 measured summit height as 29,035 feet.
    (More than 5 miles high)
  • 3. Mountain named Everest for a British official
    in India.
  • 4. In Nepal, its known as Sagarmatha, meaning
    forehead in the sky
  • 5. In Tibet, its known as Chomolungma, meaning
    mother of the world

  • ii. May 29, 1953 first successful ascent of
    Mount Everest by Edmund Hillary of New Zealand
    and Tenzing Norgay (a Sherpas) of Nepal.
  • 1. Since then, a few thousand have attempted to
    climb the mountain, approx. 2,000 have reached
    the summit, and 180 or more have died ascending
    or descending Everests slopes.

  • iii. Many routes to the top.
  • 1. Two main approaches
  • a. Southeast ridge from Nepal. Most popular.
  • b. Northwest ridge from Tibet.
  • 2. Climbers climb in stages for weeks stopping at
    camps on the side of the mountain at each stage
    where climbers acclimate.
  • iv. April and May most summit attempts when the
    weather is at its best.
  • 1. Temperature never rises above freezing at the
  • 2. Weather conditions can still be deadly.

  • b. Protecting the Future of Mount Everest
  • i. With increased popularity, increased overuse
  • 1. Trash climbers in the past left cans,
    bottles, and garbage at camps. Most of the trash
    has since been picked up, but the necessity to
    keep the mountain clean remains a concern.

  • 2. Overcrowding during climbing season, camps
    become small villages, with dozens of people. 30
    climbers might reach the summit per day with
    lines forming to reach the summit.
  • a. Raises the issue of carrying capacity how
    many people are animals can the mountain support
    before damages occur to the site.
  • b. The issue of overcrowding is one reason why
    Sagarmatha National Park was declared a World
    Heritage site. UNESCO hopes to protect the site
    by drawing attention to it.

III. From Lukla to Base Camp
  • a. A Slow Start Helps Climbers Acclimatize
  • i. Generally, climbers start in Kathmandu,
    capital of Nepal, and fly to Lukla, at 9,350 feet
    above sea level. Then they hike to Base Camp, at
    17,600 feet, taking 6 to 8 days. This hike helps
    them acclimatize to the thinning air.

  • ii. Base Camp is set up every climbing season at
    the edge of Khumbu Glacier. With dozens or
    hundreds of tents, it is a tent city with
    kitchens, dining halls, and solar-powered lights.
    Typically, climbers spend several weeks at Base
    Camp adjusting to the thin air. Without
    successfully acclimatizing, climbers begin
    exhibiting symptoms of altitude sickness, also
    called Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS), at Base
    Camp. Symptoms include nausea, headaches, and in
    severe cases, fluid accumulation in the lungs,
    swelling of the brain, and death.

  • b. The Impact of Tourism
  • i. Nepal is a poor developing country.
  • ii. Positive side
  • 1. Tourism brings in money, with tourists
    purchasing food, lodging, and supplies.
  • 2. Villagers earn wages as porters, carrying
    heavy loads of equipment and supplies for
    climbers. Porters use yaks for transportation.

  • iii. Harmful effects
  • 1. Porters are sometimes overworked and
  • 2. Some of the villages have cut down trees to
    construct lodging for the tourist trade.
  • 3. More trees have been cut down to provide fuel
    for cooking and heating for tourists.
  • 4. Loss of trees has led to deforestation and
    soil erosion in the Everest region.

IV. From Base Camp to Camp I
  • a. Surviving the Khumbu Icefall
  • i. It is the second stage of the journey at
    19,500 feet.
  • ii. Khumbu Icefall consists of giant chunks of
    ice known as seracs.
  • iii. It is the most dangerous and deadly section
    of the climb with climbers being crushed by
    shifting seracs, falling into a crevasse (deep
    crack in the ice), or swept down the mountain by
    an avalanche. Climbers reduce their risks by
    starting before dawn, before the sun melts the
    ice, allowing the ice to shift.
  • iv. Generally takes one to three weeks to set up
    Camp 1, as climbers move up and down the icefall
    each day, transporting supplies to the higher
    camp. This helps climbers acclimatize.

Khumbu Icefall
  • b. Everests Expert Climbers The Sherpas
  • i. On an expedition climb, much of the work is
    done by a Himalayan people known as Sherpas.
    They function as guides, cooks, and porters.
    They set up camps and carry supplies. They set
    up ladders and ropes for safe passage through the
    Khumbu Icefall. Many have died doing so.
  • ii. Sirdar head sherpa. One for every
    expedition. Sometimes two, one stays at Base
    Camp and the other climbs to the summit.

The Sherpas
V. From Camp I to Camp IV
  • a. Through the Valley of Silence
  • i. Third stage takes climbers from Camp I to
    three more camps, the highest being Camp IV, at
    26,000 feet.
  • ii. Lhotse Face steep rock wall covered in ice.
    One of the most difficult parts of the climb.
  • iii. When climbers depart Camp I, they enter the
    Western Cwm (pronounced koom), also known as the
    Valley of Silence, a long valley with ridges on
    either side blocking the wind. Its a gradual
    climb that can become extremely hot on a sunny

Lhotse Face
Western Cwm
  • b. Crampons and Rocks Ascending to Camp IV
  • i. Camp II lies at the base of the Lhotse Face.
    Climbers use crampons (spikes attached to
    climbers boots) and ropes to ascend the ice
    covered wall, which rises up 3,700 feet.
  • ii. Camp III is perched on a narrow ledge halfway
    up the Lhotse Face.
  • iii. Climbers ascend another 1,500 feet to the
    South Col, a saddle (low point on a ridge
    connecting two peaks) between the Lhotse Face and
    the summit of Mount Everest, and the location of
    Camp IV.

South Col
  • iv. Camp IV is the Death Zone and final camp
    before the summit. Its difficult to breathe and
    the lack of oxygen puts climbers at risk for
    experiencing altitude sickness and they are more
    likely to make fatal mistakes. It is difficult
    to remain at this altitude for more than 2 or 3
    days, even with bottled oxygen. Most climbers
    are forced to turn back when the weather turns

  • c. Cleaning Up the Worlds Highest Junkyard
  • i. Camp IV earned the nickname, the worlds
    highest junkyard. It was a dumping ground for
    oxygen bottles, used climbing equipment, human
    waste, and dead bodies. From 1953 to the
    mid-1990s, 50 tons of glass, plastic, and metal
    were discarded on the slopes of Mount Everest.
    Since then, groups of climbers have scaled the
    mountain to bring down trash, making the mountain
    significantly cleaner.
  • ii. The government of Nepal charges climbers a
    fee for mountain use, using part of the money for
    waste cleanup.

  • iii. Climbing groups must leave a 4,000 garbage
    deposit with the government. Leaving trash
    losses climbers their deposit.
  • iv. Nepals government is working to reduce
    deforestation, by prohibiting the cutting down of
    trees for fires and requiring climbers to bring
    their own fuel with them to Everest.
  • v. Tree-planting programs have been organized in
    many parts of Nepal.

VI. From Camp IV to the Summit
  • a. Climbing in the Death Zone
  • i. Its 3,000 vertical feet from Camp IV to the
    summit at 29,035, taking approximately 12 hours
    to reach the summit and four hours to make the
    descent back to camp, beginning at around 11 P.M.
    The descent is dangerous due to fatigue.
  • ii. First, climbers ascend a long, steep ridge
    covered in unstable snow to the South Summit, a
    small dome of snow and ice just below the summit.
  • iii. Second, climbers ascend a knife-edge ridge.
  • iv. Third, climbers must get over the Hillary
    Step, a rock cliff 40 feet high. Its one of the
    toughest obstacles on Everest.

South Summit
Hillary Step
  • b. On Top of the World
  • i. From the summit, climbers see Tibet to the
    north and Nepal to the south.
  • ii. Summit is the size of a picnic table and
    covered with flags, photographs, offerings from
    previous visitors, used oxygen bottles, and other

  • c. Seeking Even Greater Challenges
  • i. Some climbers make the ascent without oxygen.
  • ii. Some climbers ascend rapidly (8 hour record
    set by a Sherpa in 2004 from Base Camp to
  • iii. 2001 first blind person to scale Everest.
  • iv. 2003 71 year old Japanese climber became the
    oldest person to reach the summit.
  • v. People have skied, snowboarded, and paraglided
  • vi. Some climbers consider the challenge of
    Everest to be one of the Seven Summits, the
    tallest mountains on all seven continents.

Oldest Person Katsusuke Yanagisawa
Blind Climber Erik Weihenmeyer
Snowboarding Everest
Seven Summits
VII. Beginning to Think Globally
  • a. Climbers must acclimatize as they ascend Mount
  • b. The danger of exposure to extreme weather
  • c. Effects of tourism on the Mount Everest
  • d. Tourism raises questions about the carrying
    capacity of the mountain environment.

VIII. Global Connections
  • a. How does a place become a World Heritage Site?
  • i. Countries can nominate special places to be
    included on the World Heritage List, and a
    committee at UNESCO votes.
  • ii. Three types of World Heritage sites natural,
    cultural, and mixed.
  • iii. Natural sites areas with unique physical
    features (ex Grand Canyon in Arizona).
  • iv. Cultural sites great historic, artistic, or
    scientific value. They include monuments, groups
    of buildings, or an old city (ex Indias Taj
  • v. Mixed sites combine natural and cultural
    features (ex the Mayan ruin of Tikal in the
    rainforest of Guatemala).

  • b. What risks do World Heritage sites face today?
  • i. Threatened by ethnic conflict or war.
  • ii. Endangered by pollution or development.
  • iii. Overuse when visitors exceed carrying
    capacity. Danger of being loved to death.

  • c. Why should World Heritage sites be protected?
  • i. Sites are among the greatest treasures in the
    world because they represent the wonders of
    nature or the finest expressions of human
  • ii. People visit to enjoy their beauty or learn
    more about the history and achievements of
  • iii. Protect them to preserve them for ourselves
    and the future.

World Heritage Sites
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)