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Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

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Title: Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine


1
Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
2
Glow-in-the-dark dogs!
3
What is stem cell research?
  • Understand more about development, aging, disease
  • Experimental model systems
  • Prevent or treat diseases and injuries
  • Cell-based therapies
  • Pharmaceutical development
  • Includes testing and drug delivery

4
Trachea transplantationExample of adult stem
cell-based tissue regeneration
5
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • How did they make those dogs?
  • Conclusion and future directions

6
Conception in a dish
Day 1
In the IVF procedure, sperm and eggs interact
in a dish leading to insemination. They literally
swim up to the egg and burrow toward the
nucleus. The first one to get there wins, and all
others are blocked out. Male fertility issue
Sometimes sperm cannot latch onto and penetrate
the egg. They may choose to have
Intra(within)-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
7
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
8
Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection
9
Day 1
10
Day 2
11
Day 2
12
Day 3
13
Day 4
14
Day 5
15
At what point is this a fetus?
  • Days 7-14 Uterine implantation
  • Day 14 Three distinct layers begin to
    form (no more pluripotent stem cells)
  • Days 14-21 Beginning of future nervous system
  • Days 21-24 Beginning of future face, neck,
    mouth, and nose
  • Weeks 3-8 Beginning of organ formation
  • This picture is Week 5
  • Week 5-8 Now its called a fetus
  • (no consensus on a single timepoint)

16
Embryonic Development Fish embryo
Keller et al. 2008
17
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

18
Drawings
1
2
2.5
4
3
5
19
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

20
Symmetric cell division
21
Asymmetric cell division
  1. Self-renews
  2. Differentiates

Progenitor cell
Stem cell
Stem cell
22
DIFFERENTIATION
DIFFERENTIATION
? SELF RENEWAL ?
23
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

24
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

25
Embryonic stem cells in the dishWhat do
cultured ES cells look like?
26
Fluorescent imaging of embryonicstem cell
colonies.
27
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

28
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

29
Pluripotent
Multi- potent
Fully mature
30
How do cells know what to become?
  • All cells in a person have the same DNA
  • Yet eye cells differ from nose cells
  • Central dogma of biology

31
Signals to Stem Cells
Little, et al. Chemical Reviews (2008).
32
Factors known to affect stem cells
  • Low stress levels
  • Regular exercise
  • Enriching experiences
  • Learning new information
  • Healthy diets rich in antioxidants
  • Avoid excessive drinking

Helping you help yourself
33
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

34
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

35
Experimental model systemHeart muscle cells
beating in a petri dish!
Videos by The Exploratorium
36
Bone marrow transplantExample of adult stem
cell-based therapy
37
Spinal cord injuryExample of embryonic stem
cell-based therapy
  • Geron video http//www.geron.com/grnopc1clearance
    /

38
What are stem cell technologies?
  • Cloning technologies
  • Is human cloning a technology?
  • What is different about cloning embryonic stem
    cells?
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem cells
  • New ways to potentially avoid the use of embryos
  • Disease-specific stem cell lines created
  • The promise and potential pitfalls of this
    approach
  • When does research actually become technology?

39
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Cloning of
embryonic stem cells
Udder cell
Egg cell
40
Types of Cloning
41
Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) CellsGenetically
engineering new stem cells
Skin cells
iPS cells
42
Outline of Presentation
  • Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
    development
  • What makes stem cells unique?
  • What do stem cells look like?
  • What are the different types of stem cells?
  • What are examples of stem cell research,
    therapies, and technologies?
  • Conclusion and future directions

43
Why do researchers want to use embryonic stem
cells along with other technologies?
  • Pluripotent
  • Expanded developmental potential allows them
  • to be used in ways that adult stem cells cannot
  • Can proliferate indefinitely in culture
  • Easier to obtain than adult stem cells

44
Science is discovering the unknown
  • Stem cell field is still in its infancy
  • Human embryonic stem cell research is a decade
    old, adult stem cell research has 30-year head
    start
  • Holds hope for curing or improving treatments for
  • 70 diseases
  • How can you help to shape the direction of this
    field?

45
Take our survey please!
Students  https//www.surveymonkey.com/s/stemcell
2010   Teacher  https//www.surveymonkey.com/s/s
temcellteach2010
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