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ITALY AND THE RENAISSANCE

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RENAISSANCE The Birth of Venus, Botticelli (1485) What was the Renaissance? The term means rebirth in this case, the term refers to a revival of art and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ITALY AND THE RENAISSANCE


1
ITALY AND THERENAISSANCE
  • The Birth of Venus, Botticelli (1485)

2
What was the Renaissance?
  • The term means rebirth in this case, the term
    refers to a revival of art and learning.
  • The Renaissance originated in Northern Italy and
    then spread throughout Europe.

3
Why Italy?
  • Italy had 3 advantages that made it the
    birthplace of the Renaissance.
  • 1. thriving cities
  • 2. a wealthy merchant class
  • 3. the classical heritage of Greece and Rome.

4
City-States
  • Overseas trade led to the growth of many large
    city-states in Northern Italy, making this part
    of the country predominately urban.
  • The bubonic plague caused labor shortages which
    pushed up wages. With few opportunities to expand
    business, merchants began to pursue art.

5
Merchants
  • A wealthy merchant class developed in each
    Italian city-state.
  • In Florence, a powerful banking family called the
    Medici came to power.

6
Cosimo de Medici
  • Dictator of Florence, 1434-1464.

7
Lorenzo de Medici
  • Followed his grandfather as ruler of Florence.

8
Heritage of Greece Rome
  • 1. Artists drew inspiration from the ruins of
    ancient Rome.
  • 2. Scholars studied ancient Latin manuscripts.
  • 3. Greek manuscripts were also in Rome after
    being relocated from Constantinople.

9
Renaissance Values
  • Humanism an intellectual movement that focused
    on human potential and achievements.
  • Represented a move away from the exclusively
    Christian values of the Medieval era.

10
Renaissance Values (contd)
  • Secularism a focus on the worldly rather than
    the spiritual and concerned with the here and
    now.
  • Led to an emphasis on worldly pleasure, such as
    material luxuries, music and food.

11
Renaissance Values (contd)
  • The Renaissance Man
  • All educated people were expected to master
    almost every area of study, such as dancing,
    music, art, poetry, horseback riding, wrestling,
    the classics, etc.

12
Renaissance Values (contd)
  • The Renaissance Woman
  • Well-educated but non-political.
  • Expected to inspire rather than create art.

13
Renaissance Art
  • Renaissance art involved stylistic change.
  • 1. Emphasized realism.
  • 2. More of a secular focus, utilizing Greek and
    Roman rather than spiritual subjects.
  • 3. Used perspective, or 3-D painting.

14
Michelangelo
  • Painter, sculptor, architect and poet.
  • Most famous for the way he portrayed the human
    body as influenced by classical art.

15
David
16
The Pieta, St. Peters Cathedral
17
The Sistine Chapel
18
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19
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20
Leonardo da Vinci
  • Painter, sculptor, inventor and scientist.
  • Ergo, often considered the quintessential
    Renaissance man.

21
Mona Lisa
22
The Last Supper
23
Adoration of the Magida Vinci
24
Raphael1483-1520
25
The School of Athens
26
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27
Renaissance Literature
  • Writers produced works that were secular as well
    as religious.
  • Writers began to use vernacular languages to
    express their ideas. This refers to their native
    language, rather than Latin.
  • Writers focused on the individuality of their
    subjects.

28
Dante
  • Wrote The Divine Comedy.
  • Widely considered the central epic poem of
    Italian literature, the first great work of the
    Renaissance and one of the greatest works of
    world literature.
  • Tells the story of visiting hell from the first
    person.

29
Dante as depicted by Michelangelo
30
Petrarch
  • One of the earliest and most influential
    humanists.
  • Great poet known for writing sonnets (or 14 line
    poems) to an unknown woman named Laura.

31
Machiavelli
  • Most famous for writing The Prince.
  • This book gives advice on how a ruler can gain
    and maintain power.
  • Argues that most people are selfish and corrupt.
  • Focuses on what was effective rather than moral
    advocated lying if effective.

32
Printing Spreads Ideas
  • The Chinese first used block printing and the
    Europeans would expand on this
  • This process worked, but too slow to keep up with
    the demand for ideas
  • About 1440 Johann Gutenberg invented a printing
    press with movable type
  • Books could now be made fast and cheap
  • The fist book printed was the Gutenberg Bible

33
  • Before the press ? 5 months to copy a book by
    hand
  • After the press ? 5 months to print 500 books

34
Review Humanism
  • What are the main characteristics of humanism?
  • Affirmed the worth of the human.
  • Emphasized the self and individuality.
  • Valued the secular rather than the spiritual.
  • Optimistic about the potential for social
    improvement.

35
The Northern Renaissance
  • Merchants, artists, scholars came to Italy from
    northern Europe and were impressed with what they
    saw from the Italian Renaissance
  • As a result, the northern Renaissance developed
    its own character, mainly realism

36
Albrecht Dürer
  • German
  • Known for woodcarvings and engravings

37
Pieter Bruegel and Jan van Eyck
  • Flemish painters (from Netherlands)
  • Van Eyck used oil-based paints to show layers and
    subtlety (i.e. jewels)
  • Bruegel showed scenes from everyday peasant life
    (Peasant Wedding)

38
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39
Northern Writers Christian Humanists
  • Critical of the Church and wanted to reform
    society
  • Erasmus (Netherlands) and Thomas More (England)
    are two best examples
  • Erasmus The Praise of Folly
  • Mores Utopia

40
Legacy of the Renaissance
  • Marked a break in religious focus of Middle Ages
  • Belief that the individual played a role in the
    rise of democratic beliefs
  • Arts writers (vernacular) and painters (realism
    and secularism)
  • Society learning and rise in literacy
  • Churchs power declines and monarchs rises
  • Paved the way for nation states
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