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Title: Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs Facts


1
Nonmedical Use of Prescription DrugsFacts
StatisticsPlusCollege Supplement
2
1. What is Nonmedical use of Prescription
Drugs? Where do nonmedical users get
prescription drugs? Which prescription drugs are
abused? 2. What are the Myths about
Prescription Drug Use?3. What are Stimulants?
Basic Facts, Signs of Abuse, Addiction,
Withdrawal, Overdose 4. What are Depressants
(Narcotics Sedatives)? Basic Facts, Signs of
Abuse, Addiction, Withdrawal, Overdose How can
one OxyContin pill kill you?5. What are the
drug delivery methods?6. Are Over-the-Counter
Drugs Dangerous?7. What drugs are abused among
college students? College Facts about Adderall
abuse. Where does marijuana and
alcohol fit into the statistics? What are the
consequences of substance abuse?8. What is the
reality of prescription drug misuse?
3
1. What is Nonmedical use of Prescription Drugs?
Not prescribed for you ORYou took the
drug only for the experience or feeling it
caused (Excludes Over-the-Counter)
Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSAAnesthetic and
Life Support Drugs and Drug Safety and Risk
Management Advisory Committees November 13, 2008
3
4
Where do nonmedical users get pain
reliever prescription drugs?
http//www.theantidrug.com/pdfs/prescription_repor
t.pdf
5
Which prescription drugs abused?
In 2005, 6.4 million Americans Age 12 used a
prescription drug for nonmedical purposes in past
month
0.3 million
Sedatives
1.1 million
Stimulants
1.8 million
Anti-Anxiety Medication
4.7 million
Narcotic Pain Relievers
Depressants
Stimulants
SOURCE 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and
Health (NSDUH), published Sept 2005 by Dept of
HHS / Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration (SAMHSA)
http//www.google.com/search?hlenrlz1G1GGLQ_ENU
S310qIn20052C6.4millionAmericansAge122B
usedaprescriptiondrugfornonmedicalpurposesi
npastmonthbtnGSearchaqfoqaqi
6
Nonmedical use of prescription drugs ranks 2nd
only to marijuana as the most prevalent category
of drug abuse.
http//www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k6/pain/pain.cfm
SOURCE 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and
Health (NSDUH) published Sept 2005 by the Dept
of HHS / Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Services Administration (SAMHSA)
7
2. What are the Myths about Prescription Drug
Use?
  • Prescription Drugs are much safer to use than
    illegal drugs.
  • I think prescription drugs sound safer, even if
    they're not, just because they came from a
    company, and they were prescribed to someone for
    a legitimate reason. I don't know the laws
    regarding illegal pharmaceutical use, but it
    seems safer.
  • Gilbert
    Quintero. Journal of American College Health.
     July-August 2009 v58 i1 p64(7).
  • Theres nothing wrong with using prescription
    medicines without a prescription once in a
    while.
  • Prescription Drugs are not addictive.
  • There are fewer side effects than street drugs.

2005 Partnership and Attitude Study (PATS)
www.usdoj.gov/dea/concern/hydrocodone.ppt
http//www.theantidrug.com/pdfs/prescription_repo
rt.pdf
7
8
3. Prescription Drug STIMULANTS
AmphetaminesMethamphetaminesAmphetamine
CongenersDiet Pills Intended UseNarcolepsy,
Obesity, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD), Milder stimulants to lose weight.
Nonmedical use Surge of pleasure, rush or
flash, burst of energy, To stay awake, Anorexia,
Euphoric Effect Physical effects include
increased blood pressure and pulse rates,
insomnia, loss of appetite, and physical
exhaustion. Drugs causing similar effects
cocaine, crack, methamphetamine, khat
http//www.getsmartaboutdrugs.com/drugs/amphetamin
es.html?v0t0p1f0df0dt0 http//www.druga
buse.gov/ResearchReports/Prescription/prescription
4.htmlHowDo
9
(No Transcript)
10
Prescription Drug STIMULANTS
Amphetaminesd,l amphetamines Adderall Slangs
Crosstops, whites, speed, black beauties,
bennies, pep pills, carwheels, addies
Dextroamphetamine Dexedrine Slangs Brown
Clears, Christmas Trees, Oranges, Diet Pills,
Dex, Dexies, Methamphetamine Desoxyn (rarely
prescribed) Slangs Yaba (pills)
Amphetamines Congeners Methylphenidate
Ritalin, Focalin, Concerta, Methylin, Day
Trana Patch, MetadateCD, Slangs- Pellets,
Vitamin R, JIF, MPH, R-ball, the smart drug,
Skippy, West Coast Lisdexamfetamine VyvanseFenf
luraminePondimin (Banned in the US) Slangs
Fen/phen, Hearts, Cis, Goofy, Lude, Bama, Peaches
Diet pills PhendimetrazineBontril
Phentermine Adipex P Slangs Blasting Caps,
Chi Powder, Diet Max, Diet Pep Ephedra, 850
Herbal Fuel, Mega Ripped, Mini thins, New Zest
Now, Ripped Fuel
Other abused stimulantsModafinil Provigil Sibu
tramine Meridia
Over-the-Counter Dexatarim, Acutrim, Sudafed,
Super TootCaffeine, energy drinks, and nicotine
11
Prescription Drug STIMULANTS
Signs of AbuseNervousness, insomnia, over
confident, aggressive, paranoid, loss of
appetite, violent, euphoria, increased pulse rate
blood pressure. Signs of WithdrawalApathy,
long periods of sleep, irritability, depression,
disorientation. Signs of an Overdose Agitation,
increased body temperature, hallucinations,
convulsions, apathy, long periods of sleep,
depression, disorientation possible death.
Signs of Long-term Use Heart disease, mental
imbalances, paranoid, aggressive, twitching,
malnutrition, dehydration psychotic, deplete
energy sources severe depression.
http//www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/abuse/chart.htm
12
Rates of Emergency Department visits, by drug,
type of use and age
2008 DATA
13
Illegal Comparisons orNot considered legitimate
for medical use STIMULANTS
Cocaine- Slangs Coke, Blow, Toot, Snow, Nose,
Big C, Crack Cocaine Slangs Basa, Base,
Basing, Black Rock, CDs, Twinkie. This form of
cocaine comes in a rock crystal that can be
heated and its vapors smoked. The term "crack"
comes from the crackling sound made when it is
heated. Methamphetamine- See next
slide Methyldioxymethamphetamine- MDA,MDMA
Slangs Ecstasy, rave, love drug, XTC, Adam No
one other drug is quite like MDMA, but MDMA
produces both amphetamine-like stimulation and
mild mescaline-like hallucinations. tweaking-
severe paranoid, hallucinatory, hyper vigilant
thinking, greater suicidal depression
Ecstasy
Crack Pipe
Cocaine
Crack Cocaine
Paraphernalia
http//www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/streetterms/By
Type.asp?intTypeID3 http//www.usdoj.gov/oig/sp
ecial/9712/appb.htm
14
Methamphetamine (Desoxyn) vs. Methamphetamine
(Crank)
  • Desoxyn
  • There is only one product. Currently marketed in
    5 mg tablets. Desoxyn has very limited use in
    the treatment of obesity, and attention deficit
    hyperactivity disorder. Slangs Yaba (pill form)
  • Meth Illicit Use
  • Today's methamphetamine, several times more
    potent than its other forms, produces a reaction
    far more severe than even crack cocaine, with
    sleepless binges that last up to 15 days and end
    with sudden crashes.
  • Meth abuse is also manifested by extreme
    anorexia, memory loss and severe dental problems.
  • Slangs Batu, Black Beauties, Chalk, Chicken
    Feed, Tina, Crank, Crystal, Glass, Go-Fast,
    Hiropon, Ice, Meth, Trash, Methlies Quick, Shabu,
    Poor Man's Cocaine, Shards, Speed, Stove Top,
    Tweak, Ventana, Vidrio, Yellow Bam Meth speed
    ball- Methamphetamine combined with heroin

Desoxyn
Meth Powder
Crystal Meth
http//www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k8/methamphetamineTX/me
th.pdf http//www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs
_concern/meth.htm http//www.getsmartaboutdrugs.c
om/drugs/methamphetamine.html?v0t0p2f0df0
dt0
15
Methamphetamine (Desoxyn) vs. Methamphetamine
(Crank) pg. 2
  • Currently, methamphetamine is primarily produced
    by utilizing diverted pseudoephedrine combination
    products. (Now behind the counter at stores.)
  • Smurfing is a method used by some methamphetamine
    and precursor chemical traffickers to acquire
    large quantities of pseudoephedrine. Traffickers
    often enlist the assistance of several associates
    in smurfing operations to increase the speed with
    which chemicals are acquired.
  • Methamphetamine causes increased heart rate and
    blood pressure and can cause irreversible damage
    to blood vessels in the brain, producing strokes.
    Other effects of methamphetamine include
    respiratory problems, irregular heartbeat, and
    extreme anorexia. Its use can result in
    cardiovascular collapse and death.
  • Meth changes brain chemistry, and after extended
    use, the brain can no longer respond to dopamine
    (feel-good chemical produced by the brain).
  • Chronic abuse produces a psychosis that resembles
    schizophrenia.
  • Psychotic symptoms can persist for months and
    even years after use of these drugs has ceased
    and may be related to their neurotoxic effects.

http//www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs_concern/me
th.htm http//www.tcada.state.tx.us/http//
www.kalispell.com/stopmeth/what_is_methamphetamine
.htm http//www.drugfree.org/Files/Meth_Fact_Shee
ts
16
4. Prescription Drug Depressants
Sedative-HypnoticsandNarcotics/Opiates Physical
Effects With the exception of pain relief and
cough suppression, most central nervous system
depressants (like opiates, benzodiazepines and
alcohol) have similar effects, including the
slowed breathing, tolerance and dependence.
Alcohol is a depressant and illegal for people
under the age of 21 in the United States.
http//www.getsmartaboutdrugs.com/drugs/narcotics.
html?v0t0p2f0df0dt0
17
4. Prescription Drug Depressants-
Sedative/Hypnotics
  • Intended Use
  • Anxiety, Tension, Panic attacks, Acute stress
    reactions, Seizures, Sleep disorders, Epilepsy,
    Anesthesia (at high doses), Muscle Relaxants.
  • Nonmedical Use
  • To relieve agitation, induce mild euphoria, lower
    inhibitions.
  • Often use in conjunction with other drugs.
  • Very similar to the emotional and physical
    effects of alcohol.
  • Blackout, brownouts, suicide attempts.
  • Date Rape Drug

http//www.drugabuse.gov/ResearchReports/Prescript
ion/prescription3.htmlHowDo
18
(No Transcript)
19
Prescription Drug Depressants- Sedative/Hypnotics
Benzodiazepines Slangs Benzos, tranx, BSZs,
downers candy, downers, sleeping pills,
tanks Short Acting Alprazolam Xanax Slangs
Xannies, bars, x-boxes, coffins Lorazepam
Ativan, OxazepamSerax, TemazepamRestoril Int
ermediate Acting Diazepam Valium Slangs
Vals, valley girl Clonazepam Klonopin Slangs
Klonnies, klons, Klondike bars
Minor Depressants Muscle Relaxants Soma,
Flexeril Robaxin
Nonbenzodiazepine/ Nonbaritate Sedative-Hypnotics
Slangs Jelly beans, Mickeys, knockout
drops Zolpidem- Ambien, Eszopiclone-Lunesta Br
omides- BuSpar Gammahydroxybutyrate GHB-
Xyrem, Slangs liquid ecstasy, scoop, GA home
boy, easy lay GBL- (precursor to GHB) Blue
Nitro,Revivarant
Over-the-Counter Nytol, Sleep-Eze, Sominex
Barbiturates(Rarely prescribed) Amytal,
ButisolNembutal, Seconal, Phenobarbital
Slangs Barbs, downers, barbies, yellows, yellow
jackets,reds, red birds, phennies, tooies
20
Prescription Drug Depressants- Sedative/Hypnotics
Signs of AbuseSlurred speech, disorientation,
drunken behavior without odor of alcohol,
impaired memory of events, interacts with
alcohol. Signs of WithdrawalHeadaches, tremors,
muscles twitching, nausea and vomiting, anxiety,
restlessness, yawing, inability to focus, sleep
disturbance, dizziness, delirium, convulsions,
possible death. Signs of an OverdoseShallow
respiration, clammy skin, dilated pupils, weak
and rapid pulse, coma, possible death. Signs of
Long-term Use Disrupt the transfer of information
from short to long-term memory. Benzodiazepines
impair the ability to learn new information.
http//www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/abuse/chart.htm
21
Illegal Comparisons orNot considered legitimate
for medical use Sedative/Hypnotics
  • Benzodiazepines Flunitrazepam- Rohypnol
  • (banned in the US but legal in over 60 countries)
  • Slangs- Forget-me pill, Mexican Valium, R2,
    Roche, roofies, roofinol, rope, rophies
  • A small white tablet with no taste or odor when
    dissolved in a drink.
  • Short Term effects The drug creates a sleepy,
    relaxed, and drunk feeling that lasts 2 to 8
    hours. Other effects may include blackouts, with
    a compete loss of memory, dizziness and
    disorientation, nausea, difficulty with motor
    movements and speaking.

http//www.drugfree.org/Portal/Drug_guide/Rohypnol

22
Prescription Drug Depressants-Narcotics/Opiates
  • Intended Use
  • Postsurgical pain relief, Management of acute or
    chronic pain, Relief of cough and diarrhea
  • Nonmedical Use
  • Deaden emotional pain,
  • Get a rush,
  • Induce euphoria
  • Prevent withdrawal symptoms.
  • There is no limit to the development of opiod
    tolerance.

http//www.drugabuse.gov/tib/bupren.html
23
Lifetime Nonmedical Use of Selected Pain
Relievers, Age 12 or Older 2007
Hydrocodone
Propoxyphene (Darvocet and Darvon)
Oxycodone
Hydrocodone
Oxycodone
Percent Using in Lifetime
Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSAAnesthetic and
Life Support Drugs and Drug Safety and Risk
Management Advisory Committees November 13, 2008
23
24
Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers in Past Year
among Persons Aged 12 or Older, by Sub state
Region Percentages, Annual Averages Based on
2004-2006
Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSAAnesthetic and
Life Support Drugs and Drug Safety and Risk
Management Advisory Committees, November 13,
2008
24
25
25
26
Prescription Drug Narcotics/Opiates
Natural Codeine Slangs Number 4s, Loads,
sets, 4s, and doors. Tylenol
w/codeine Fioricet w/codeine Morphine
Infumorph, Kadian, Avinza Slangs Murphy,
orph, M, Miss Emma Opium Laudanum ,
SlangsO, Black stuff Block, poppy, Big O
Semi-synthetic Hydrocodone acetaminophen
Vicodin,Lortab,Lorcet,Zydone, Tussionex
Slangs Vike, Vic, Watson 387, Tuss Oxycodone
Percodan (w/aspirn) Percocet Tylox
(w/acetaminophen) Combunox(w/ibuprofen ),OxyFAST
, OxyContin(time-released) Slangs Percs,
hillbilly heroin, ocs, oxy, oxy-80s, oxycotton,
kicker, blues, Roxi. Meperidine
Dermol Hydromorphone Dilaudid, Hydal
Slangs Dillies, drugstore heroin, Big D,
Lords, Delats
Synthetic Methadone(long-acting)
DolophineSlangs Juice, Wafers, Amidone,
Chocolate Chip Cookies, Fizzies, Maria,
PastoraPropoxyphene (w/acetaminophen) Darvon,
Darvocet FentanlyDuragesic
SublimazeSlangs Murder, Bear, China white,
Apache, Good fellas, TNT Buprenorphonine
Suboxone, Puprenex Slangs Bupe, sub
27
Prescription Drug Narcotics/Opiates
Signs of AbusePinpoint pupils, sluggishness,
shallow breathing and suppressed cough, slow
pulse, low blood pressure, constipations, dryness
of mouth, euphoria, numbness, slurred speech,
sunken eyes. Signs of WithdrawalFlu-like
symptoms, muscle cramps, dilated pupils,
coughing, high blood pressure, rapid pulse,
diarrhea, sweating, runny nose, anxiety, severe
depression, loss of appetite, irritability,
tremors, panic and vomiting Signs of an Overdose
Slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin,
convulsions, coma, possible death. A single
dose can be lethal to an inexperienced user.
Signs of Long-term Use Severe constipation,
womens period delayed, sexual desire dulled.
Heavier users- eyelids droop and the head nods
forward, coordinating slowed. High tolerance and
addiction.
http//www.getsmartaboutdrugs.com/drugs/narcotics.
html?v0t0p2f0df0dt0
28
Prescription Drug Narcotics/Opiates
  • Illegal Comparisons Heroin
  • Slangs Smack, junk, tar, Mexican brown, cheese,
    Harry, skag, Rufus, Perze,H, hourse, dava, boy
    Vick, Vic, Watson 387
  • Related Terms Agua de chango (liquid heroin
    administered nasally)
  • Bindle (small packet of drug powder heroin)
    Coffee (brown heroin)
  • Chasing the dragon or chasing the tiger (to
    smoke heroin)
  • Nose drops (liquified heroin) P-dope (20-30
    pure heroin)
  • Punk Rocker (with cocaine, with crack, with
    Ecstasy (MDMA), or with LSD and marijuana)
  • Shabanging (heroin dissolved in liquid
    taken through the nose using a nasal spray
    bottle)
  • Heroin is processed from morphine (a naturally
    occurring substance extracted from the seed pod
    ). It comes in several forms, the main ones being
    "black tar" from Mexico (primarily sold in the
    western United States) and white heroin from
    Colombia (primarily sold on the East Coast.)
  • Following this initial euphoria, the user goes
    "on the nod," an alternately wakeful and drowsy
    state. Mental functioning becomes clouded due to
    the depression of the CNS.

http//www.drugfree.org/portal/drug_guide/heroin
http//www.tcada.state.tx.us/research/slang/terms
.pdf http//www.getsmartaboutdrugs.com/content/dr
ugs.aspx?duid27eccf9b-2ceb-4f72-9076-25a11387c2f2
v1t0p1df1f0dt0
29
How can one OxyContin pill kill you?
Taking a large single dose could cause severe
respiratory depression or death. Typically,
they should not be used with alcohol,
antihistamines, barbiturates, or benzodiazepines.
Because these other substances slow breathing,
their effects in combination with opioids could
lead to life-threatening respiratory depression.
There is always the factor that someone has an
lethal reaction to any drug.
http//www.drugabuse.gov/ResearchReports/Prescript
ion/prescription8.html http//www.nida.nih.gov/in
fofacts/PainMed.html http//www.drugabuse.gov/info
facts/PainMed.html
30
Neurotransmitters brain's major "workhorse"
Many of the drugs of abuse affect either
glutamate or GABA or both to exert tranquilizing
or stimulating effects on the brain. Over half of
all brain synapses release glutamate, and 30-40
of all brain synapses release GABA.
(gamma-amino butyric acid)
Excitatory signal
Inhibitory signal
Under normal conditions, excitatory and
inhibitory signals are in balance, resulting in
controlled, regular breathing.
Heroin increases the inhibitory effects of GABA.
(Increases the calming effect.)
A combination of heroin and alcohol can be
especially dangerous. Heroin and alcohol both
suppress breathing, but by different mechanisms.
Alcohol decreases the excitatory effects of
glutamate
Under the influence of alcohol or heroin,
excitatory and inhibitory signals are out of
balance, suppressing the impulse to breath
http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/r
eward/pathways.html
31
5. What are the drug delivery methods?
  • The fastest way to get a drug to the brain is by
    smoking it. When a drug like tobacco smoke is
    taken into the lungs, nicotine (the addictive
    chemical in tobacco) seeps into lung blood where
    it can quickly travel to the brain. This fast
    delivery is one reason smoking cigarettes is so
    addicting.
  • Injecting a drug directly into a blood vessel is
    the second fastest way to get a drug to the
    brain, followed by snorting or sniffing it
    through the nose.
  • The slowest mode of delivery is by ingestion,
    such as drinking alcohol. The effects of alcohol
    take many minutes rather than a few seconds to
    cause behavioral and biological changes in the
    brain.
  • The euphoric effects usually occur when they are
    crushed and then snorted or injected.

http//learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/d
rugs/delivery.html
32
6. Are Over-the-Counter Drugs Dangerous?
  • Some over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, primarily
    cough and cold remedies that contain
    dextromethorphan (DXM), a cough suppressant, are
    used to get high. Products with DXM include
    NyQuil, Coricidin, and Robitussin, among
    others.
  • Slangs CCC, Dex, DXM, Poor Man's PCP, Robo,
    Rojo, Skittles, Triple C, Velvet
  • Illicit use of DXM is referred to on the street
    as "Robo-tripping," "skittling or dexing."
  • Hallucinogenic Drugs causing similar effects
    Depending on the dose, DXM can have effects
    similar to marijuana or Ecstasy. In high doses
    its out-of-body effects are similar to those of
    Ketamine or PCP.
  • In 2006, about 3.1 million people aged 12 to 25
    had used an OTC cough and cold medication at
    least once to get high, and nearly one million
    had done so in the past year. (SAMHSA, 2008)

http//www.theantidrug.com/pdfs/prescription_repor
t.pdf http//www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/
PainMed.html http//www.getsmartaboutdrugs.com/dr
ugs/dextromethorphan_dxm.html?v0t0p1f0df0
dt0
33
6. Are Over-the-Counter Drugs Dangerous?
  • Retailers are required of non-prescription
    products containing pseudoephedrine, ephedrine
    and phenylpropanolamine to place these products
    behind the counter or in a locked cabinet.
    (Methamphetamine is primarily produced by
    utilizing diverted pseudoephedrine combination
    products.)
  • Pseudoephedrine products include- Drixoral,
    Zyrtec-D 12-Hour, Advil Allergy Sinus, Mucinex D,
    Childrens Motrin Cold, Sine-Aid IB, Claritin-D
    24 Hour, Sudafed 24 12 Hours, Afrinol.

Photo shows chemicals, waste materials, empty
pseudoephedrine blister packs.
http//www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs1/1837/1837p.pdf htt
p//www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs36/36407/index.htmfoot
a
34
7. What drugs are abused among college students?
  • 45.0 binge drink (alcohol)
  • 33.3 of College students smoke pot
  • 20.9 abuse prescription and/or illegal drugs
  • 22.9 of College Students (1.8 Million) Meet
    Medical Criteria for Alcohol, Drug Abuse or
    Dependence- compared to 8.5 of the general
    population
  • Abuse prescription opioids 3.1 or 240,000
    students

Source CASAs analysis of the 2005 National
Survey on Drug Use and Health
http//www.kaisernetwork.org/health_cast/uploaded_
files/Colle20Commission20Slides20FINAL.pdf
35
Colleges with the highest rates of marijuana use
and other illicit drug use calculated in 1993 had
the highest rate of NMPD in every study year
between 1993 and 2001.
Trends and college-level characteristics
associated with the non-medical use of
prescription drugs among US college students from
1993 to 2001 Sean Esteban McCabe1, Brady T. West2
Henry Wechsler3
At the college level, the prevalence of
nonmedical opioid use co-occurred with a high
prevalence of marijuana use and nonmedical use of
prescription stimulants and to a lesser extent
with binge drinking.
Nonmedical use of prescription opioids among U.S.
college students Prevalence and correlates from
a national survey Sean Esteban McCabea,,
Christian J. Teterb, Carol J. Boyda,John R.
Knightc, Henry Wechslerd Addictive Behaviors 30
(2005) 789805
36
33.3 of College Students Smoke Pot
  • Marijuana
  • Slangs Blunt, Pot, Grass, Reefer, Ganja, Joint,
    Weed, Mary Jane, Sinsemilla, Roach, Thai Sticks,
    Smoke, and Dope.
  • Is a greenish-gray mixture of the dried, shredded
    leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of Cannabis
    sativa, the hemp plant.
  • Most users smoke marijuana in hand-rolled
    cigarettes called joints, among other names some
    use pipes or water pipes called bongs. Marijuana
    cigars called blunts have also become popular. To
    make blunts, users slice open cigars and replace
    the tobacco with marijuana, often combined with
    another drug, such as crack cocaine.
  • Marijuana frequently is combined with other
    drugs, such as crack cocaine, PCP, formaldehyde,
    and codeine cough syrup, sometimes without the
    user being aware of it.

Joints Pipe
Blunt
Roach Clips
Bong
http//www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRMarijuana.pdf
http//www.usdoj.gov/dea/programs/forensicsci/micr
ogram/mg0508/mg0508.pdf
37
  • Within a few minutes after inhaling marijuana
    smoke, an individuals heart begins beating more
    rapidly, the bronchial passages relax and become
    enlarged, and blood vessels in the eyes expand,
    making the eyes look red.
  • The heart rate, normally 70 to 80 beats per
    minute, may increase by 20 to 50 beats per minute
    or, in some cases, even double. This effect can
    be greater if other drugs are taken with
    marijuana.
  • June 2008- Marijuana potency increased last year
    to the highest level in more than 30 years,
    posing greater health risks to people who may
    view the drug as harmless, according to a report
    released by the White House.

http//www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRMarijuana.pdf
38
College Students Prescription Drug Abuse
2007 Opioid use tripled the past two
years. Benzodiazepines, particularly, Xanax and
Valium use quadrupled the past two
years. (CASA, 2007).
http//www.kaisernetwork.org/health_cast/uploaded_
files/Colle20Commission20Slides20FINAL.pdf
39
Of concern, 89.5 percent of the college students
who used Adderall non-medically also reported
past-month binge drinking, and more than half
were heavy alcohol users.
http//www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k9/adderall/adderall.ht
m
40
Full-time college students aged 18 to 22 were
twice as likely as their counterparts who were
not full-time college students to have used
Adderall non-medically in the past year (6.4 vs.
3.0 percent)
http//www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k9/adderall/adderall.ht
m
41
Full-time college students who used Adderall
non-medically in the past year were more than
twice as likely to use Marijuana (79.9 vs. 27.2
percent) and almost FIVE times more likely to use
OxyContin non-medically (44.9 vs. 8.6 percent).
Pain Relievers
OxyContin
Tranquilizers
Sedatives
http//www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k9/adderall/adderall.ht
m
42
Where does marijuana fit into the statistics?
In the past year, 84 percent used illicit drugs,
two-thirds used marijuana, and two-thirds abused
prescription drugs.
http//www.kaisernetwork.org/health_cast/uploaded_
files/Colle20Commission20Slides20FINAL.pdf
Source CASAs analysis of the 2005 National
Survey on Drug Use and Health
43
  • Tragic Consequences of Alcohol Abuse
  • 1,717 students died from alcohol-related
    injuries (2001)
  • This is 5 students/day
  • 97,000 students victims of alcohol-related
    sexual assaults or rape (2001)
  • 696,000 students assaulted by other students
    who were drinking (2001)
  • 78 of college students who use illicit drugs
    have sex compared with 44 of those who never
    use drugs

http//www.kaisernetwork.org/health_cast/uploaded_
files/Colle20Commission20Slides20FINAL.pdf
Source CASAs analysis of the 2005 National
Survey on Drug Use and Health
44
  • There was no gender difference in the nonmedical
    use of opioid analgesics, which is consistent
    with other national samples of college students
    (Johnston et al., 2003a).
  • Higher rates of substance use and other risky
    behaviors and lower grade point averages found
    among nonmedical users of prescription opioid
    analgesics provides evidence that nonmedical use
    of prescription opioid analgesics is part of a
    pattern of polydrug use and likely represents
    part of a larger cluster of problem behaviors
    among college students (Jessor, Donovan, Costa,
    1991).

Nonmedical use of prescription opioids among U.S.
college students Prevalence and correlates from
a national survey Sean Esteban McCabea,,
Christian J. Teterb, Carol J. Boyda,John R.
Knightc, Henry Wechslerd Addictive Behaviors 30
(2005) 789805
45
8. What is the Reality of Prescription
DrugMisuse?
46
Narcotic Prescription Drugs Only -Unintentional
Overdose Deaths
According to the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) National Center for Health
Statistics, unintentional overdose deaths
involving prescription opioids increased 114
percent from 2001 (3,994) to 2005 (8,541), the
most recent nationwide data available.
Does not include people prescribed drugs who
died nor intentional overdoses (suicides).
http//www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs33/33775/execsum.htm
Figure1
47
The reality is that brothers, grandparents,
friends, moms, uncles are dying everyday due to
misuse of prescription drugs. Dont regret
ignoring the problem.
48
At the age of 22, Josh was prescribed OxyContin
after a back injury. He got hooked and overdosed
three times, before a he took a combination of
three prescribed drugs that killed him -one day
before his 25th birthday.Joshs doctors were
aware of his addiction problem and continued to
prescribed him narcotic drugs.
49
On August 18th, 2006, Emily, only eighteen years
of age and three days from her first day in
college, was killed accidentally when she
consumed OxyContin that had been prescribed for a
relative.  Emily was not an experienced drug
user, and all it took was one encounter with this
drug. She had no chance to learn from this
one-time experience.  Had she any idea how deadly
this drug was, she would still be alive.
50
Patrick Stewart died on July 9, 2004 at 24 years
of age after ingesting just one OxyContin . He
had no other drugs in his system and only a small
amount of alcohol. He was a SDSU graduate, a
graphic designer and a certified personal
trainer. His friends described Patrick as "the
one who puts you back on your bicycle after you
fall off". He made the tragic mistake of
believing someone at a 4th of July celebration
when he was told that OxyContin was "sort of like
a muscle relaxant, that it was prescription and
FDA approved, so therefore safe". Close friends
say that Patrick had never before taken an
OxyContin, did not know it was equivalent to
"heroin in a pill".
51
Robby L. Garvin 24 years old Died 6-11-2006 Death
caused by Methadone toxicity. Robby died 40
hours after he took his first dose of this drug
that was prescribed to him for pain. Robby was
never informed by the prescribing doctor or the
pharmacy that filled this prescription of the
dangers and possible death that Methadone may
cause.
52
If you suspect someone is abusing and/or addicted
to drugs be proactive and persistent addicts
tend to lie and be dishonest as a means of
continuing their habit, and as a defense
mechanism. They are often even lying to
themselves that they have a problem. Seek
Professional and Medical advice. Dont regret
ignoring the problem. For additional information
on prescription drug abuse, addiction, support
groups, and recovery please visit
www.StopRxDrugAbuse.org
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