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FEED ADDITIVES IN DIETS OF TRANSITION DAIRY COWS Jos

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Title: FEED ADDITIVES IN DIETS OF TRANSITION DAIRY COWS Jos


1
FEED ADDITIVES IN DIETS OF TRANSITION DAIRY
COWSJosé Eduardo P. SantosVeterinary
Medicine Teaching and Research Center School of
Veterinary MedicineUniversity of California -
Davis
2
Objectives
  • Discuss the metabolic and endocrine effects of
    feed additives during the transition period
  • Potential impact of the use of feed additives
    during transition on performance and incidence of
    metabolic disorders in dairy cows

3
Rumen Fermentation
Propionate
Microbial Protein NH3
CO2 CH4 H2
CHO Protein
Pyruvate
Acetate Butyrate
Glucose
4
Effect of Ionophores on Rumen Bacteria (Gram )
  • Extracellular Intracellular
  • ATP
  • H H
  • ADP
  • H H
  • K K
  • Na Na
  • H H

M
M
5
Results of Ionophore Use
  • Reduces Gram population
  • Proteolytic and amilolytic bacteria
  • Decreases proteolysis ----gt Greater flow of
    nonammonia-nonmicrobial nitrogen to the duodenum
  • Reduces lactate producing bacteria Streptococcus
    bovis and Lactobacillus spp.
  • Increases molar concentration of propionate
  • Reduces CH4 concentration ---gt Less energy loss

6
Why Ionophores Would Benefit Transition Cows?
  • Improves efficiency of energy metabolism
  • More propionate
  • More glucose
  • Less BHBA
  • More insulin
  • Less lipid mobilization
  • Lower incidence of subclinical ketosis
  • Reduces the risk for ruminal acidosis and bloat
  • Increases the flow of true protein (It may not
    change total protein flow because of the negative
    impact on microbial N)

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9
1.01
0.94
444/530
438/526
283/486
271/497
10
Gluconeogenic Precursors
  • 4 major sources
  • Propylene glycol
  • Calcium propionate
  • Sodium propionate
  • Glycerol
  • Poorly fermented in the rumen
  • Calcium propionate is also a source of Ca

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Effect of Propylene Glycol on Liver Lipids and TG
17
Effect of PG on Transition Cow Performance
  • PG had no impact on milk composition and plasma
    insulin
  • PG increased IGF-I, plasma cholesterol and
    decreased MUN and NEFA

P gt 0.15
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19
Niacin
Blood Compartment
Adipose Tissue
Triacylglycerol
Niacin
-
HSL
Diacylglycerol Monoacylglycerol NEFA
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Ruminally Protected Amino Acids
  • AA can be used as gluconeogenic precursors
  • Enhance oxidation of fatty acids by the hepatic
    tissue
  • Enhance VLDL synthesis and secretion
  • Reduce ketogenesis
  • Supply limiting amino acids for milk and milk
    protein synthesis

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  • Bauchart et al. (1998) observed that
    rumen-protected lysine reduced hepatic
    triglyceride content
  • Review by Garthwaite et al. (1998) - 6 studies
  • Rumen protected Lys and/or Met supplemented pre-
    and postpartum
  • ? DMI 0.5 kg/d, ? milk yield 1.5 kg/d, ? milk
    protein yield 79 g/d, and ? milk fat yield 85 g/d
  • 2 studies, supplemental Met was detrimental to
    performance

28
Yeast Culture
  • Possible reasons for feeding Saccharomyces
    cerevisiae in transition diets
  • Increase rumen pH (Selenomonas ruminatium)
  • Stimulate the growth of fiber digesting bacteria
  • Increase NDF digestibility
  • Reduce the depression in DMI immediately before
    calving
  • Improve DMI postpartum

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Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on transition
cow performance (Robinson and Garrett,1999)
  • Feeding YC from d -28 to d 56 had no effect on
    DMI, DMI as BW, BW and BCS changes, and NEL of
    diets during the pre- and postpartum periods
  • Feeding YC had no impact on concentration and
    yields of fat, protein, and lactose of
    primiparous and multiparous cows

P lt .28
P lt .09
31
Hypocalcemia (clinical or subclinical)
? Smooth Muscle Function
? Rumen and GI Tract Motility
? Uterine Motility-Immunity
? RP ? Involution
? DMI
? DA
? NEB
? Metritis
? Ketosis
? Milk Production
? Fertility
32
Bone Resorption
Diet
PTH/Vit D Calcitonin ? Hypercalcemia ?
Intestine
Vit. D
Extracellular Ca Pool (8 to 10 g)
Plasma Ca Pool 2.5 to 3.0 g
PTH and Vit D
Fecal Loss 6 - 10 g/d
Milk 20 - 80 g/d
Fetal Bone 2 - 10 g/d
Urinary Loss 0.25 - 1.0 g/d
33
Acidogenic Salts
  • High chloride and sulfate salts
  • CaCl2, NH4Cl MgCl, MgSO4, CaSO4, (NH4)2SO4
  • HCl
  • Acidify the blood by increasing H absorption
  • S is poorly absorbed --gt It is not a good
    acidifier

34
Intracellular and Intravascular Spaces
Lumen GI Tract
Cell Membrane
-
SO4-2
? H
-
? pH
-
Cl-
? HCO3-
-
H
-
35
Strategies for Prevention of Hypocalcemia
DCAD lt 250 mEq/kg
DCAD gt 250 mEq/kg
? Calcitropic Hormones
? Passive Absorption
? PTH Receptor Sensitivity
Addition of Anions
Low Ca diets lt 20 g/d Vit. D Analogues
Ca Gels
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Equations to Calculate DCAD
  • DCAD mEq/kg (0.38 Ca 0.3 Mg Na K) - (Cl
    0.6 S 0.5 P)
  • (NRCs coefficients)
  • DCAD mEq/kg (0.15 Ca 0.15 Mg Na K) - (Cl
    0.2 S 0.3 P)
  • (Goffs coefficients)
  • DCAD mEq/kg (Na K) - (Cl S)
  • Assumes equal rate of absorption for all strong
    ions

39
How to Use Them
  • Step 1
  • Analyze all feed components for their mineral
    content
  • Na, K, S, Cl, Ca, P, and Mg
  • Select forages and ingredients with low K and Na
    content
  • Grain silages, low K alfalfa (mature), brewers
    grains, beet pulp without molasses, citrus pulp
  • Basal diet DCAD lt 250 mEq/kg

40
  • Step 2
  • Adjust mineral content
  • Provide Mg to achieve 0.4 diet DM
  • MgSO4, MgCl, MgO
  • Increase S up to 0.35 to 0.4
  • CaSO4
  • S gt 0.4 may cause PEM and may interfere with Cu
    and Se
  • Keep P at 0.35 to 0.4
  • High P intake (gt 80g/d) may cause milk fever

41
  • Step 3
  • Acidify the diet
  • Keep K as low as possible (K lt 1.2)
  • Keep Na as low as possible (Na lt 0.15)
  • Increase Cl
  • CaCl2
  • Keep Cl lt 0.8, but high enough to lower urine pH
  • Adjust Ca content to 1.0 to 1.2
  • Ca Propionate or CaCO3

42
Mineral Profile of a Close Up Diet
  • Dietary DCAD should be
  • Multiparous cows - 50 mEq/kg
  • Primiparous cows 0 mEq/kg
  • Monitor urine pH
  • Urine pH should be between 5.8 and 6.8

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Conclusions
  • Ionophores (Monensin)
  • Prepartum 30 ppm and Postpartum 10 - 15 ppm
  • PG and Ca Propionate may be used in the
    concentrate or as an oral drench. Consider Ca
    Prop. when using anionic salts
  • Niacin Controversial results
  • Lipotropic agents and Yeast Not recommended
  • Acidogenic salts Highly recommended when
    hypocalcemia is a concern
  • RP AA positive effects on milk protein content
    and yields of milk and milk protein when
    supplemented pre- and postpartum

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