The Vitamins - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – The Vitamins PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 3eeb67-ZmQ4Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Vitamins

Description:

The Vitamins Vitamin E Chemical nature: A type of tocopherol 4 forms Alpha, beta, gamma, delta Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form Other forms have very limited ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:45
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 110
Provided by: SusanB2
Category:
Tags: vitamins

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Vitamins


1
The Vitamins
2
Introduction
  • Vitamins were discovered at the beginning of the
    twentieth century.
  • Vitamin An essential, noncaloric, organic
    nutrient needed in tiny amounts in the diet.
  • A vitamin can cure a deficiency of that vitamin

3
Classifying Vitamins
  • Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • A
  • D
  • E
  • K

4
Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Vitamin C
  • B Vitamins
  • Thiamin -- Biotin
  • Riboflavin -- Pantothenic acid
  • Niacin
  • B6
  • Folate (folic acid)
  • B12

5
Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
  • No chemical digestion needed
  • Absorbed in the SI into the capillaries
  • Vitamin B12 must bind with a protein called the
    intrinsic factor (IF) in the stomach for
    absorption to occur in the SI
  • No carriers required for transport in the blood

6
Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Storage and excretion
  • Travel freely in the blood
  • Cells take up water soluble vitamins as needed
  • Limited storage beyond tissue saturation
  • Excess excreted in the urine

7
Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Deficiency is more common than toxicity for the
    water soluble vitamins
  • Any toxicity is likely to be due to overuse of
    vitamin supplements, not food intake

8
Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Other interesting information
  • Many are destroyed by light, heat, or exposure to
    oxygen
  • Best to cook whole in a minimum amount of water
  • Frozen vegetables are often higher in vitamin
    content than grocery store fresh veggies

9
The Fat-Soluble Vitamins
  • A, D, E, K
  • Found in fats and oils of foods
  • Require bile for absorption
  • Stored in liver and fatty tissues until needed
  • Not needed in the diet daily
  • Can reach toxic levels if too much is consumed
  • Deficiencies can occur when people eat diets that
    are extraordinarily low in fat

10
Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Digestion, Absorption, and Transport
  • Bile needed to emulsify fat soluble vitamins
  • Form chylomicrons (along with long chain fatty
    acids and monoglycerides)
  • Chylomicrons are absorbed into the lacteals
  • Travel through lymph system ? blood ? liver
  • Many require protein carriers to be transported
    in the blood

11
Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • Other interesting facts
  • Found in the fatty parts of food
  • Removed with the fat when low-fat products are
    made
  • Many low-fat foods are supplemented with these
    vitamins to make up for this
  • E.g. milk is vitamin A and D enriched
  • Other interesting vitamin cooking/storing facts
    page 293

12
The Vitamins
  • For each vitamin we will consider
  • Functions
  • Dietary needs and food sources
  • Deficiency
  • Toxicity

13
The B- Vitamins An Introduction
  • Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid,
    and biotin participate in the release of energy
    from the energy nutrients
  • Folate and vitamin B12 help cells multiply
  • Vitamin B6 helps the body use amino acids to
    synthesize proteins

14
B Vitamin Deficiencies
  • In a B vitamin deficiency, every cell is
    affected.
  • Symptoms include
  • Nausea
  • Severe exhaustion
  • Irritability
  • Depression
  • Forgetfulness
  • Loss of appetite and weight
  • Impairment of immune response
  • Abnormal heart action
  • Skin problems
  • Swollen red tongue
  • Teary, red eyes
  • Pain in muscles

15
Thiamin
  • History
  • Functions
  • Needed for energy metabolism
  • E.g. -- required for conversion of pyruvate to
    acetyl CoA
  • Needed for nerve and muscle function

16
Thiamin
  • Recommended Intake
  • 1.1-1.2 mg/day
  • Food Sources
  • Found in small amounts in many foods
  • Easily destroyed by heat (cooking)
  • Lost in cooking water
  • Good sources include
  • Pork products, soy, legumes, vegetables, whole
    grains, watermelon. Page 311

17
Thiamin Deficiency
  • Prolonged deficiency leads to beriberi
  • Results in damage to nervous system and muscles
    (to include the heart)

18
Thiamin Deficiency
  • Symptoms Beriberi
  • Dry form- muscle wasting, poor coordination
    Muscle weakness
  • Legs heavy, hard to walk, calf pain
  • Apathy, confusion, memory loss
  • Anorexia and weight loss
  • Wet form has additional symptoms of
  • edema, irregular heart beat, enlarged heart

19
Thiamin Deficiency
20
Thiamin Deficiency
  • Populations at risk
  • Alcoholics
  • Often obtain the majority of their calories from
    alcohol
  • Alcohol inhibits thiamin absorption and hastens
    its excretion
  • Cultures that eat primarily refined grains (e.g.
    white rice) and little else
  • Thiamin deficient moms ? infant deaths from
    deficiency

21
  • In alcoholics thiamin deficiency results in
    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
  • Symtpoms
  • Mental confusion
  • Staggering
  • Rapid eye movements or paralysis of the eye
    muscles

22
  • The City of New York
  • DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND MENTAL HYGIENE
  • Michael R. Bloomberg Thomas R. Frieden, m.d.,
    m.p.h.
  • Mayor Commissioner
  • __________________________
    _____________________________________
  • nyc.gov/health
  • 2003 Health Alert 39
  • A cluster of infantile thiamine (vitamin B1)
    deficiency (beri-beri) has been reported in
    Israel among infants fed a vitamin B1-deficient
    kosher soy-based formula distributed by Remedia.
    It is possible that this product may be imported
    into New York City and there may be children in
    the Orthodox Jewish community who have consumed
    it.
  • The New York City Department of Health and Mental
    Hygiene (NYCDOHMH) asks that providers report
    immediately any suspect case of thiamine
    deficiency among infants who have been fed this
    product to
  • The New York City Poison Control Center at
  • 1-212-764-7667 (212-POISONS) or 1-800-222-1222.
  • Please distribute to Pediatric staff in the
    Departments of Cardiology, Critical Care,
    Emergency Medicine, Family Medicine, General
    Pediatrics, Outpatient Pediatrics, Neonatology,
    Neurology, and Infectious Disease

23
Thiamin
  • Toxicity
  • None known
  • Excess thiamin is excreted and not stored

24
Riboflavin
  • Functions
  • Needed for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats,
    and proteins
  • Places a role in Krebs cycle
  • Part of FAD
  • This text includes an antioxidant function as
    well.most do not consider riboflavin an
    anti-oxidant

25
Riboflavin
  • Recommended Intake
  • 1.1 1.3 mg/day
  • Food Sources
  • Destroyed by ultraviolet light (sun light)
  • Good sources include (page 313)
  • Whole grain breads and cereals, oatmeal
  • Liver
  • Milk and milk products
  • Clams and squid!
  • Mushrooms

26
Riboflavin
  • Deficiency Symptoms
  • Eyes are inflamed and sensitive to light
  • Cheliosis (cracks at the corners of the mouth)
  • Sore throat
  • Inflammation of the tongue and mouth painful
  • Inflamed skin, with lesions covered with greasy
    scales
  • Anemia page 312

27
Riboflavin
  • Populations at Risk for Deficiency
  • alcoholics
  • any one with a marginal diet
  • Poor, elderly, eating disorders, drug addicts
  • Toxicity
  • None reported
  • Excess excreted

28
Niacin
  • Functions
  • Plays an essential role in energy metabolism
  • Part of NAD
  • Needed by every cell of the body

29
Niacin
  • Recommended Intake
  • 14 16 mg/day of niacin or of NE
  • NE Niacin Equivalents
  • Niacin can be made from the essential amino acid
    tryptophan
  • It takes 60 mg of tryptophan to make 1 mg of
    niacin
  • Therefore, 1 NE is 60 mg of tryptophan

30
Niacin
  • Food Sources (page 315)
  • Sources of complete protein
  • Dairy, meats, poultry, fish,
  • Peanut butter
  • Tomato paste
  • Mushrooms

31
Niacin Deficiency
  • Niacin deficiency disease is called pellagra
  • Symptoms, 4 Ds
  • Dermatitis especially with sun exposure
  • Diarrhea, vomiting
  • Dementia
  • Death
  • Other symptoms
  • Inflamed, swollen, red, smooth tongue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Page 314

32
Niacin
  • Pellagra symptoms 4 Ds
  • Diarrhea
  • Dermatitis
  • Dementia
  • Death

33
Niacin
  • Pellegra - Other interesting information
  • Originally believed to be caused by infection
  • Common up to early 1900s in US and Europe
  • Many in mental hospitals in south had niacin
    deficiency, not mental illness
  • Incidence declined in US after WW II when
    mandatory enrichment of grains began
  • Still common in Africa and Asia
  • Poor bioavailability form corn unless its soaked
    in lime juice

34
Niacin
  • Toxicity
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) 35 mg/day
  • High doses of niacin are commonly used to treat
    high cholesterol
  • 1500 -3000 mg/day recommended for treating high
    cholesterol

35
Niacin
  • Toxicity Symptoms
  • Niacin flush
  • Excessive sweating
  • Tingling
  • GI distress
  • Frequent need to urinate
  • May mask prostrate cancer symptoms in men
  • Blurred vision, headaches
  • Liver damage

36
Folic Acid Folate
  • Functions
  • Needed for DNA synthesis
  • Need to make all new cells
  • E.g. Need to make new RBC
  • Reduces incidence of neural tube defects
  • Defects occur in first weeks of pregnancy

37
Folate
  • Plays a role in protein synthesis
  • Breaks down the amino acid homocysteine
  • High levels of homocysteine increases risk of
    blood clot formation
  • May reduce risk some cancers
  • Pancreatic cancer in men who smoke
  • Breast cancer in women who drink

38
Folate
  • Absorption and Activation
  • Folate in foods must be acted upon by an
    intestinal enzyme for it to be absorbed and
    transported to cells
  • Folate in cells needs to be activated by vitamin
    B12
  • Process also activates the B12

39
Folate
  • Recommended intake 400 mcg/day
  • Factors impacting needs
  • Pregnancy -600 mcg/day
  • Aspirin, antacids, smoking, oral contraceptives
    reduce absorption
  • Some cancer drugs reduce absorption
  • GI tract damage reduces absorption
  • Occurs with alcoholism, anorexia
  • Poor absorption, leads to even more damage to GI
    tract

40
Folate
  • Food Sources
  • Cooking destroys up to 50 of folate
  • Oxygen destroys folate
  • Good sources include (page 323)
  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Asparagus
  • Legumes
  • Fortified cereals and Seeds
  • Liver
  • Orange juice (ok, but not great source)

41
Folate
  • Folate Deficiency (page 321)
  • Impairs cell division and protein synthesis
  • Symptoms
  • Megaloblastic anemia
  • Fewer red blood cells (RBC) made
  • RBC larger than normal
  • RBC do not carry oxygen as well

42
Folate Deficiency
  • Confusion, irritability, weakness, fatigue
  • Related to the anemia
  • GI tract deterioration
  • Elevated homocysteine levels
  • Smooth red tongue
  • Increased risk neural tube defects

43
Folate
  • Toxicity
  • No known symptoms
  • May mask a vitamin B12 deficiency
  • B12 deficiency is VERY serious

44
Vitamin B12
  • Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
  • Awarded the Nobel prize in chemistry for deducing
    the structure of vitamin B12
  • Took her eight years
  • Headline in the London paper announcing this read
  • Nobel Prize for British Wife

45
Vitamin B12
  • Functions
  • Needed to activate folate
  • Therefore, needed for DNA and new cell (RBC)
    synthesis
  • Helps maintain myelin sheath around nerve cells

46
Vitamin B12
  • Recommended intake
  • 2.4 microgams per day
  • Food Sources
  • ONLY found naturally in animal products
  • Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy, liver.
  • Fortified grains
  • Easily destroyed by microwave cooking

47
Vitamin B12
  • Deficiency
  • Pernicious anemia (VERY SERIOUS)
  • Megaloblastic anemia
  • Nerve damage ? creeping paralysis
  • Smooth sore tongue
  • Fatigue

48
Vitamin B12
49
Vitamin B12
  • Pernicious anemia frequently goes undiagnosed
  • Pernicious anemia can be masked by high intakes
    of folate
  • Generally as supplements

50
B-12 and Folate
  • Presence of immature red blood cells - symptom of
    folate or vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Extra folate corrects this blood condition
  • B12 deficiency continues
  • Vitamin B12s other functions then become
    compromised

51
Vitamin B12
  • Gastric by-pass patients and vegans are at
    elevated risk
  • Takes several years to develop
  • Toxicity
  • None reported

52
B6
  • Functions
  • Need for protein and fatty acid metabolism
  • Need for amino acid metabolism
  • E.g. For converting tryptophan to other niacin
  • need to make serotonin form tryptophan
  • Helps make RBC
  • Other functions under study

53
B6
  • Recommended Intake
  • 1.3 mg/day
  • UL 100 mg/day
  • Food sources (page 318) destroyed by heat
  • Meat, fish, poultry
  • Legumes
  • Seeds and nuts
  • Liver
  • Non-citrus fruits

54
B6
  • Deficiency (rare)
  • Anemia ? Weakness and fatigue
  • Depression, confusion
  • Abnormal brain waves, convulsions
  • Greasy dermatitis

55
B6
  • Increased risk of deficiency
  • Alcoholics
  • Alcohol contributes to increased B6 breakdown and
    excretion
  • Oral contraceptives may increase risk of B6
  • deficiency
  • Drug INH inactivates B6
  • INH used to treat tuberculosis

56
B6
  • Toxicity Serious
  • Stored in muscle cells, toxicity seen with
    supplements
  • Symptoms
  • Irreversible nerve damage ? numbness in hands and
    feet ? Difficult to walk
  • Convulsions
  • Insomnia, restlessness

57
B6
  • B6 does not help with
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • PMS
  • Supplementation above the UL is NOT recommended

58
Biotin
  • Functions
  • Need for energy metabolism
  • Need to make glycogen
  • Plays a role in fatty acid and amino acid
    synthesis

59
Biotin
  • Recommended Intake
  • 30 micrograms/day (AI)
  • Food Sources
  • Widespread in foods liver, egg yolk, legumes,
    fish, mushrooms, whole grains
  • Some produced by GI tract bacteria
  • easily destroyed by processing

60
Biotin
  • Deficiency
  • RARE
  • Skin rash
  • Hair loss
  • Depression
  • Hallucinations
  • Numbness in legs/arms

61
Biotin
  • Deficiency can be induced by eating LARGE
    quantities of raw egg whites
  • 2 dozen daily for 2 months!
  • Prevents biotin absorption
  • Toxicity none reported

62
Pantothenic Acid
  • Functions
  • Need for energy metabolism
  • Part of acetyl CoA
  • Plays a role in the synthesis of many substances
  • Lipids
  • Hormones
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Hemoglobin

63
Pantothenic Acid
  • Recommended intake
  • 5 mg/day (AI)
  • Food Sources
  • Widespread in foods

64
Pantothenic Acid
  • Deficiency Rare
  • Fatigue
  • GI distress
  • Insomnia, depression
  • Apathy, irritable
  • Increased sensitivity to insulin
  • Toxicity none known

65
Vitamin C
  • Functions
  • Collagen synthesis
  • Part of scar tissue
  • Strengthens blood vessels
  • Provides matrix for bone growth
  • Antioxidant
  • Need for healthy immune system
  • Need for thyroxine production

66
Vitamin C
  • Functions
  • Need for thyroxine production
  • Regulates body temperature and metabolic rate
  • Enhances iron absorption
  • Need to make hemoglobin

67
Vitamin C
  • Recommended intake
  • Men 90 mg/day
  • Women 75 mg/day
  • Smokers an extra 35 mg/day
  • More free radicals that need to be neutralized
  • UL 2000 mg/day

68
Vitamin C
  • Food sources (page 329)
  • Citrus fruits
  • Strawberries, melon
  • Vegetables
  • Tomatoes, dark green leafy vegetables, potatoes,
    broccoli
  • Heat and oxygen sensitive

69
Vitamin C
  • Deficiency ? Scurvy
  • Poor wound healing - Increased infection
  • Weakness
  • Bleeding gums
  • Loose teeth
  • Broken blood vessels
  • Loss of appetite
  • Joint pain and fragile bones
  • Anemia

70
Deficiency Symptoms
71
Vitamin C
  • Populations at increased risk
  • Alcoholics
  • Elderly
  • Babies and toddlers fed only milk/cereals
  • Smokers
  • After illness or stress
  • Fever and stress deplete vitamin C stores

72
Vitamin C
  • Toxicity Symptoms
  • Diarrhea
  • Cramps, nausea
  • Headaches, insomnia
  • May interfere with lab tests and meds
  • Increased risk kidney stones
  • Over-absorption of iron

73
Fat Soluble Vitamins
  • A
  • D
  • E
  • K

74
Vitamin A
  • Chemical nature
  • Active forms of vitamin A
  • Retinol
  • Retinoic acid
  • Retinal
  • Precursor form
  • Beta-carotene
  • Converted to active vitamin A as needed

75
  • Vitamin A plays a role in
  • Gene expression
  • Vision
  • Maintenance of body linings and skin
  • Need to build healthy epithelial and mucous
    tissue
  • Immune defenses
  • Growth of bones and of the body
  • Normal development of cells
  • Plays a role in cell differentiation
  • Reproduction

76
Vitamin A - Functions
  • Vitamin A plays two roles in eye sight
  • Process of light perception at the retina
  • Maintenance of a healthy cornea

77
Beta-Carotene
  • Functions beta-carotene
  • Can be converted to active vitamin A as needed
  • Antioxidant

78
Vitamin A
  • Recommended intake
  • 700-900 RAE micrograms/day
  • RAE retinol activity equivalents
  • Older unit is IU International Units
  • UL 3000 RAE
  • UL refers to active vitamin A only, not
    beta-carotene

79
Vitamin A
  • Food Sources pre-formed Vitamin A
  • All animal sources
  • In fatty portion of the food
  • Dairy products
  • Eggs
  • Meat, liver
  • Fortified skim milk and margarine
  • Page 296

80
Beta-Carotene
  • Food Sources beta-carotene
  • All plant sources
  • Yellow/orange/red fruits and vegetables
  • Carrots, apricots, cantaloupe, mangos, pumpkin,
    sweet potato, winter squash, peppers
  • Dark green leafy vegetables
  • Spinach, kale, broccoli, beet greens (but not the
    beet!)

81
Vitamin A
  • Deficiency Symptoms eye sight related
  • Night blindness
  • Blindness
  • Leading cause of blindness worldwide
  • ½ million children go blind each year due to a
    vitamin A deficiency

82
Eyesight
83
Vitamin A
  • Deficiency
  • Keratinization ? dry, cracked skin
  • Reduced secretions
  • GI tract
  • Bladder
  • Lungs
  • Above symptoms increase risk of infection

84
Skin And Body Linings
  • The skin in vitamin A deficiency

85
Vitamin A
  • Deficiency
  • Anemia
  • Slow bone growth
  • Painful joints
  • Cracked, cracked teeth
  • Delayed sexual maturity

86
Vitamin A
  • Toxicity
  • Teratogenic
  • monster producing
  • GI distress, weight loss
  • Bone issues
  • Joint pain
  • Stunted bone growth and more

87
Vitamin A
  • Toxicity
  • Headaches, pressure inside skull
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue, muscle weakness
  • Skin rashes
  • Dry, cracked, bleeding lips
  • Dry, brittle hair

88
Vitamin A
  • Vitamin A toxicity can be fatal
  • Symptoms go away quickly if diet changes
  • Toxicity is never from beta-carotene sources
  • Beta-carotene toxicity..

89
Vitamin D
  • Chemical nature
  • Vitamin D is a sterol
  • Body can make from cholesterol see page 299
  • Requires sunlight exposure, action of skin,
    liver, and kidney

90
Vitamin D
  • Functions
  • Bone mineralization
  • Works with other nutrients
  • Vitamins A, C. K
  • Several minerals
  • Regulates calcium and phosphorus levels
  • Stimulates Ca and P absorption in SI
  • Regulates movement of Ca and P in/out of bones
  • Stimulates kidneys to retain Ca and P
  • All of the above are related to bone
    mineralization

91
Vitamin D
  • Other Functions
  • Acts as a hormone
  • Not fully understood
  • Many target organs
  • Brain and CNS
  • Muscle
  • Reproductive cells

92
Vitamin D
  • Recommended intake
  • Depends upon sun exposure and skin color
  • 5-10 micrograms/day (AI)
  • UL 50 mcg/day

93
Vitamin D
  • Food sources (page 301)
  • Fortified milk and margarine
  • Butter
  • Egg yolks
  • Liver
  • Fatty fish and fish oils
  • natural sources are all animal sources

94
Vitamin D
  • Deficiency
  • Bone abnormalities
  • Kids ? rickets
  • Adults ? osteomalcia

95
Vitamin D
  • Populations at risk for deficiency
  • Inner-city kids
  • Dark skinned
  • Live in a northern climate
  • Limited sun exposure
  • Elderly
  • Kidney or liver disease
  • Vegans

96
Vitamin D
  • Toxicity
  • Very toxic
  • Can be lethal
  • Milk story
  • Toxicity is never from sun exposure

97
Vitamin D Toxicity
  • Symptoms
  • Calcium deposits in soft tissue
  • Muscles, lungs, heart
  • Kidney stones
  • Calcium deposits on walls of arteries
  • Joint pain
  • Frequent urination
  • GI distress

98
Vitamin E
  • Chemical nature
  • A type of tocopherol
  • 4 forms
  • Alpha, beta, gamma, delta
  • Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form
  • Other forms have very limited bioactivity

99
Vitamin E
  • Functions
  • Antioxidant
  • Component of animal cell membranes
  • Protects unsaturated fatty acids in cell
    membranes
  • Other roles are not clearly defined, but likely
    exist

100
Vitamin E
  • Recommended intake
  • 15 mg/day
  • Need more if eat more polyunsaturated fats
  • most students did not meet their vitamin E
    requirement on the day analyzed

101
Vitamin E
  • Food sources (page 303)
  • Vegetable oils
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Whole grains
  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Liver
  • Wheat germ
  • Egg yolks easily destroyed by heat and oxygen

102
Vitamin E
  • Deficiency
  • Rare as most vitamin E is recycled
  • See in premature babies
  • Transferred from mom to baby in last weeks of
    pregnancy
  • Cystic fibrosis patients
  • Due to poor fat absorption

103
Vitamin E
  • Symptoms deficiency
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • RBC break open
  • Neurological problems with prolonged deficiency
  • Loss of coordination
  • Vision and speech problems
  • Does not prevent/cure MD

104
Vitamin E
  • Vitamin E may help with
  • Leg cramps
  • Intermittent claudication
  • Fibrocystic breasts disease
  • lumpy breasts

105
Vitamin E
  • Toxicity Rare
  • Supplements recommended by many, but not above
    the UL 1000 mg
  • 200 mg supplement probably enough
  • May interfere with blood clotting
  • Stop taking supplements prior to surgery
  • Other symptoms nausea, fatigue, blurred vision

106
VITAMIN K
  • Functions
  • Need for synthesis of blood clotting proteins
  • Plays a role in regulation of calcium levels

107
Vitamin K
  • Recommended intake
  • 90-120 mcg/day
  • Sources
  • Made by GI tract bacteria
  • Dark green leafy vegetables, cabbage family
  • Liver
  • Milk

108
Vitamin K
  • Deficiency rare
  • Symptoms
  • Bleeding, hemorrhaging
  • Bone weakness
  • Populations at risk
  • Babies
  • After long-term antibiotic treatment
  • CF

109
Vitamin K
  • Toxicity rare
  • Occurs with supplement overuse
  • Take with caution, even if prescribed
  • Symptoms
  • RBC break open
  • Jaundice
  • Brain damage
  • Interferes with anti-clotting meds
About PowerShow.com