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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 241 Study of the Human Body ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY ANATOMY structure how form & structure relate to each other PHYSIOLOGY how anatomy functions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ANATOMY


1
ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY 241
  • Study of the Human Body

2
ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY
  • ANATOMY
  • structure
  • how form structure relate to each other
  • PHYSIOLOGY
  • how anatomy functions
  • Structure determines Function
  • complementarity of structure function

3
WAYS TO STUDY ANATOMY
  • Microscopic
  • Cytology
  • Study of cells
  • Histology
  • Study of tissues
  • Gross
  • Surface
  • Regional
  • Systemic
  • Developmental

4
Levels of Organization
5
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
  • Chemical or Molecular
  • Atoms?molecules
  • Cellular
  • basic unit of structure and function in living
    things
  • makes up organelles
  • Tissue Level
  • cells of similar structure function working
    together to perform a specific activity4 basic
    types connective, epithelial, muscle and nerve

6
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
  • Organ Level
  • tissues working together to perform a specific
    activity
  • Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc.
  • Organ Systems Level groups of two or more
    tissues working together to perform a specific
    function11 organ systems - circulatory,
    digestive, endocrine, urinary,
    immune(lymphatic), integumentary, muscular,
    nervous, reproductive, respiratory skeletal
  • Organism Levelentire living things that can
    carry out all basic life processes-usually made
    up of organ systems
  • An organism may be made of one cell

7
Basic Life Processes
  • Organisms share 6 basic life processes
  • 1. Metabolism
  • 2. Responsiveness
  • 3. Movement
  • 4. Differentiation
  • 5. Growth
  • 6. Reproduction

8
Metabolism
  • sum of all chemical processes that take place in
    the body
  • Catabolism
  • larger macromolecules are broken down into
    smaller subunits or monomers
  • Anabolism
  • larger macromolecules are formed from smaller
    submits.

9
Responsiveness
  • ability to detect respond to changes

10
Movement
11
Differentiation
  • ability of cells to develop from an unspecialized
    cell into a specialized cell

12
Growth
  • a way to increase in size

13
Reproduction
  • making a whole new organism
  • Cells able to divide and make new cells for
  • Growth
  • replacement

14
Homeostasis
  • organ systems are interdependent
  • share same environment
  • composition effects all inhabitants
  • internal environment must be kept stable
  • maintaining stable internal environments-homeostas
    is
  • dynamic equilibrium

15
Homeostasis
  • varies around a Set Point
  • average value for a variable
  • specific for each individual
  • determined by genetics
  • normal ranges for a species
  • temperature 36.7 37.2

16
HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION
  • Autoregulation
  • cells, tissues, organs adjust automatically to
    environmental changes
  • Extrinsic Regulation
  • Nervous System
  • Fast
  • Short lasting
  • Crisis management
  • Endocrine System
  • Longer to react
  • Longer lasting

17
Parts of Homeostatic Regulation
  • Receptor
  • sensitive to environmental change or stimuli
  • Control or Integration Center
  • receives processes information supplied by
    receptor
  • determines set point
  • Effector
  • cell or organ which responds to commands of
    control center

18
HOMEOSTASIS
19
FEEDBACK LOOPS
  • Negative Feedback
  • output of system shuts off or reduces intensity
    of initiating stimulus
  • most often seen in the body
  • Positive Feedback
  • initial stimulus produces a response that
    exaggerates or enhances its effect
  • blood clotting child birth

20
Negative Feedback
21
Negative Feedback Loop
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