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Anatomy

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Anatomy & Physiology Basic structure: cells, tissues, organs Body planes, directions, & cavities Integumentary system Basic Structure of the Human Body Cells ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Anatomy


1
Anatomy Physiology
  • Basic structure cells, tissues, organs
  • Body planes, directions, cavities
  • Integumentary system

2
  • Basic Structure of the Human Body
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ System

  • ORGANISM

3
Animal structure has a hierarchy
A. CELLULAR LEVELMuscle cell
B. TISSUE LEVELMuscle tissue
C. ORGAN LEVELHeart
D. ORGAN SYSTEM LEVELCirculatory system
E. ORGANISM LEVELMany organ systemsfunctioning
together
4
The Cell
  • Cell membrane
  • Cytoplasm
  • Organelles
  • Nucleus
  • Nucleolus
  • Chromatin
  • Ribosomes (free bound)
  • Centrosome
  • Centrioles
  • Mitochondria
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Lysosomes
  • Vesicles
  • Pinocytosis
  • Phagocytosis
  • See next slide

5
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6
Cell Reproduction
  • 2 types of cells in our body
  • Regular body cells (somatic cells) -------- 46
    chromosomes
  • Sex cell (gametes) ----------------------------
    23 chromosomes
  • Mitosis process of cell reproduction for body
    cells
  • Get identical cells thus same as cloning
    asexual reproduction
  • Meiosis process of cell reproduction for sex
    cells
  • Do not get identical cells thus get variation

7
Mitosis
  • Key first chromosomes replicate become
    chromatids
  • DNA
  • Chromatin
  • Chromosomes
  • Then (PMAT)
  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase

8
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9
Meiosis, Fertilization, Stem Cells
10
Tissues
  • Tissue when cells work together for a common
    purpose
  • 4 types
  • Epithelial --- lines body surfaces
  • Connective ---connects supports things
  • Muscle ---- moves protects
  • Nerve ------ control communicate

11
Systems of the Body
  • 11 organ systems
  • Integumentary
  • Skeletal
  • Muscular
  • Nervous
  • Circulatory
  • Lymphatic
  • Respiratory
  • Digestive
  • Urinary
  • Endocrine
  • Reproductive

12
  • The integumentary system
  • Covers and protects the body
  • Regulates body temp
  • Makes vitamin D

Hair
Cartilage
Skin
  • The skeletal system
  • Supports and protects the body
  • Moves the body
  • Makes blood cells

Nails
Bones
13
  • The muscular system
  • Produces movement
  • Enables body posture
  • Produces body
  • heat

Skeletalmuscles
14
  • The endocrine and nervous systems
  • control, regulate, and coordinate body functions

Pineal gland
Brain
Pituitary gland
Senseorgan
Thyroid gland
Thymus gland
Spinalcord
Adrenal gland
Pancreas
Nerves
Testis (male)
Ovary(female)
ENDOCRINESYSTEM
NERVOUSSYSTEM
15
  • The lymphatic (immune) system
  • Protects the body
  • Carries tissue fluid wastes to blood
  • The circulatory system
  • transports the food and oxygen

Bonemarrow
Thymus
Heart
Spleen
Lymphnodes
Lymphvessels
Bloodvessels
CIRCULATORYSYSTEM
LYMPHATIC ANDIMMUNE SYSTEMS
16
  • The digestive system
  • Digests absorbs food
  • Eliminates wastes
  • The respiratory system
  • Exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide

Larynx
Mouth
Trachea
Esophagus
Bronchus
Liver
Stomach
Lung
Smallintestine
Largeintestine
Anus
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
RESPIRATORYSYSTEM
17
  • The urinary system
  • Disposes of certain wastes
  • Keeps body in fluid chemical balance

Kidney
Ureter
Urinarybladder
Urethra
18
  • The reproductive system
  • perpetuates the species

MALE
Penis
FEMALE
Seminalvesicles
Ovary
Oviduct
Prostate gland
Uterus
Vasdeferens
Vagina
Testis
Urethra
Figure 20.9G
G. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS
19
Body planes, directions, cavities
  • Body Planes sagittal, coronal (frontal),
    transverse

20
Body Directionsproximal/distal lateral
/medialcephalic/ caudalsuperior/
inferiorsuperficial/ deepanterior/
posteriorventral/ dorsal
21
Body Cavities
22
Areas of the abdomen
Figure 1-8
  • Quadrants
  • Regions

23
Integumentary System
  • Anatomy
  • 3 layers
  • Epidermis
  • Dermis
  • Subcutaneous layer
  • Hypodermis
  • Physiology
  • Protection
  • Excretion of waste
  • Synthesis of Vitamin D
  • Sensation
  • Body temperature regulation

24
Cutaneous membrane
Figure 7-1
25
Glands
  • Sebaceous glands (oil)
  • Sudoriferous glands
  • Eccrine
  • Apocrine

Figure 7-4
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