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Animal Welfare - Global Summary of Standards


Animal Welfare - Global Summary of Standards & Programs Prepared by Keith Ewing, FMA, CSP, CHMM Introduction In 2010, animal welfare is a rapidly expanding field of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Welfare - Global Summary of Standards

Animal Welfare - Global Summary of Standards
  • Prepared by
  • Keith Ewing, FMA, CSP, CHMM

  • In 2010, animal welfare is a rapidly expanding
    field of interest for both consumers and the
    agriculture industry. The wide range of
    standards and programs, which include voluntary
    welfare codes, corporate programs, product
    differentiation programs (certifications),
    legislated standards, and international
    agreements, all serving their different political
    and commercial purposes, may pose an overwhelming
    challenge to those of us interested in the
    details of the current state of affairs.
  • It is the goal of this presentation to summarize
    the many resources that exist, all of which are
    published on the internet.
  • Please note, animal welfare, as discussed in this
    presentation, will refer exclusively to animals
    in food production, otherwise known as farming or
  • Intentionally omitted are organizations whose
    agenda, however effective in improving animal
    welfare, is the elimination of the practice of
    animal agriculture. Included is one exception -
    Farm Sanctuary (slide 10) - which expresses a
    desire to work with other NGOs who do not share
    the vegan viewpoint and has done well to help
    codify the various U.S. NGO standards on their

Table of Contents
  • U.S., U.K., Canadian, EU and Global (United
    Nations) resources publishing information on
    animal welfare legislation and standards
  • U.S. (slides 4-12)
  • Retailers (slides 13-16)
  • U.K. (slides 17-21)
  • Canadian (slides 22-24)
  • EU (slides 25-29)
  • Inter-Governmental (slides 30-35)
  • United Nations - FAO AGA
  • World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
  • Other countries, e.g. Australia, China, Brazil,
    India, etc. (slides 36-39)
  • Third-Party Certification Bodies
  • U.S. Animal Welfare Certifications (slide 40-42)
  • U.K. Animal Welfare Certifications (slides 43-48)
  • ISO 22000 (slide 49)
  • Including HACCP Seven Principles - not related to
    animal welfare

In the U.S.
  • The following animal welfare resources are
    profiled in subsequent slides
  • United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Industry Guidelines (beef, pork, chicken, sheep)
  • Certified Humane (HFAC)
  • American Humane Certified (AHA)
  • Farm Sanctuary
  • Animal Welfare Approved (AWA)
  • Global Animal Partnership (GAP)
  • Retailers
  • (McDonalds, Wendys, Burger King, Niman Ranch,

  • The Humane Methods of Slaughter Act 1978
  • Enforced by the USDA-Food Safety Inspection
    Service (FSIS)
  • Question Number of plants inspected vs.
  • National Organic Program (NOP)
  • Primarily interested in additives to livestock
  • Antibiotics, Growth Hormone.
  • Some reference to animal welfare
  • Access to pasture, Castration, Debudding/Dehorning
    , Debudding/Dehorning
  • No reference to slaughter/handling

Industry Guidelines
  • These are trade organizations.
  • Their primary mission, as published, is to
    promote the increased consumption of their
  • Members are typically within the trade
  • Animal welfare is typically addressed in terms of
    general ethical animal husbandry
  • They do not specifically reference compliance
    with The Humane Methods of Slaughter Act

Industry Guidelines
  • Major organizations
  • Beef
  • National Cattlemens Beef Assoc. (NCBA)
  • No independent standards or certifications
  • American Meat Institute (
  • Established the American Meat Institute
    Foundation (AMIF)
  • Non-profit organization that has published Temple
    Grandins Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines
    and Audit Guide for Cattle, Pigs, and Sheep
    (updated 2007)
  • Pork
  • National Pork Board (NPB)
  • Certified TQA Handler (voluntary)
  • Awarded to transporters handlers upon
  • Transport Quality Assurance Handbook (50 pages)
    contains robust animal welfare content includes
    harvest plant audit per Temple Grandin
  • Chicken
  • National Chicken Council (NCC) www.nationalchicken
  • No independent standards or certifications
  • Reference to environmental protection commitment
  • Reference to gas vs. electrical stunning on
    welfare quality (no preference)
  • Sheep
  • American Sheep Industry Assoc. (ASIA)

Certified Humane Program (HFAC)www.certifiedhuman
  • Uses its Humane Farm Animal Care (HFAC) Standards
    as published 2004
  • Non-profit charity
  • Supported by consortium of animal protection
    organizations, individuals foundations.
  • Includes American Society for the Prevention of
    Cruelty to Animals Humane Society of the United
  • Standards are based primarily on the Royal
    Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
    (RSPCA) guidelines
  • Also other recognized scientific and practical
  • Temple Grandin is on Committee

American Humane Certified
  • Claims to be oldest national organization
    dedicated to protecting both children and
    animals. Founded 1877.
  • Voluntary, fee-based, third-party audit process
    available to animal producers in agriculture.
  • Standards set forth by American Humane Certified.
  • Includes the Royal Society for the Prevention of
    Cruelty to Animals, e.g. five freedoms, 1999
    Federation of Animal Science Societies Guide, and
    other practical standards and animal husbandry
    guidelines recognized by animal scientists and
    producers for the proper care of animals.
  • Reviewed regularly with its Scientific Advisory
    Committee Fellows (Temple Grandin is member).
  • Annual on-site audits by Professional Animal
    Audit Certification Organization (PAACO) trained
    and certified auditors.
  • Web-based video monitoring (of sites?)
  • Those certified are permitted to use the
    American Humane Certified label on their
  • Refers to humanely raised beef, pork, poultry
    and dairy products.

  • Established 1986
  • Opposes the slaughter, consumption and
    commodification of farm animals.
  • Believes the critical nexus for the animal
    protection movement is the dismantling of factory
  • Describes vegan life as central to animal
  • Also claims a commitment to working with other
    NGOs, including those that do no necessarily
    share the vegan viewpoint
  • Factory farming is seen also as a negative impact
    on the global ecosystem
  • Rescues farm animals
  • Visits farms, stockyards and slaughterhouses to
    document conditions (how do they gain access?)
  • Publishes
  • Research Reports e.g. The Welfare of Cattle in
    Beef Production, Sentient Beings A Summary of
    Scientific Evidence Establishing Sentience in
    Farmed Animals, etc.
  • Factory Farm Offenders Worst Industry
    Offenders In U.S. Food Animal Production e.g.
    Tyson, Conagra, National Beef, Smithfield, etc.
  • A comparison chart of current animal welfare
    standards by program, including
  • NCBA
  • Certified Humane
  • American Humane Certified
  • Animal Welfare Approved
  • GAP 5-step

Animal Welfare Approved (AWA)www.animalwelfareapp
  • Division of Animal Welfare Institute (AWI)
  • Non-profit, charitable, 1951
  • Standards for
  • Beef, Bison (United States), Sheep, Goats, Pigs,
  • Will not consider Yak, Water Buffalo, Rarities
    (Ostriches, Rheas, Emus), Llamas, Alpacas
  • Standards contain cursory section on slaughter.
  • AWA recommends on-farm slaughter.
  • Robust animal welfare requirements
  • AWA considers only Family Farms (per their
  • Animal Welfare Approved status awarded upon
    site audit, documentation, program review by AWA
    working group specializing in particular animal
  • Approved status for farms
  • Separate approval required for processing/slaughte
    r facility that the farm uses.
  • Approved facilities can utilize the AWA logo on
    their products.
  • No fee for review/approval/use of logo
  • Whole foods utilizes AWA products
  • Not exclusively
  • Does not label them in the meat case, you have to
    ask which products are AWA

Global Animal Partnership 5-Stepwww.gobalanimalpa
  • Newest animal welfare resource 2009-2010
  • International nonprofit
  • Awards GAP status with a 1-5 point rating
  • GAP 5 is highest rating
  • 5-point rating allows graduated improvement upon
  • Whole Foods personnel on 9-person Board of
  • Margaret Wittenberg, Global VP Quality Public
  • John Mackey, Co-Founder CEO
  • Robust animal welfare standards (with exception
    of slaughter procedures) very similar to AWA,
  • No physical alterations to animal permitted
  • Entire animal life must be on same farm and
    continuously on range or pasture

  • Individual retailers of meat poultry products
    are increasingly introducing their own animal
    welfare protocols
  • Examples include
  • McDonalds, Wendys, Burger King, WalMart, Niman
    Ranch, etc.
  • The protocols vary in scope and detail, but
    usually include rearing, transport, handling, and
    slaughter requirements
  • Some, like Niman Ranch, require specific feeding
    protocols, and even segregation at processing
    facilities (to facilitate Niman inspections)
  • Retailers may perform their own inspections
  • Producers may receive preferential buying for
    acceptable performance and risk losing business
    from the retailer for non-compliance
  • Larger retailers are effective at driving animal
    welfare policy and standards due to their
    economic impact on producers

  • Two retailers that have very robust animal
    welfare protocols for their supply chain are
    McDonalds and Niman Ranch
  • The suppliers/processors are audited by personnel
    that either work directly for the retailer or are
    approved by them.
  • McDonalds and Niman Ranch animal welfare
    programs are profiled, as examples, on the
    following slides

  • McDonalds (
  • In the 1990s, became one of the first retailers
    to establish processing plant requirements
  • Developed their own Animal Welfare Guiding
  • Includes Safety, Quality, Animal Treatment,
    Partnership (auditing), Leadership, Performance
    Measurement (related to purchasing),
  • Has its own Animal Welfare Council, of which
    Temple Grandin is a member (also Dr. Jeff
    Armstrong, Dr. Joy Mench, Dr. Edmond Pajor Dr.
    Janice Swanson)
  • Every beef, pork and poultry plant supplying
    McDonalds requires and annual audit by
    independent firms and McDonalds staff.
  • Temple Grandin helped develop oversees auditor
  • McDonalds conducts research in animal welfare
    advances, and promotes a holistic and flexible
    approach to specific animal welfare issues
  • Supply Chain leaders have flexibility to
    implement country-specific requirements while
    working within the global Guiding Principles
  • Where there is considerable debate or uncertainty
    related to a practice, supply chain experts will
    study the issue and make recommendations for
    purchasers to follow.
  • Global input includes research on the following
  • Controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS) for poultry
  • Laying hen housing
  • Sow housing (notably tracking improvements within
    Cargill Pork and Smithfield Foods)

RetailersNiman Ranch
  • Niman Ranch (
  • Protocols for Beef, Pork, Lamb, Poultry,
  • Source Verification breeding
  • Husbandry Family Ownership
  • Priority given to animals from ranches where
    primary occupation of the owner is agriculture,
    and where the ranch is managed, leased or owned
    operated by the family
  • Pasturing
  • Feed, Supplements Vaccines
  • All-natural, vegetarian, no antibiotics, no added
    hormones, vitamins, minerals, supplements
    vaccines only per Niman Ranch published
  • Finishing Lot
  • Including feed, supplements, lot husbandry (pens,
    housed with natural social group, etc.),
    individual animal source identification system
  • Processing facility (slaughter)
  • Including low-stress movement and Niman-approved
    humane handling processing
  • Slaughter plant will be USDA inspected
  • 14 NOs or Nevers (cattle example)
  • 1) No implants, 2) No anti-biotics, 3) No
    ionophores, 4) No untraceable animals, 5) No
    animal or meat by-products, 6) No vitamin D2, 7)
    No animal tallow, fats, blood or bone products,
    8) No more-than-one-owner animals unless
    approved, 9) No eared or continental breeding,
    10) No animals born or raised outside U.S., 11)
    No animals purchased without prior personal
    interview of ranch by Niman an all Niman
    documents signed, 12) No fed fecal material,
    garbage, processed food waste, or pastures grown
    with human sewage sludge, 13) No Phosmet-based
    pour-on products or Del-Phos Liquid, GX-118,
    Imidian, 14) No 50WP, Lintox HD, or Prolate

In the United Kingdom (UK)
  • Note the following countries comprise the UK
  • England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales
  • What the U.S. calls standards are often
    referred to as schemes in the UK
  • There are many owners of schemes
  • Each owner may administer multiple schemes
  • The owner may utilize third-party, independent,
    certification bodies, of which there are several
    who compete for this business (see slide entitled
    UK Certification Bodies Third Party)

UK Owners individual schemes for which users
may be certified
  • AFS (Assured Food Standards)
  • ABM (Assured British Meat)
  • Note according to ABM, they act as the Beef and
    Lamb Sector Board for AFS and set the standards,
    license the standards to certification bodies,
    maintain a database of red-tractor-certified
    businesses, promote the marks benefits to
    governmental, non-governmental orgs and
    consumers, and work with other assurance bodies
    in U.K. to promote a common approach
  • Abattoirs, Cutting and Packing Plants this
    scheme falls under ABM
  • ABP (Assured British Pig)
  • ACP (Assured Chicken Production)www.assuredchicke
  • ADF (Assured Dairy Farms - NDFAS - National Dairy
    Farmer Assured Scheme)
  • ACCS (Assured Combinable Crops Scheme)
  • APS (Assured Produce Standards)www.assuredproduce
  • AIMS (Association of Independent Meat
  • BASC (British Association for Shooting and
  • British Sugar AFS sugar beethttp//www.silverspo
  • Leaf
  • NAAC (National Association of Agricultural
  • NDFAS (National Dairy Farmer Assured Scheme) -
  • RSPCA - Freedom
  • Soil Association -
  • Tesco Natures
  • Whole Foods Market 5 step animal welfare
  • IFS (International Featured Standard)
  • British Meat Processors Association (BMPA)
  • GAFTA (Grain and Feed Trade Association)www.gafta
  • BRC (British Retail Consortium)www.brcglobalstand
  • Conservation
  • FARMA (National Farmers Retail and Markets
  • These standards have been prepared within the
    UKAS requirements for compliance with EN45011
    (the other schemes were not evaluated for

  • All the aforementioned owners and associated
    schemes will not be profiled in detail here
  • Instead, the following two slides will focus, as
    examples, on two of the most well-known animal
    welfare scheme owners viz. Red Tractor-Assured
    Foods, and the Royal Society of the Prevention of
    Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA)

UK Assured Food Standards (AFS) Red
Tractor/Farm Assurance
  • AFS is an independent non-profit organization
    set up by the food chain to manage, develop and
    promote the Red Tractor as a mark of safe,
    quality, affordable food that the public can
  • Claims that it operates objectively in the
    interest of the consumer, without undue influence
    from any single organization or link in the
  • Claims 78,000 farmers
  • Actively Manages the certification bodies that
    police the schemes/standards.
  • Includes traceability
  • Ownership is shared by farmers, retailers,
    etc., all who have a say in running the AFS
    through their representatives on the board
  • National Farmers Union
  • Ulster Farmers Union
  • Agriculture Horticulture Development Board
  • Dairy UK
  • British Retail Consortium
  • Food and Drink Federation
  • Red Tractor claims more than 10 billion worth of
    products carrying the mark.
  • Press release 1/14/2010 to deliver a more joined
    up approach and clearer labeling to the Red
    Tractor farm assurance schemes
  • Re-branding includes the Farm Assurance verbage
    as part of the Red Tractor mark.
  • New funding from the Agriculture and Horticulture
    Development Board (AHDB) to help promote mark
  • New standards for farmers effective 4/1/2010 for
    the six core Red Tractor farm standards
  • Assured British Meat (ABM) beef, lamb
  • Includes Abattoir, Cutting and Packaging scheme

UK Royal Society of the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals (RSPCA)
  • References the Five Freedoms
  • As defined by the Farm Animal Welfare Council
    (FAWC U.K.)
  • Backs or supports the Freedom Food
    certification for
  • Producers, retailers
  • Passing audit gains membership use of logo on
  • Fee based on size of operation (number of
  • Popular British chefs t.v. personalities Hugh
    Fearnley-Whittingstall and Jamie Oliver have
    helped raise public awareness of freedom food
    in the U.K.
  • Supported the creation of the Animal Welfare Act
    2006 (U.K.)
  • Robust animal welfare standards for
  • Chickens, Turkeys, Ducks, Laying Hens,
    Hatcheries, Pigs, Dairy Cattle, Beef Cattle,
    Sheep, Farmed Salmon
  • Includes robust, step-by-step requirements for
    slaughter including
  • Handling, restraint, equipment, stunning, etc.
  • Against religious slaughter as inhumane per
    published article
  • Two U.S. organizations, viz. Certified Humane
    Program American Humane Certified reference the
    RSPCA standards
  • Also involved with animal welfare for
  • Pets, Wildlife, Laboratories
  • Operates Animal Cruelty Hotline

In Canada
  • Canadas farm animal welfare infrastructure is a
    network of responsible organizations that cover
    the broad spectrum of issues including intensive
    livestock farming practices, humane
    transportation, humane slaughter, biotechnology,
  • The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is an
    important enforcement component of animal welfare
    policy in Canada
  • Created 1997 by the Canadian Food Inspection
    Agency Act
  • Reports to the Minister of Agriculture
  • Delivers inspection and quarantine programs
    related to foods, plants, and animals in 18
    regions and 160 field offices across Canada.
  • 6500 employees
  • Enforces policies standards, set by Health
    Canada, governing the safety nutritional
    quality of all food sold in Canada.
  • Verifies industry compliance with federal acts
    and regulations through registration and
    inspection of abattoirs and food processing
    plants, and testing of products.
  • Partners with stakeholders e.g. public health
    authorities, industry associations, universities,
    and consumer protection groups to implement its
  • Regarding animal welfare, CFIA inspectors monitor
    humane transport and slaughter (how?)

Canadian Animal Welfare cont
  • Summary of Canadas legislative and voluntary
    animal welfare standards (per CFIA)
  • Humane transportation
  • Health of Animals Act (federal)
  • Specifies enforces appropriate conditions
    through routine unannounced inspections, and
    response to reports of non-compliance
  • Humane handling slaughter
  • Meat inspection Act (federal)
  • CFIA inspectors are stationed at every federally
    registered slaughter establishment (what about
  • Prevention of Cruelty
  • Section 446 of Federal Criminal Code prohibits
    anyone from willfully causing animals to suffer
    from pain, neglect or injury.
  • Provincial Legislation
  • Each province has legislation concerning animal
    welfare, which tends to be general in scope
  • Recommended Codes of Practice
  • National Farm Animal Care Council is responsible,
    as of 2006, for these codes
  • Codes include poultry, dairy, fox, beef, pigs,
    sheep, deer, veal calves, goat, bison, horses

Canadian Animal Welfare cont
  • NGOs
  • National Farm Animal Care Council (NFACC)
  • 2005, members from 11 stakeholder categories
  • Canadian Federation of Humane Societies
  • Registered charity, speaks on behalf of 100
    provincial local humane societies and their
    400,000 members.
  • Canadian Veterinary Medical Association
  • Has identified animal welfare as one of its top 3
  • Canadian Council on Animal Care
  • National organization responsible for overseeing
    care use of animals in Canadian science
    (research, teaching and testing) whether they be
    labs, farms or wildlife
  • Ontario Humane Transportation Working Group
  • Canadian Farm Animal Care Trust
  • Humane rearing, slaughter and education of
    current alternative animal production systems
  • Animal Livestock Protection System
  • Coordinates activities of Alberta Farm Animal
    Care Assoc, Alberta Society for the Prevention of
    Cruelty to Animals, and the Alberta Ministry of
  • Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to
    Animals and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
    provide enforcement
  • Alberta Welfare Foundation of Canada
  • Promotes animal welfare education research,
    encourages assists in enforcement of laws,
    supports provincial humane societies, assists in
    the establishment, development and support of any
    similar organization
  • Research Educational Institutions that have
    Animal Welfare Centres/Programs
  • University of Guelph

In the European Union (EU)
  • Major animal welfare resources in the EU are
    described in subsequent slides
  • The Treaty of Rome, 1957 (slide 26)
  • Revised into the Treaty of Amsterdam 1999
  • Revised into the Treaty of Lisbon 2009
  • Contains Article 13
  • European Parliament Intergroup on the Welfare and
    Conservation of Animals (slide 27)
  • Eurogroup for Animals (slide 28)
  • Welfare Quality Project (slide 29)

EU The Treaty of Rome, Treaty of Amsterdam
Treaty of Lisbon
  • Signed in 1957 by France, West Germany, Italy,
    Belgium, the Netherlands Luxembourg
  • It is the legal base which is periodically
    revised to take account of institutional and
    policy changes within the European Union
  • Initially, it did NOT include a reference to
    animal welfare.
  • Revised as the Treaty of Amsterdam, May 1999,
    which DOES include a protocol on animal welfare
  • For the first time in European law, animals were
    referred to as sentient beings able to feel
    pain and suffering, and experience well-being
  • Revised again as the Treaty of Lisbon, December
  • Incorporated Article 13 on animal welfare, in
    which it instructs all EU institutions and Member
    States to pay full regard to the requirements of
    animal welfare in the EUs competent areas.
  • Note Eurogroup for Animals (slide 19) publishes
    their Lisbon Treaty Briefing

EU - European Parliament Intergroup on the
Welfare and Conservation of Animals
  • Established 1983, based in Brussels
  • A resource for members of the European
    Parliament (MEPs)
  • A Place where citizens can monitor MEPs actions
    in the field of animal welfare.
  • Objectives
  • Raise new issues
  • Discuss issues currently before Parliament
  • E.g., The Welfare Project (discussed in detail on
    slide 18) appeared as a discussion topic (per
    the Report of the 254th Session)
  • Promote parlimentary support
  • Maintain dialogue with senior Commission members
  • Ensure each presidency of the EU includes
    priorities for animal protection

EU - Eurogroup for Animals www.eurogroupforanimals
  • Founded 1980
  • Functions as secretariat for EU Parliament
    Intergroup on the Welfare and Conservation of
  • Provide(s) advice and expertise on animal
    welfare to the European institutions the
    Council of Ministers, the European Parliament and
    the European Commission.
  • Claims to have contributed to the development
    and adoption of some of the highest legal
    standards of animal protection in the world.
  • E.g., thanks to Eurogroup campaigning, the Treaty
    of Amsterdam 1999 includes protocol on animal
  • Participate in advisory groups other groups set
    up by various directorates of the European
  • Works to protect
  • farm animals
  • animals used in research
  • wild animals
  • Claims to represent the leading animal welfare
    organisations of the EU for more than 25 years
    in the following countries
  • Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic,
    Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,
    Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,
    Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland,
    Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden,
    Switzerland, United Kingdom, Ulster Ireland,
    International (not country-specific)
  • Detailed list available on their website
  • Publishes their Lisbon Treaty Briefing which
    intends to describe the implications of the
    Treaty on animal welfare
  • Expresses the lack of guarantees that animal
    welfare will be systematically taken into account
    by the EU (the Article refers only to specific
    policy areas)
  • Explains that the Lisbon Treaty does not provide
    a legal basis for animal welfare measures
    because it is just a provision having general
  • Explains that for the Commission, it means that
    an animal welfare impact assessment is to be a
    compulsory part of the impact assessments
    required to be carried out before adopting any
    new policies.

EU Welfare Quality Project www.welfarequality.n
  • Established 1983, comprised of
  • Bureau Members
  • Partners of Welfare Quality
  • A Scientific Board
  • An Advisory Committee
  • Aims Objectives
  • Develop practical strategies/measures to improve
    animal welfare
  • Develop a European on-farm welfare assessment
  • Develop a European animal welfare information
  • Integrate and interrelate the most appropriate
    specialist in the multidisciplinary field of
    animal welfare in Europe
  • Integrated in the EUs 6th Framework Programme
    for Research
  • Developed the first European protocols for
    assessing farm animal welfare
  • Presented October 9th, 2009
  • Established a scoring system(0-100, 100 being
    the highest score) with 4 principles
  • Good Feeding, Good Housing, Good Health,
    Appropriate Behavior
  • Further divided into 12 criteria, e.g. absence
    of prolonged hunger, ease of movement, etc.
  • Established 4 welfare categories designed to
    provide overall grading of the farm
  • Excellent, Enhanced, Acceptable, Not Classified
  • Three livestock assessment systems/protocols
    (published as three separate books that may be
    ordered online for a fee)

Inter-Governmental -FAO of the United
  • The Food Agriculture Organization of the United
    Nations (FAO) has recently recognized the
    increased relevance of animal welfare to success
    in international development
  • FAO has decided to give more explicit and
    strategic attention to animal welfare and to
    guide its activities and has convened an Expert
    Meeting to provide specific advice on Capacity
    Building to Implement Good Animal Welfare
  • Meeting occurred Sept. 30 Oct. 3, 2008, FAO
    Headquarters, Rome
  • Meeting convened by FAOs Animal Production
    Health Division (AGA)
  • 50 page report generated
  • Includes executive summary, intro, impact
    benefits of good animal welfare practices,
    culturally appropriate approaches, science
    research, standards legislation, capacity
    building for improving animal welfare, strategies
    for implementing capacity building, key issues,
    recommendations, references resources, etc.

Inter-GovernmentalFAO United Nations
  • FAO, while recognizing the extremely diverse
    problems of animal welfare, has recognized
    several high-priority problem areas that cross
    many regions and production systems
  • Transportation
  • Slaughter (including pre-slaughter management)
  • Food water
  • Handling/herding methods
  • Culling and disposition of animals that are sick
    or of low commercial value
  • Keeping of animals under conditions for which
    they are not genetically suited

Inter-GovernmentalFAO United Nations
  • Per the aforementioned report, FAO recognizes the
    wide range of standards and programmes that
    have been created to ensure the implementation of
    good animal welfare practices, and they do well
    to summarize the resources that have been
    previously discussed in this presentation,
  • Voluntary welfare codes, often created by
    industry organizations
  • Corporate programs, often used by retail or
    restaurant companies
  • Product differentiation programmes that allow
    consumers to purchase selectively
  • Legislated standards
  • International agreements created by treaties or
    intergovernmental organizations
  • Given the different political and commercial
    purposes that the various programmes serve, the
    FAO believes that an analysis is needed to
  • What programmes would be most effective in
    promoting good animal welfare practices
  • How implementation of such programmes could
    benefit animals and people.
  • Notably, FAO specifically references the RSPCA's
    five freedoms and the Welfare Quality Projects
    12 Welfare Criteria as providing valuable
    ethical, practical and scientific guidance on
    improving animal welfare.

Inter-GovernmentalFAO United Nations
  • According to FAO Capacity Building for
    implementing good animal welfare practices
    involves 4 elements
  • Education to create awareness of animal welfare
    and an understanding of its significance for
    successful animal production
  • Engagement to foster active involvement of people
    who work with animals
  • Training in specific procedures
  • Communication among different international
    organizations, between stakeholders and providers
    of training, and among the different government
    departments, professional bodies and other
    organizations involved in animal welfare.

Inter-GovernmentalFAO United Nations
  • Per the FAO, even the best of expert meetings is
    of little or no use if their recommendations are
    not taken into account and put into practice.
    As such
  • AGA is launching an interactive and participatory
  • In association with key partners from the public
    and civil society sectors, dedicated to animal
    welfare (whom?)

IntergovernmentalWorld Organisation for Animal
Health (OIE)
  • The need to fight animal diseases at global level
    led to the creation of the Office International
    des Epizooties through the international
    Agreement signed on January 25th 1924. In May
    2003 the Office became the World Organisation for
    Animal Health but kept its historical acronym
  • The OIE is the intergovernmental organisation
    responsible for improving animal health
  • It is recognised as a reference organisation by
    the World Trade Organization (WTO) and in 2010,
    had a total of 175 Member Countries and
    Territories. The OIE maintains permanent
    relations with 36 other international and
    regional organisations and has Regional and
    sub-regional Offices on every continent.
  • Food safety and animal welfare
  • To provide a better guarantee of food of animal
    origin and to promote animal welfare through a
    science-based approach
  • The OIE Member Countries have decided to provide
    a better guarantee of the safety of food of
    animal origin by creating greater synergy between
    the activities of the OIE and those of the Codex
    Alimentarius Commission. The OIE's
    standard-setting activities in this field focus
    on eliminating potential hazards existing prior
    to the slaughter of animals or the primary
    processing of their products (meat, milk, eggs,
    etc.) that could be a source of risk for
  • Since it was created, the OIE has played a key
    role in its capacity as the sole international
    reference organisation for animal health,
    enjoying established international recognition
    and benefiting from direct collaboration with the
    Veterinary Services of all its Member Countries.
    As a mark of the close relationship between
    animal health and animal welfare, the OIE has
    become, at the request of its Member Countries,
    the leading international organisation for animal

In Other Countries (outside US, UK, Canada, EU)
  • Note Countries that are not profiled in this
    presentation, e.g. China, Mexico, etc., do not
    currently publish notable farm animal welfare
    information on the internet, nor are they
    profiled in any detail through the
    intergovernmental resources, viz. the United
    Nations FAO
  • Alternatively, the animal welfare contributions
    of the following countries are specifically
    mentioned in the aforementioned FAO-AGA report
    Capacity Building to Implement Good Animal
    Welfare Practices
  • As such, they are profiled in the following

Other Countries (outside US, UK, Canada,
  • Australia (per the FAO)
  • Since the 1970s, Australias cattle, sheep and
    livestock export industries have provided
    technical assistance to commercial trading
    partners in the Middle East and South East Asia.
  • In 2005, Australia sponsored a regional workshop
    in Bahrain, linked to the meeting of the World
    Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Regional
    Commission for the Middle East.
  • Australia then worked with Saudi Arabia, Kuwait,
    Oman, Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates
    through the Gulf Cooperation Council, and
    finalised a plan in 2006.
  • The plan defines 5 goals for the region to
    improve animal handling, transport and slaughter
  • Develop infrastructure
  • Develop laws
  • Develop standards
  • Develop welfare training
  • Develop public education/awareness
  • Australia convened a similar meeting of members
    of the OIE Regional Commission for Asia, The Far
    East and Oceania to develop a similar regional
    animal welfare plan. The plan was endorsed by
    OIEs International Committee in May 2008 as a
    model for other regions.
  • As part of the regional plans, Australia works
    with other partners to provide training in
    low-stress livestock handling on ships, trucks
    and at feedlots where animals are unloaded and
    loaded. Australia has funded improved loading
    ramps, restraint boxes for slaughter, and other
    animal handling infrastructure.
  • Trainers work with livestock handlers to improve
    management and provide recognition through
    issuing certificates to trainees.
  • Australia expended AUS 4 million on these
    activities in 2004-2008 and has committed a
    further AUS 6 million for 2009-2013.

Other Countries (outside US, UK, Canada,
  • Brazil (per the FAO)
  • Since 1995, university-based scientists in
    Brazil have applied research to improve the
    handling of beef and dairy cattle.
  • The results were used to develop guidelines on
    cattle handling, vaccination, treatment of
    newborn calves and other topics.
  • The guidelines emphasize positive approaches to
    animal welfare, using examples of good animal
    handling and showing the positive effects on
    animal health, animal production, and labour
  • The problem was how to disseminate this material
    to the tens of thousands of people involved in
    handling animals. The university looked for
    partners by approaching farmers associations,
    private companies, NGOs and government.
  • Funding was subsequently obtained from Ford Dodge
    Animal Health, Beckhauser Troncos d Balancas, and
    Allflex and one NGO viz. World Society for the
    Protection of Animals.
  • The funding has allowed booklets on good cattle
    handling practices to be distributed free of
    charge in printed form and through the internet
    ( The booklets provide a
    means for sponsoring organizations to draw
    attention to their activities in the context of
    promoting good animal welfare.

Other Countries (outside US, UK, Canada,
EU)South Africa, South Korea India
  • South Africa (per FAO)
  • Woolworths, a large retail chain with 20,000
    employees, products comply with its farm animal
    welfare policies which include adherence to an
    Animal Welfare Code of Practice approved by the
    National Council of Societies fro the Prevention
    of Cruelty to Animals (NSCPA) of South Africa.
  • The company conducts regular audits of
    abattoirs, and does not sell eggs from caged
  • South Korea (per FAO)
  • ORGA Whole Foods, a subsidiary of Pulmoune of
    Seoul, introduced a farm animal welfare policy in
    2007, with animal rearing standards based on the
    RSPCAs Freedom Food programme in the U.K.
  • The standards apply to over 3,000 cattle, 170,000
    meat chicken and 10,000 laying hens, and auditing
    of participating farms occurs every six months.
  • FAO notes that although products produced
    according to specified welfare standards are not
    yet widely consumed in Korea, animal welfare fits
    with the parent companys philosophy of marketing
    healthy products and showing respect for nature.
  • India (per FAO)
  • Keggfarms of New Delhi, active in genetic poultry
    breeding stocks since 1972, and since 1990
    focused on poultry specifically for use by
    village households, uses, in their breeding
    farms, cage-free rearing with perches, litter and
    nesting places together with flock health
  • Chicks are sent to brooding centres and then
    for placement as started birds in village
    households. The started birds are sufficiently
    established to fend for themselves in harsh,
    resource-poor scavenging conditions, and they
    produce substantially more eggs and meat than
    indigenous breeds.
  • Keggfarms produces nearly 20 million chicks
    annually, for rearing by 800,000 village
    households in 11 states
  • FAO notes that having a breed that is
    genetically suited to thrive under village
    conditions is important for animal welfare the
    project has also provided greater food security
    and income for nearly a million poor households.

Certification U.S.
  • Third-party certification bodies do not currently
    exist in the U.S.
  • Individual U.S. resources or owners of
    standards may provide their own, internal,
    certification to producers (refer to previous
    slides describing those resources)
  • Two organizations exist to train and certify
    animal welfare auditors
  • Professional Animal Auditor Certification
    Organization (PAACO) (slide 41)
  • Validus Services (slide 42)

Certification U.SPAACO (
  • Professional Animal Auditor Certification
    Organization (PAACO)
  • Consists of a coalition of five professional
    animal industry organizations
  • American Association of Avian Pathologists
  • American Association of Bovine Practitioners
  • American Association of Swine Veterinarians
  • American Registry of Professional Animal
  • Federation of Animal Science Societies
  • Purpose/Mission is to promote humane treatment of
    animals through certification of animal auditors.
    They perform
  • Dairy Audits (performed by Validus see below)
  • Meat Plant Welfare Audits
  • Follows AMIF 2010 Recommended Animal Handling
    Guidelines Audit Guide as authored by T.
  • Temple Grandin provides stunning training
    component at training courses for auditors
  • Poultry Audits
  • Operational revenue generated from independent
    certification of audits and auditor training
    certification fees.
  • Also supported by cash sponsorships from other
    parties interested in our mission including
    industry producer associations allied food
    animal industries. (sic) WHAT DOES THIS MEAN?
  • Neither ISO nor ANSI accredited

Certification U.SValidus (www.validusservices.
  • Validus Services
  • Performs Dairy audits on behalf of PAACO
  • Worker Care Audits
  • On-Farm Security Audits
  • Environmental Audits
  • Traceability Audits
  • Training
  • Business Management Systems
  • Environmental Planning Services
  • ISO 9001 certified

Certification UK
  • In contrast to the U.S., the UK has several
    competing third-party certification bodies for
    the various schemes or standards
  • NSF-Cmi (slide 44)
  • PAI Ltd. (slide 45)
  • NIFCC (slide 46)
  • SAI-Global (slide 47)
  • SGS United Kingdom Limited (slide 48)
  • Note within scheme owner websites, you may see
    several certification body links, for example, on
    the Assured British Pig
    site, you will see links to
  • NSF-Cmi
  • SAI Global
  • PAI Ltd.

Certification UKNSF-CMi
  • NSF-Cmi (
  • NSF-CMi is a U.K. division of NSF, Ann Arbor,
    Michigan, USA
  • CMi Leads NSFs food assurance programs outside
    North America
  • Services the agriculture, produce processing
  • Europes largest certification provider in the
    food farming sector
  • Certifying over 40,000 clients in Europe alone
  • Certification body for approximately 37
    certification schemes under the following major
  • Farm Inputs Contractors
  • Farmers Growers Livestock
  • Farmers Growers Crops
  • Logistics Distribution
  • Processing, Manufacturing Packaging (including
  • Accredited by UKAS to EN45011
  • Question Will NSF expand NSF-CMi into the U.S.
    or otherwise replicate the CMi function to
    service the U.S. animal welfare/food production

Certification UKPAI Ltd. (
  • PAI Ltd.
  • Three integrated divisions Food, Farm Animal
  • Operates throughout Europe, Far East South
  • Promotes its Pyramid system for supply chain
  • Accreditations UKAS-EN45011 (product
    certification), ISO17021 (management systems),
    ISO17020 (inspection body)

Certification UKNIFCC
  • Northern Ireland Food Chain Certification
  • UKAS accredited
  • Schemes certified
  • ABM Livestock Transportation
  • Assured Chicken Production (ACP)
  • Assured Dairy Farms (ADF)
  • ABM Livestock Market
  • Beef Labeling Verification
  • A UKAS scheme produced with assistance from
    Dept. of Agriculture Rural Development (DARD)
  • Northern Ireland Farm Quality Assured Scheme
    (Beef Lamb)
  • Abattoir, Cutting Packing

Certification UKSAI-Global (
  • SAI-Global
  • Offers many audit certification services
  • Food Safety
  • Product Traceability, British Quality Assured
    Pork, Abattoir Cutting Packing Plants, Farm
    Inspection Certification
  • Farm Assurance
  • FABBL Beef Lamb, ACCS Assured Crops, Assured
    British Pigs, ABM Livestock Transport, ABM
    Auction Markets, National Dairy Assurance, Animal
    Feed Schemes, Assured British Turkey, Quality
    Assured Venison, Farm Assured Welsh Lamb,
    Globalgap Integrated Farm Assurance, etc.
  • SAI-Global/FABBL are accredited by UKAS - EN45011
  • Other audit certification services
  • Quality/Business Management, Aerospace,
    Automotive, Environmental, Occupational Health
    Safety, Information Security, Supplier Compliance
    Management, Local Authority, Housing
    Associations, Manufacturing Engineering,
    Recruitment, Pet Industry

Certification UKSGS-UK (
  • SGS-UK
  • Established 1878
  • Worlds leading inspection, verification and
    certification company.
  • 59,000 employees
  • 1,000 offices around the world
  • 10 Business Segments
  • Agricultural Services
  • Currently no reference to animal welfare
    certification services on their website - SGS is
    included in this presentation because of their
    size scope - they may have the potential to
    enter the animal welfare certification arena
  • Minerals Services
  • Oil, Gas Chemical Services
  • Life Science Services
  • Consumer Testing Services
  • Systems Services Certification
  • Industrial Services
  • Environmental Services
  • Automotive Services
  • Governments Institutions Services

Certification ISO 22000
  • ISO 22000
  • No animal welfare components this certification
    pertains to food pharmaceutical safety
  • As with all ISO programs, it is a systematic
    preventative approach vs. focusing on finished
    product inspections.
  • ISO 22000 incorporates Hazard Analysis and
    Critical Control Points (HACCP) seven
  • Conduct a hazard analysis
  • Identify critical control points
  • Establish critical limits for each critical
    control point
  • Establish critical control point monitoring
  • Establish corrective actions
  • Establish record keeping procedures
  • Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP
    system is working as intended

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