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Project Work


Pakistan Studies: Spices Bunga rampai a potpourri of scented pandanus, rose petals and turmeric rice grain A Modern Chefs mortar and pestle. A wooden mortar and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Project Work

Project Work
Pakistan Studies Spices
(No Transcript)
What are spices?
  • A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or
    vegetative substance used in nutritionally
    insignificant quantities as a food additive for
    flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills
    harm ful bacteria or prevents their growth. In
    the kitchen, spices are distinguished from herbs,
    which are leafy, green plant parts used for
    flavouring.Many spices are also used for other
    purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals,
    cosmetics, perfumery, or eating as vegetables.
    For example , turmeric is also used as a
    preservative liquorice as a medicine garlic as
    a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to
    by different terms.

(No Transcript)
Grouping Spices
Grouping by plant part , spices can be grouped as
  • Dried fruits or seeds, such as fennel, mustard,
    and black pepper.
  • Arils, such as mace.
  • Barks, such as cinnamon and cassia.
  • Dried buds, such as cloves.
  • Stigmas, such as saffron.
  • Roots and rhizomes, such as turmeric, ginger and
  • Resins, such as Asafoetida

Names of Common Spices and some information
about them
  • Used mainly as a thickening agent because
    arrowroot tubers contain about 23 starch.
    Arrowroot is used as an article of diet in the
    form of biscuits, puddings, jellies, cakes, hot
    sauces etc., and also with beef tea, milk or veal
    broth, noodles in Korean cuisine, or boiled with
    a little flavouring added, as an easily
    digestible food for children and people with
    dietary restrictions.

  • With an aroma of mint and tea, Basil is available
    in leaf form. Basil is one of the main
    ingredients in pesto, a green Italian
    oil-and-herb sauce from the city of Genoa, its
    other two main ingredients being olive oil and
    pine nuts. Chinese also use fresh or dried basils
    in soups and other foods. In Taiwan, people add
    fresh basil leaves into thick soups and eat fried
    chicken with deep-fried basil leaves. Basil is
    sometimes used with fresh fruit and in fruit jams
    and sauces, in particular with strawberries, but
    also raspberries or dark-coloured plums. Arguably
    the flat-leaf basil used in Vietnamese cooking,
    which has a slightly different flavour, is more
    suitable for use with fruit. However, basil is
    also used commonly as a seasoning for pizza,
    spaghetti sauce, sausage, soup, tomato juice,
    dressings, salads, and any other dish where
    oregano would also be used.

Black Pepper
  • Black pepper has a sharp, penetrating aroma and
    a characteristic woody, piney flavor. It is hot
    and biting to the taste. It is found on nearly
    every dinner table in major parts of the world,
    often alongside table salt.
  • Use
  • Take at first sign of any disease
  • Pain relief from toothache
  • Brings down a fever.

  • Celery Celery seedCelery seed tastes like
    celery and is aromatic with a slight bitterness
    which enhances other flavors. Celery seed is
    available whole, ground, or mixed with salt.
    Celery salt is a blend of ground celery seed and
    fine salt. It is used primarily as a flavoring in
    salads (especially potato), sauces, pickling,
    soup, tomato juice, and meat. It is also an
    integral part of the flavoring of traditionally
    prepared crabs and other seafood.
  • It is also used to enhance flavor of cocktails
    such as Bloody Mary. Celery is one of three
    vegetables considered the holy trinity, along
    with onions and bell peppers, of Louisiana Creole
    and Cajun cuisine. It is also one of the three
    vegetables, together with onions and carrots,
    that constitute the French mirepoix, which is
    often used as a base for sauces and soups.

Cayenne Pepper/ Chilli Powder
  • A seasoning ground from small, red chili peppers.
    It has been used as a spice in the dishes of many
    countries and is also used as a table condiment.
    Its heat and spiciness varies.

It is made from dried chilies, usually blended
with garlic, onion, cumin, oregano, chili
peppers, allspice, garlic, and salt. Color and
spiciness varies. It has an earthy, slightly
sweet, and sometimes hot flavor. This spice blend
usually dominates food rather than enhancing it.
Mexican and other Latin American dishes depend on
chili powder for their characteristic flavor.
White Pepper
  • White pepper has a similar but more earthy flavor
    than black pepper. Used in many dishes, sauces,
    rubs, and marinades.
  • White pepper consists of the seed of the pepper
    plant only, with the darker coloured skin of the
    pepper fruit removed. This is usually
    accomplished by a process known as retting, where
    fully ripe peppers are soaked in water for about
    a week, during which the flesh of the pepper
    softens and decomposes. Rubbing then removes what
    remains of the fruit, and the naked seed is
    dried. Alternative processes are used for
    removing the outer pepper from the seed,
    including decortication, the removal of the outer
    layer from black pepper from small peppers
    through mechanical, chemical or biological
  • White pepper is sometimes used in dishes like
    light-coloured sauces or mashed potatoes, where
    ground black pepper would visibly stand out.
    There is disagreement regarding which is
    generally spicier. They have differing flavor due
    to the presence of certain compounds in the outer
    fruit layer of the berry that are not found in
    the seed.

  • It has a pungent and sweetly herbal fragrant.
    Thyme is often used to flavor meats, soups and
    stews. It has a particular affinity to and is
    often used as a primary flavor with lamb,
    tomatoes and eggs.
  • Thyme, Ground - Use on green beans, eggplant,
    carrots and zucchini. Add to beef stew, barbecue
    and pot pies. Use in cheese spreads or sauces.
  • Thyme Leaves - Use with green beans, eggplant,
    carrots and zucchini, tomato soups, lamb, beef
    stew. Mix in with barbecue or spaghetti sauce,
    cheese spreads, sauces, pot pies.

  • It has a strong, pungent green flavor and is one
    of the most popular seasonings used today. Garlic
    can be conveniently purchased as fresh bulbs,
    dehydrated powder, minced flakes, and blends with
    salt. It adds flavor to almost any dish. Garlic
    is especially popular in Italian cuisine and
    throughout the Mediterranean region and Asia.
    Sprinkle to taste on hamburgers, lamb, chuck
    roast, steak, chicken, Italian green beans,
    zucchini, tomatoes and green salads. Use with
    sour cream or cream cheese for dips. Sprinkle on
    stuffed eggs. Use it sparingly to begin with and
    add small amounts until it suits your taste.Use
  • Chronic and acute bacterial colds and flus
  • Bronchitis, asthma, whooping cough
  • High and low blood pressure
  • Removing parasites and infections
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Diabetes
  • Destroys intestinal parasites
  • Reduces cholesterol
  • Repels insects
  • Reduces sting effects of insects and red ants

  • The flavor of ginger is pungent, lemon/citrus,
    warm, and sweet. Ginger is available ground,
    whole (gingerroot), and crystallized. Used to add
    zest to many dishes such as gingersnaps,
    gingerbread, in Asian dishes and in sweets such
    as cakes, cookies, puddings, pumpkin pie and
    sweet breads.Use
  • Cold / Flu
  • Suppressing cough
  • Cramps
  • Nausea
  • Stiffness
  • Detoxify meat
  • Blood Thinner
  • Ease bruises sprains
  • Stimulate delayed period
  • Break up congestion and fever
  • Preparations
  • Ginger prepared in tea form is useful for cramps,
    nausea, thinning blood, as a substitute for
    coumadin, break up congestion and fever.
  • Use externally for stiffness
  • Add in cooking to detoxify meat, especially
  • Boil 2/3 cup of freshly chopped root in 1 gallon
    water, wrapped in cheesecloth (or old nylon
    stocking) until the water is yellow. Then soak
    towel and lay on bruises and sprains while still
    hot, to ease them.
  • Ginger is one of the few herbs that easily passes
    the blood/brain membrane and is used in
    conjunction with other herbs that are meant to
    have an effect on the mind.

Juniper Berries
  • Aromatic and spicy with the slight flavor of
    pine. It is mostly used a spice for meats in
    marinades, on roasts and in sausage mixes.They
    also season pork, cabbage, and sauerkraut dishes.
    Traditional recipes for choucroute garnie, an
    Alsatian dish of sauerkraut and meats,
    universally include juniper berries.Juniper also
    flavors gin, a liquer developed in the 17th
    century in the Netherlands. It was first intended
    as a medication juniper berries are a diuretic
    and were also thought to be an appetite stimulant
    and a remedy for rheumatism and arthritis.
    Western American Native Tribes are also reported
    to have used the juniper berry as an appetite
    supressant in times of hunger and/or famine.
    Currently, the juniper berry is being researched
    as a possible treatment for diet-controlled
    diabetes, as it releases insulin from the
    pancreas (hence alleviating hunger). It is also
    said to have been used by some tribes as a female
    contraceptive. The name gin itself is derived
    from either the French genièvre or the Dutch
    jenever, which both mean "juniper". Other
    juniper-flavoured beverages include the Finnish
    rye-and-juniper beer known as sahti, which is
    flavoured with both juniper berries and branches.
  • A few North American juniper species produce a
    seed cone with a sweeter, less resinous flavour
    than those typically used as a spice. For
    example, one field guide describes the flesh of
    the berries of Juniperus californica as "dry,
    mealy, and fibrous but sweet and without resin
    cells". Such species have been used not just as a
    seasoning but as a nutritive food by some Native
    Americans. In addition to medical and culinary
    purposes, Native Americans have also used the
    seeds inside juniper berries as beads for
    jewellery and decoration.
  • An essential oil extracted from juniper berries
    is used in aromatherapy and perfumery.The
    essential oil can be distilled out of berries
    which have already been used to flavour gin.

  • Mustard has a clean, fresh aroma and a pungent,
    biting flavor. Ground mustard enhances meat,
    fish, poultry, sauces, salad dressings, cheese,
    and egg dishes. It must be moistened for about
    ten minutes to develop its sharp, hot, tangy
    flavor. The whole seed is used in pickling,
    boiled with beets, cabbage, or sauerkraut, and as
    a garnish for salads.Use
  • Sprained backs
  • Deep rattling coughs
  • Preparation
  • 1 ½cups of dry yellow mustard in a bathtub of
    water for sprained backs.
  • Make a paste with water and apply to knee and
    elbow sprains till blisters appear!
  • 1 tsp. each mustard and ginger powder mixed with
    2 ½tbs. of olive oil for deep rattling coughs.
    Rub over chest and back and put on an old T-shirt
    (or cover with cloth diaper).

  • Similar in flavor to marjoram, it is not as sweet
    and is slightly more pungent and bitter. Use
    oregano in your favorite ethnic dishes as well as
    in fresh garden salads, egg dishes, quick breads,
    rubs, and sauces.
  • Traditional Mediterranean herbs such as sage
    and oregano help battle insulin resistance by 28
    to  64 percent.Oregano is high
    in antioxidant activity, due to a high content
    of phenolic acids and flavonoids.Additionally,
    oregano has demonstrated antimicrobial activity
    against food-borne pathogens such as Listeria
    monocytogenes. Both of these characteristics may
    be useful in both health and food preservation.
    In the Philippines, oregano (Coleus aromaticus)
    is not commonly used for cooking but is rather
    considered as a primarily medicinal plant, useful
    for relieving headaches and coughs.
  • Oregano is also used in South India primarily as
    a medicinal plant (where it is called as
    "Karpuravalli"), the leaf is roasted and the
    essence is had, to get relief from cold, sore
    throat, phlegm and cough.

  • Cinnamon, ultimately originating from the
    Malaysian language kayu manis, has a
    characteristic woody, musty, earthy, and sweet
    flavor. It is warming to taste. It is available
    whole, as cinnamon sticks, and ground. Cinnamon
    is generally used in spiced vegetable dishes,
    also in sweet dishes such as baking, pies,
    compotes, and also with meats, stews, vegetables
    and curries.
  • It is also used largely used in the preparation
    of certain desserts, chocolate, spicy candies,
    tea, hot cocoa and liqueurs. In the Middle East,
    it is often used in savoury dishes of chicken and
    lamb. In the United States, cinnamon and sugar
    are often used to flavour cereals, bread-based
    dishes, and fruits, especially apples. A
    cinnamon-sugar mixture is even sold separately
    for such purposes. Cinnamon can also be used in
    pickling. Cinnamon bark is one of the few spices
    which can be consumed directly. Use
  • Diarrhea
  • Dysentery
  • General Indigestion
  • Yeast infection
  • Athletes foot
  • Reduces cancer causing tendencies of many food
  • Cold
  • Preparation
  • Cinnamon ground or taken with milk is a good
    balance after a heavy meal or dessert
  • Simmer sticks with cloves for 3 min, add 2 tsp.
    lemon juice, 2 tsp. honey, 2 tbs. whiskey as cold
  • Boil 8-10 sticks in 4 cups water, simmer 5 min,
    steep 45 min, then douche or apply to athletes

  • Cloves, Ground - Use in applesauce cake and
    gingerbread. Add to baked beans, cranberry
    relish, sauerbraten, chili sauce, green
    vegetables and ham sauce. Use in plum pudding,
    cookies, spiced nuts, stewed fruits, and dessert
  • Cloves, Whole - Stick cloves in ham. Add to hot
    chocolate and tea, onions, glazed pork, beef pot
    roast, marinades, poached fish and soups. Use in
    pickling, pomander balls and fruit peels for a
  • Toothache
  • Nasuea
  • Vomiting
  • Sore gums
  • Topical pain relief of arthritis
  • Antiseptic mouthwash
  • Alcohol craving suppressor
  • Preparation
  • Chew for toothache, nausea or vomiting.
  • Use oil for pain relief for sore gums and
  • Add clove oil to neutral oils for topical pain
    relief of arthritis.
  • Small amounts of clove in a tea for nausea.
  • 3 cloves in two cups of boiled water, steeped for
    20 minutes, as an antiseptic and mouthwash.
  • Former alcoholics can suck on one or two cloves
    when the craving strikes to curb the desire.

  • Spearmint is an ingredient in several mixed
    drinks, such as the mojito and mint julep. Sweet
    tea, iced and flavoured with spearmint, is a
    summer tradition in the Southern United States.
    It is used as a flavouring for toothpaste and conf
    ectionery, and is sometimes added to shampoos and
    soaps. In herbalism, spearmint is steeped as tea
    for the treatment of stomach ache.Use
  • Colds, flus
  • Mild fever
  • Antispasmodic
  • Prevents vomiting
  • Relieves stomach
  • Intestinal gas
  • Diaphoretic
  • Reduces pain

Rosemary Tea
  • Rosemary Leaves - Use in ground beef for
    spaghetti, barbecue, pizza, lasagna sauces.
  • Use on lamb, pork, and chicken, eggplants,
    zucchini, stewed tomatoes, green beans,
  • Headaches
  • Body aches
  • Breath purifier
  • Aid in digestion of fat
  • Free radicals reducer
  • Stress
  • Headaches
  • Muscular stiffness and pain
  • Preparation
  • Flower tea for the breath.
  • Boil water with rosemary in it to make it safe to
  • Diuretic and liver aid, increases bile flow. Two
    handfuls of flowering tips into 2 cups of good
    brandy, soak 10 days, strain and seal. Mouthful
    twice daily.
  • Oil of rosemary is a natural anti-oxidant, and
    stress reliever
  • Sniff for headaches.
  • Chop a double handful of twigs and put in a pint
    of olive oil for one week, and use as a muscle

  • Coriander has a sweet, slightly lemony flavor.
    Cilantro, mentioned above, are coriander leaves.
    Coriander is available as whole seed or ground,
    is a principal ingredient in curry powder. Middle
    Eastern, Indian, Russian, North African, and
    Mexican recipes include coriander for its
    distinctive flavor. Coriander seed is a pleasant
    addition to potato salad, rices, bean, vegetable
    dishes, hot dogs, apple pie, poached fish, or
    bean, pea, and lentil soup.

  • Parsley has a slightly mild green taste. Parsley
    is available fresh or as dried flakes. It adds
    both flavor and visual appeal to salads, soup,
    pasta, butters, shellfish, meat, poultry, sauces,
    potatoes, omelets and soft cheeses. The fresh
    flavor of parsley goes extremely well with fish.
  • Purifier
  • Halitosis
  • Tumor inhibitor
  • Kidney stones and other kidney related problems
  • Painful urination
  • Preparation
  • Chew for halitosis.
  • A few sprigs provide 2/3 the vitamin C of an
    orange, lots of vitamin A, and the important
    amino acid histidine, which is a tumor inhibitor.
  • Parsley tea is good for kidney problems, painful
    urination, and kidney stones.
  • One cup of parsley to 1 quart of water makes a
    strong tea. Two cups of parsley to 1 quart of
    water, steep an hour and drink warm, as an
    aphrodisiac. In Spain they have found that
    feeding parsley to sheep will bring them into
    heat at any time of year!

Crushing Spices
Spice Blends
  • Probably the most widely-recognized spice blend
    is curry powder. Curries can contain as little as
    two or three different spices or up to fifty or
    more. There is no set amount or ingredient list
    for most spice mixtures. They have evolved based
    on personal tastes and should always be adjusted
    to suit your own needs. 

Spice Blending Tools
  • If one plans on making your own spice blends at
    home, you will want to invest in an electric
    spice grinder. Luckily, they are inexpensive. If
    you should have difficulty finding a spice
    grinder for some odd reason, you can also use a
    electric coffee grinder with equal success. You
    should be able to find either for around 15 and
    surely under 25. Do not make the mistake of
    using a coffee grinder for both spices and
    coffee. No amount of cleaning in between will
    keep coffee flavor from your spices nor spices
    from your coffee. You can also crack
    peppercorns and other whole spices by placing
    them in a freezer bag on a cutting board and
    pounding with the bottom side of a heavy
    skillet. Of course, you can always resort to
    grinding by hand with a mortar and pestle.

Spice Mixes
  • Berbere Spice Mix(Ethiopian)-dried red chiles,
    black peppercorns, ground ginger, cloves,
    coriander seeds, ajowan, allspice berries, greed
    cardamom seeds, fenugreek, cinnamon stickGaram
    Masala(Indian)-The name translates to hot
    mixture cumin, coriander seeds, cardamom, black
    peppercorns, cloves, mace, bay leaf, cinnamon
  • Sansho Seven Spice Mixture (Japanese)-sansho,
    seaweed, chile, orange peel, poppy seeds, white
    sesame seeds, black sesame seeds
  • Zahtar (Middle Eastern)-sumac, roasted sesame
    seeds, ground thymeChat Masala (Indian)-ground
    asafoetida, mint, ginger, ajowan, cayenne, black
    salt, mango powder, cumin, dried pomegranate
    seedsCurry Powder (Basic)-dried red chiles,
    coriander seeds, mustard seeds, black
    peppercorns, fenugreek seeds, ground ginger,
    ground turmericFive Spice Powder-star anise,
    fagara, cassia, fennel seeds, clovesHerb
    Salt-sea salt, bay leaves, dried thyme, dried
    rosemary, dried oreganoJerk Seasoning(Jamaican)-c
    hiles, thyme, cinnamon, ginger, allspice, cloves,
    garlic, onionsMixed Pudding Spice- coriander
    seeds, cinnamon stick, allspice berries, whole
    cloves, nutmeg, ground gingerQuatre-Epices (Frenc
    h)- The name means four spices black
    peppercorns, whole cloves, nutmeg, ground
    gingerPanch Phoran(Indian) -cumin seeds, fennel,
    mustard, fenugreek, nigellaPickling Spice- black
    peppercorns, yellow mustard seeds, hot red pepper
    flakes, allspice berries, dill seed, mace,
    cinnamon stick, bay leaves, whole cloves, ground
    gingerRas-el Hanout (North African) -Translates
    to top of the shop peppercorns, cardamom, mace,
    galangal, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, ash
    berries, cloves, ginger, turmeric, nigella,
    lavender, rosebuds, orrisroot, cassia, fennel

Natural Home Made remedies
Natural remedies for cough
  • Powder the bark of the tree and boil it in 1
    glass of water. Gargle with it once a day for
    releasing mucus and if you have any throat
    infection. You can also take 1 or 2 pinches of
    the powdered bark and sniff it which will make
    you sneeze and help in decongesting your nasal
  • Take the pulp of the Belleric Myroblan fruit and
    mix salt, long pepper and honey to it for taste.
    Have it 2 times everyday for relief from cough.
    Fry the fruit and roll it in wheat flour and have
    it once a day.
  • Crush the fruits of the Betel Leaf herb and mix
    it with honey. Lick it for relief from irritating
  • Roast 1 clove and chew it slowly. This will
    decongest youre the throat.Extract some juice
    from the root of ginger and take 1 tsp of it
    mixed with honey 3 times a day. Boil some peeled
    and grated ginger roots in water, add a pinch of
    salt to it and 1 tsp of sugar and drink it while
    it is still warm. You can also drink ginger tea
    twice daily.
  • In 1 tsp of honey add a pinch of turmeric powder
    and take it once before going to bed at night.
    This will release cough through the stool and

Soothing itchy red skin.
  • Aloe Vera is a universal soothing application for
    your skin. The clear gel obtained from a fresh
    leaf may be rubbed onto the patch that is
    itching. Baking soda paste could prove to be
    helpful in your case. Some types of itches
    respond more to moisturizing. It could be dryness
    that is actually affecting your skin. This is
    because dryness is the most common complaint
    leading to itching skin.

Usage of Spices in Cosmetics, Aromatherapy and
  • The sense of smell is one that leaves the longest
    impression for human beings.
  • Aromatherapy uses essential oil distilled from
    spices and herbs. A few drops of these oils
    invokes certain feelings, be it relaxation or
    sensual. They also have healing properties for
    some common illnesses.
  • Perfumes are categorized as being floral, musky,
    citrusy or spicy, depending on the extract of the
    ingredients used in them. I was given once a
    perfume made of black pepper from Sarawak (a
    Malaysian state in Borneo). I loved it!
  • In cosmetics and body care, body scrub can be
    made with ground ginger and turmeric. You can
    raid your kitchen to make a facial mask by mixing
    turmeric powder, egg white and honey. A
    traditional spa is not complete without steaming
    your body with spiced water and soaking in sweet
    smelling milk added with spices. What a terrific
  • All in all, usage of spices is everywhere. Life
    is definitely full of surprises and also spices.

Spices in Traditional Rituals
  • It was written that Emperor Nero burnt a year's
    supply of cinnamon as a pyre for his dead
    Empress. Victorious soldiers marching into Rome
    were showered by expensive saffron. These
    extravagant usage of spices showed how powerful
    the spice trade was for the Roman empire.
  • In Malaysia, special events which are steeped in
    tradition always include herbs and spices. For
    example, during the shaving ceremony of a newborn
    baby, there is a bowl of spiced scented water
    alongside kaffir lime, "sintok", a pinch of
    glutinuous rice paste and also turmeric. These
    paraphernalia are useful in case of bleeding on
    the infant's delicate head.
  • To exorcise evil spirits, various spices are
    mixed with rice grains colored yellow with
    turmeric to be placed at strategic corners around
    the affected home. The shaman would sprinkle this
    magical potion while saying his mantra.
  • For weddings, usage of spices in every step of
    the ceremony is a must. Potpourri (called "bunga
    rampai") is made with pandanus, roses,
    bouganvillae blooms scented with rose water and a
    handful of cloves and cardamoms. Glutinous rice
    is dyed yellow with turmeric to symbolize good
    luck. The happy couple on the raised dias are
    sprinkled with rose water and spices for even
    more prosperity and good luck.

Bunga rampai
  • a potpourri of scented pandanus,rose petals and
    turmeric rice grain

A Modern Chefs mortar and pestle.
A wooden mortar and pestle
A mortar and pestle made out of black Jade and
black marble
A steel mortar and pestle
A spice rack
An elcectric Spice grinder
Presented ByMohammad Junaid FarazNamarik
Ahsan0-1 (Grade 8)