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Architecture of the Philippines

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Architecture of the Philippines * East Asian, South Asian and Spanish Islamic East Asian Architecture in East Asia is based on simple, timber-frame construction. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Architecture of the Philippines


1
Architecture of the Philippines
2
  • The architecture of the Philippines is a
    reflection of the history and heritage of the
    country. The most prominent historic
    constructions in the archipelago are from the
    Spanish Colonial period, though much Philippine
    architecture is also influenced by Japanese,
    Malay, Hindu, Chinese, and American cultures.

3
The pre-colonial architecture of the Philippines
  • consisted of the Nipa hut made from natural
    materials but there are some traces of
    large-scale construction before the Spanish
    colonizers came but not well documented. An
    example of this is the pre-colonial walled city
    of Maynilad although later after the Spanish
    colonization, dismantled by the Spaniards and
    rebuilt as Intramuros. There are also other minor
    pre-colonial walled cities like Betis and
    Macabebe.

4
After the Spanish American War
  • The architecture of the Philippines was dominated
    by the American style. In this period the plan
    for the modern city of Manila was designed, with
    a large number of art deco buildings, by famous
    American and Filipino architects.

5
At the end of the 20th Century
  • Modern architecture with straight lines and
    functional aspects was introduced. During this
    period many of the older structures fell into
    decay. Early in the 21st Century a revival of the
    respect for the traditional Filipino elements in
    the architecture returned

6
Pre-colonial
  • Prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, the main
    form of dwelling for a family in the Philippines
    was the nipa hut, a single room house composed of
    wood, bamboo or other native materials. Though
    the styles of the nipa hut varied throughout the
    country, most all of them shared similar
    characteristics including having it raised
    slightly above ground on stilts and a steep roof.
    Aside from nipa huts, other small houses were
    built on top of trees to prevent animal as well
    as enemy attacks.

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Colonial Spanish
  • In this era, the nipa hut or Bahay Kubo gave way
    to the Bahay na Bato (stone house) and became the
    typical house of noble Filipinos. The Bahay na
    Bato followed the nipa hut's arrangements such as
    open ventilation and elevated apartments. The
    most obvious difference between the two houses
    would be the materials that was used to build
    them. The Bahay na Bato was constructed out of
    brick and stone rather than the traditional
    bamboo materials.

10
Bahay na Bato
  • The Bahay Na Bato, the Colonian Filipino House,
    is a mixture of native Filipino, Spanish and
    Chinese influences. In Vigan, Ilocos Sur,
    excellently preserved examples of the houses of
    the noble Filipinos can be admired. In Taal,
    Batangas, the main street is still ligned with
    examples of the traditional Filipino homes.

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13
Fort Santiago
  • Fort Santiago (Fuerza de Santiago) is a defense
    fortress built for Spanish conquistador, Miguel
    López de Legazpi. The fort is part of the
    structures of the walled city of Intramuros, in
    Manila, Philippines.
  • The location of Fort Santiago was also once the
    site of the palace and kingdom of Rajah Suliman,
    chieftain of Manila of pre-Spanish era.

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15
Intramuros
  • Intramuros, located along the southern bank of
    the Pasig River, was built by the Spaniards in
    the 16th century and is the oldest district of
    the city of Manila. Its name, taken from the
    Latin, intra muros, literally "Within the walls",
    meaning within the wall enclosure of the
    city/fortress, also describes its structure as it
    is surrounded by thick, high walls and moats.
    During the Spanish colonial period, Intramuros
    was considered Manila itself.

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Paco Park
  • Paco Park was planned as a municipal cemetery for
    the well-off and established aristocratic Spanish
    families who resided in the old Manila, or the
    city within the walls of Intramuros during the
    Spanish colonial era.
  • Most of the wealthy families interred the remains
    of their loved ones inside the municipal cemetery
    in what was once the district of Dilao (former
    name for Paco).

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21
Augustinian Churches
  • These magnificent structures can still be found
    all over the Phlippine Islands. The Augustinian
    historians Fathers Policarpo F. Hernández and
    Pedro G. Galende,coffetable book "Angels in
    Stone" documents all the churches built by the
    Augustinians throughout the Philippines over the
    centuries.

22
  • It is the first European stone church to be built
    in the Philippines designed in Spanish
    architectural structure. The church also houses
    the legacies of the Spanish conquistadors, Miguel
    López de Legazpi, Juan de Salcedo and Martín de
    Goiti who are buried and laid to rest in a tomb,
    underneath the church.

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  • The church was built by the Augustinian friars
    from 1694 until 1710.It shows the earthquake
    proof baroque style architecture.

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27
Lighthouses
  • During the Spanish and American era many
    lighthouses were constructed around the Phlippine
    Islands. The most Northeastern Lighthouse can be
    found in Burgos, Ilocos Norte.

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29
The 20th Century
30
Philippine Architecture during American
colonization
  • After the Spanish American war in 1898 the
    Americans took over rule of the Philippines until
    after the second world war. During this period
    the Americans constructed many Art Nouveaux
    buildings in Manila. In 1902 Judge William Howard
    Taft was appointed to head the Philippine
    Commission to evaluate the needs of the new
    territory.

31
Manila Metropolitan Theater
  • The Manila Metropolitan Theater is an art deco
    building designed by the Filipino architect Juan
    M. Arellano, and built in 1935. During the
    liberation of Manila by the Americans in 1945,
    the theatre we totally destroyed. After
    reconstruction by the Americans it gradually fell
    into disuse in the 1960s.

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35
The National Monument to Dr. Jose Rizal
  • The bronze and granite Rizal monument located in
    Rizal Park, Manila, has long been considered
    among the most famous sculptural landmarks in the
    Philippines. The monument is located near the
    very spot where Dr. Jose Rizal was executed
    December 30, 1896.

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37
Standalone movie theaters of the Philippines
  • During the advent and continuous growth of
    Philippine cinema in the early 90's, came with
    the establishment of Philippine theaters in the
    Metropolitan Manila along with those in the
    Philippine provinces during the said period.

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39
Other Examples of Filipino Architecture
  • Parish of the Holy Sacrifice
  • Antipolo Church

40
Parish of the Holy Sacrifice
  • The Parish of the Holy Sacrifice is the first
    circular church and the first thin-shell concrete
    dome in the Philippines

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44
Antipolo Church
  • The image of "Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage"
    has been venerated in the church of Antipolo for
    centuries. The old church that housed the virgin
    was destroyed in February 1945 when the Americans
    bombed Antipolo as part of the liberation
    campaign of Manila. In 1954 a new church was
    build designed by the renowned Filipino architect
    Jose de Ocampo.

45
  • This church is of a coupular design centered
    around the image of the Virgin. It functions as
    the center point of the pilgrimages to Antipolo.

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48
Architectural styles
49
  • Architectural styles classify architecture in
    terms of the use of form, techniques, materials,
    time period, region and other stylistic
    influences. It overlaps with, and emerges from
    the study of the evolution and history of
    architecture.

50
  • In architectural history, the study of Gothic
    architecture, for instance, would include all
    aspects of the cultural context that went into
    the design and construction of these structures.
    Hence, architectural style is a way of
    classifying architecture that gives emphasis to
    characteristic features of design, leading to a
    terminology such as Gothic "style".

51
  • The Victoria and Albert Museum maintains an
    interactive online microsite with an introductory
    overview of ten architectural styles grouped in
    four clusters

52
  • Modern, High-Tech and Postmodern
  • East Asian, South Asian and Spanish Islamic
  • Gothic and Gothic Revival
  • Classical and Classical Revival.

53
Modern, High-Tech and Postmodern
54
Postmodern
  • Postmodern architects felt that buildings in the
    Modern style had been stripped of their symbolic
    character.

55
  • In a desire to create striking and individual
    buildings, they ignored many traditional rules of
    architecture, such as the principles of
    proportion and scale. They used modern
    construction techniques but also stylistic
    elements from many different periods and styles.
    Some came from historical or local architecture,
    others from popular culture.

56
  • Clash of scales
  • Thin fa?ades
  • Classical references
  • Storm Water Pumping Station

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58
  • ATT Building New York 1978-83 Philip Johnson and
    John Burgee Photo Robert Elwall/RIBA

59
High-Tech
  • High-Tech is the name given to a particular
    strand of modern architecture that developed from
    the 1970s onwards.
  • As the name suggests, it is a highly engineered
    and technological style. Its character is
    expressed through industrial and factory-made
    materials and components.

60
  • In the hands of skilled architects, High-Tech
    buildings are individual and dramatic. The style
    lends itself to public buildings, corporate
    offices and transport facilities worldwide.

61
Tension structures
Exposed structure
Glass
Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank
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63
  • Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Hong
    Kong 1979-86 Foster Partners Photo Alistair
    Hunter/RIBA

64
Modern
  • The Modern Movement spread internationally from
    central Europe after the First World War.
    Modernists rejected historical styles in favour
    of clean lines and simple forms. Architects
    thought of buildings as machines and designed
    them to be efficient.

65
  • They gave them flat roofs and used industrially
    produced materials like sheet glass, steel and
    reinforced concrete. Colours, decoration and
    shapes were reduced to a minimum. Inside, rooms
    were well lit but often clinically bare.

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67
East Asian, South Asian and Spanish Islamic
68
East Asian
  • Architecture in East Asia is based on simple,
    timber-frame construction. This framework
    supports pitched roofs, using crossbeams placed
    one on top of the other in diminishing order of
    size. The size and choice of site show the
    status of important buildings like temples and
    palaces.

69
  • Buildings extend laterally in a series of
    courtyards. Ornament is often concentrated on the
    roof, using carved woodwork, paint, lacquer and
    brilliantly glazed tiles.

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  • Yomei-mon Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Mausoleum Nikko,
    Japan 1634-6 Photo Japan Information and
    Cultural Centre, Embassy of Japan, London

72
South Asian
  • With its climatic and cultural diversity, South
    Asia has developed great regional variety in its
    building traditions. During the long history of
    its civilisation, particular structures have
    evolved to suit the needs of its religions,
    including Buddhism and Hinduism.

73
  • The region has also successfully synthesised
    foreign architectural traditions with its own, as
    seen in the Mughal style. This fused Islamic
    building types and elements imported from Iran
    and Central Asia with Indian features.

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  • Temple of Adinatha Ranakpur, Rajasthan,
    India 1439 Photo Ian Dawson Grant/RIBA

76
Spanish Islamic
  • The Islamic world has many architectural
    traditions. In the Muslim cities of Spain and
    Morocco, masonry walls and arcades support
    pitched roofs. Rooms range around internal
    courtyards, with arcades to provide shade.
    Mosques have arcaded halls and courtyards and are
    distinguished by minaret towers.

77
  • Status is shown by a building's size and rich
    ornamentation. Interiors are often entirely
    covered with decoration, especially carved and
    painted stucco and glazed tiles.

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  • Court of the Lions, Alhambra Palace Granada,
    Spain 1362-91 Photo Danielle Tinero/RIBA

80
Gothic and Gothic Revival
81
Gothic Revival
  • The Gothic Revival began in England in the 1730s,
    in a mood of nostalgia for the past. By the 1840s
    it had become a style with moral values linked to
    an upsurge in Christian belief.
  • It was also thought suitable for modern
    structures like railway stations and hotels, even
    though they were often built of iron and brick.
  • At the same time, glass painters revived the
    medieval techniques of stained glass.

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  • Palace of Westminster London 1840-70 Sir Charles
    Barry and A. W. N. Pugin Photo Joe Low/RIBA

84
Gothic
  • The Gothic style began in the great medieval
    cathedrals of France in the 1140s and lasted
    until about 1500.
  • Gothic churches were triumphs of engineering in
    stone. Their style was based on the pointed arch
    and rib vault. These elements spread the physical
    load of the high walls, which were often shored
    up on the outside with elaborate buttresses.
  • Their interiors were lit by large areas of
    stained glass.

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86
  • Salisbury Cathedral Salisbury, England About
    1220-66 Photo Bernard Cox/RIBA

87
Classical and Classical Revival.
88
Classical
  • The classical style emerged in Greece about 2600
    years ago. It used columns and capitals to
    support beams called entablatures. These were
    combined in a design system called the orders,
    with each element carefully proportioned using
    mathematics.

89
  • The Greeks used three distinct types of order
    Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. The Romans added two
    more Tuscan and Composite. The Romans also
    exploited the use of the arch, vault and dome.

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  • The Parthenon Athens 447-432 BC Iktinos and
    Kallikrates Photo Bernard Cox/RIBA

92
Classical Revival
  • A vigorous revival of ancient classical forms
    began in Italy in the 1420s. They became the
    basis of most western architecture over the next
    400 years. At first, the borrowed forms were
    Roman, but from the 1760s Greek models were used
    to create the revitalised style.

93
  • This revived classical style was thought to have
    strength and dignity. It was specially favoured
    for buildings of authority.

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  • The Tempietto Rome About 1502-12 Donato Bramante
    Photo Vanni Archive/Corbis

96
Reference
  • http//www.vam.ac.uk/vastatic/microsites/architect
    ure/style_level3.php?id262parent257area0
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture_of_the_P
    hilippines
  •  
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architectural_style

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