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Womens Leadership Symposium

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Found mainly in fried fast foods, baked. goods, shortening, and hard margarines ... Temperature regulation. Shock absorber for eyes and spine. Maintains blood volume ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Womens Leadership Symposium


1
Womens Leadership Symposium
  • July 2008

2
  • If you aim at nothing, youre sure to hit it
    every time.
  • Author
    unknown

3
Aiming for Good Health??
4
Six Essential Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Protein
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

5
Energy Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates 4 calories/gram weight
  • Protein 4 calories/gram weight
  • Fat 9 calories/gram weight
  • Alcohol 7 calories/gram weight

6
(No Transcript)
7
NutrientsYour Needs ????
  • Depends on gender, age, health, activity
  • Research done to determine needs but exact
    amounts not known.
  • Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) published by the
    government for guidance note the word reference

8
DRI The Components
  • Dietary Reference Intake includes
  • RDA (recommended daily allowance ie. levels to
    meet the needs of most healthy people
  • AI (adequate intake) used when not enough
    evidence to establish an RDA

9
Six Essential Nutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Protein
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

10
CarbohydratesThe Fuel
  • Primary energy source for the body
  • Second largest component of the diet
  • Whats number one?
  • Needed for brain function (130 grams/day)
  • Remember4 calories/gram

11
Carbohydrates
  • Quick energy can be used as soon as they enter
    the bloodstream
  • Excess stored as glycogen (liver and muscles) or
    as fat. How many calories as glycogen?
  • Two types simple and complex both provide energy

12
Types of Carbohydrates
  • Simple
    Complex
  • sugar, honey, soda bread, cereal,
    pasta
  • candy, cake, fruit rice,
    starchy veggies
  • Decrease HDL Fiber Rich
  • Increase Triglycerides Nutrient Rich

13
Sources of Carbohydrates
  • Plant foods primarily
  • Milk (lactose milk sugar)
  • None in protein and fats

14
Carbohydrate Target
  • 45-65 of total calories per day
  • Example 2000 calorie diet
  • 2000 x .45 225 grams
  • 2000 x .65 325 grams
  • For a 2000 calorie diet 225-325 grams per day

15
Daily Carbohydrate
  • Bread and Starches - 10 servings (15 x 10 150)
  • Non-Starchy Veggies - 4 servings (5 x 4 20)
  • Milk - 3 servings (12 x 3 36)
  • Fruit 4 servings (15 x 4 60)
  • TOTAL 266 grams carbohydrate

16
Portion Explosion
17
BAGEL
20 Years Ago
Today
140 calories 3-inch diameter
350 calories 6-inch diameter
Calorie Difference 210 calories
18
SPAGHETTI AND MEATBALLS
20 Years Ago
Today
1,025 calories 2 cups of pasta with sauce and 3
large meatballs
500 calories 1 cup spaghetti with sauce and 3
small meatballs
Calorie Difference 525 calories
19
Protein
  • Not a major source of energy
  • 20 of an adults weight (muscles, enzymes,
    hormones, DNA)
  • Growth and repair of cells/tissues
  • Composed of amino acids

20
Amino Acids
  • Essential and non-Essential
  • Complete (animal) vs. Incomplete (plant)
  • Complementary Proteins
  • Beans nuts/seeds
  • Green veggies grains
  • Grains legumes (rice beans)
  • Grains nuts (bread and PB)
  • Grains dairy (cereal and milk)
  • What about Soy?

21
Protein Target?
  • 0.36 grams/per of body weight
  • Example 150 x 0.36 54 grams/day
  • 20-25 total calories
  • Daily Protein
  • 54 grams 8 ounces
  • (1 ounce weight of protein 7 grams protein)

22
Daily Protein Examples
  • Chicken Breast - 3 oz 21 gms Protein
  • Milk 3 cups skim 24 gms Protein
  • Egg 7 gms Protein
  • Total 52 grams Protein

23
Fats
  • Also called lipids and includes triglycerides,
    fatty acids, cholesterol
  • 9 calories/gram
  • Functions cell membrane structure
  • insulation
  • absorption of fat soluble
    vitamins
  • hormones, neurotransmitters

24
Types Fat
  • Saturated
  • Gen from animals
  • Solid at room temp
  • Raise LDL cholesterol
  • Tropical oils !!!!
  • Unsaturated
  • Non animal sources
  • Types monounsat
  • polyunsat
  • Liquid at room temp
  • Nuts, olives, avocado, oils

25
Hydrogenation of Fats
  • Unsaturated fats become saturated
  • Why do it???
  • Found mainly in fried fast foods, baked
  • goods, shortening, and hard margarines
  • Trans fat Target 2 grams/day max!!
  • WORSE FORM OF SATURTED FAT

26
Sources of Fatty Acids
  • Saturated Monounsaturated
    Polyunsaturated
  • animal fat olive oil
    corn oil
  • coconut oil canola oil
    soybean oil
  • palm oil peanut oil
    safflower oil

  • sunflower oil

27
Fat and Cholesterol Levels
  • Type Fat HDL LDL
  • Sat Fat - Raise
  • Monounsat Raise Lower
  • Polyunsat Lower Lower
  • Trans Fats Lower Raise

28
Fat Target
  • 20 total calories (45 grams/day for 2000 cals)
  • Saturated and trans fats not required
  • Very low fat diet not recommended

29
Daily Fat Example
  • For 45 grams Total Fat
  • 1 Tablespoon oil
  • 2 Tablespoons Ranch salad dressing
  • 1 Ounce dry roasted almonds

30
Cholesterol
  • A fat
  • Functions component of cell membranes, bile and
    hormones
  • Body makes its own (800-1500 mg/day)
  • Not as bad as saturated fat for clogging arteries
  • High levels can cause atherosclerosis
  • Problems result with low HDL or high LDL

31
Cholesterol Sources
  • Food Cholesterol/mg
  • Egg yolk 213
  • Shrimp (3 oz) 165
  • Meats (3 oz) 70-85
  • Whole milk (8 oz) 30-35
  • Cheeses (1 oz) 25-30

32
Re Cholesterol Intake
  • Not required in any amount (liver makes it)
  • Goal less than 300 mg/day if low risk
  • Goal less than 200 mg/day if high risk
  • Goal Triglycerides lt 150 mg/dl
  • sugar and alcohol influence triglycerides
  • Goal saturated fat lt 20 grams/day

33
Vitamins and Minerals
  • Found in every food group in various quantities
  • Assist in breaking down fats and carbs and small
    extent protein
  • No calories
  • Regulate many functions/processes
  • 40 required many have RDA or DRI value

34
Vitamins
  • Water-Soluble Fat-Soluble
  • B vitamins (8) A, D, E, K
  • C
  • Not readily stored Easily stored
  • Toxicity uncommon Toxic possible


35
Minerals
  • Major greater than 5 grams ( a nickel)
  • sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium
  • Trace amts smaller than 5 grams
  • iron, zinc, copper, selenium, fluoride,
  • chromium, molybdenum

36
Vitamins Minerals
  • Functions and Food Sources - Handouts

37
Do you need a supplement?
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding?
  • Pregnant or lactating?
  • Strict vegetarian?
  • Eating a very low calorie diet?
  • Routine unbalanced, unhealthy meals?
  • Tips

38
Water
  • 60 of body weight
  • Carries nutrients through and wastes out of the
    body
  • Lubricates and cushions around joints
  • Temperature regulation
  • Shock absorber for eyes and spine
  • Maintains blood volume
  • Muscle and blood weight is largely water
  • Fad diets work short term due to water loss
  • Pint per pound lost

39
Water Target
  • Women 2.7 liters/day
  • Men 3.7 liters/day
  • 8 glasses a day??? Doesnt have to be water.
  • Sources water, tea, coffee, juice, soda and
    fruits and veggies
  • Old myth debunkedcoffee is NOT a strong diuretic
  • Alcohol IS a strong diuretic does not count
    toward fluid requirements
  • Dont over do it !!

40
Phytochemicals
  • Important food component but not a nutrient
  • Only in plant foods
  • Phytochemical powerhouses fruits, veggies and
    whole grains
  • Many serve as antioxidants
  • Many yet to be discovered???

41
Antioxidants
  • Neutralize free radicals
  • Free radicals are unstable molecules that are
    produced as a byproduct of chemical rxns in the
    body. Free radicals seek out a tissue to attach
    to so that it can become more stable. Once
    attached to a cell, the free radicals cause a
    chain of events, including DNA damage, that is
    harmful to the cell.
  • Antioxidants help slow or possibly eliminate some
    of the damaging effects of the free radicals
  • SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT DIET CHANGE???

42
Increase Fruits Veggies
  • MORE MATTERS
  • TARGET 6-9 servings/day

43
Essential Nutrients Summary
  • Carbohydrates primary fuel source
  • Fats fat soluble vitamin absorption hormones,
  • neurotransmitters
  • Protein growth/repair
  • Vitamins Minerals catalyst for metabolism
  • Water medium for metabolic functions

44
Whats on your plate?
45
Summary- Daily Targets
  • 4-5 servings of veggies (1/2 1 cup per/svg)
  • 3-4 servings fruit
  • 3 servings dairy
  • 6-8 oz lean meat or complimentary protein
  • 8-10 servings whole grains, starchy veggies
  • 3-4 tablespoons fat (healthy)

46
Nutritional Challenges in Operational Settings
  • Nutritional Density
  • Nutritional Variety
  • Weight Management

47
Operational EatingNutrient Density
  • How are items prepared?
  • What about movie night?
  • How are you hydrating?

48
Operational EatingNutrient Variety
  • What is your routine?
  • Any special meals?
  • Wheres the fiber?
  • What about MREs?

49
Operational EatingWeight Management
  • Portion size?
  • Celebrating with food?
  • Boredom creeping in?
  • Snacking between meals?
  • Care package challenges?
  • Soothing with food?
  • Uniform tightening?
  • Candy to the rescue?

50
Returning Home
  • Family pressures
  • Portion control
  • Exercise
  • Fruits and veggies
  • Celebrations
  • Restaurant challenge

51
Tools for Success
  • Targets
  • RDIs (handouts)
  • MREs (handouts)
  • References

52
Nutrition Resources You Can Trust
  • American Dietetic Association www.eatright.org
  • Produce for Better Health Foundation
  • www.fruitsandveggiesmorematters.org
  • Food Guide Pyramid www.mypyramid.gov
  • American Hearth Association
  • www.americanheart.org
  • www.deliciousdecisions.org
  • USDA National Nutrient Database
  • www.usda.gov

53
What about exercise?
54
  • EXERCISE
  • EVERY DAY THAT YOU EAT
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