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The Global War on Terrorism

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Title: The Global War on Terrorism


1
Air and Space Power Today
  • The Global War on Terrorism

2
Almost every captain in the Air Force who flies
airplanes has combat experience virtually every
engineer, security forces troop and medic in the
Air Force has deployedThis is a veteran,
hardened combat forceThey have been shot at.
They know what its like. When we go, wherever we
go, were going to be at the peak of our game.
Gen. John P. Jumper CSAF, 2001 - 2005
3
Overview
  • The Global War on Terror
  • Background
  • Launching a War on Terrorism
  • The Military Campaign
  • Operation ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF)
  • OEF Emerging Lessons Learned
  • Operation IRAQI FREEDOM
  • Background
  • The Military Campaign
  • OIF Emerging Lessons Learned
  • USAF GWOT Lessons Learned
  • US National Lessons Learned from GWOT
  • CFD Review

4
The Global War on Terror Background
OEF marked the beginning of a broader US and
international global war on terrorism, but our
enemies actually declared war on us through acts
and words years earlier.
Sheik Rahman
Osama bin Laden
5
The Global War on Terror Background
The 1983 suicide bomb attack against US Marines
in Lebanon was our first introduction to this
war220 Marines were killed in the attack. The
first World Trade Center bombing in Feb 1993
killed six and injured over 1,000 people.
6
The Global War on Terror Background
  • In 1996, Osama bin Laden issued his fatwa a
    Declaration of War Against the Americans
    Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places.

7
The Global War on Terror Background
  • In 1996, the USAF facility at Khobar Towers was
    attacked with a truck bomb. That attack killed
    19 USAF Airmen.

8
The Global War on Terror Background
  • US Embassy bombings in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar el
    Salaam, Tanzania, in 1998
  • US retaliated with strikes against Sudan and
    Afghanistan
  • USS Cole attacked in Yemen, killing 17 Americans

US Embassy Nairobi
Damaged USS Cole
9
The Global War on Terror Background
  • September 11, 2001 attack launched on the US
    using airliners as piloted missiles to kill
    Americans
  • Two airliners crashed into the World Trade Center
    twin towers (3,000 dead, towers destroyed).
  • Third airliner crashed into the Pentagon
  • Fourth airliner crashed into a field in western
    PA

10
The Global War on Terror Background
  • Attacks on September 11, 2001 motivated the
    United States to initiate the Global War on
    Terrorism
  • The first battle zone Afghanistan and the
    Taliban

11
Launching The War on Terror
  • US announces two-pronged approach
  • Go after the terrorists
  • Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it
    does not end there. It will not end until every
    terrorist group of global reach has been found,
    stopped, and defeated.
  • Go after their supporters
  • Every nation, in every region, now has a
    decision to make. From this day forward, any
    nation that continues to harbor or support
    terrorism will be regarded by the United States
    as a hostile regime.

12
Launching The War on Terror
  • Department of Homeland Security is established
  • American diplomats forge different coalitions of
    nations willing to engage in the war on terrorism
    in a variety of ways
  • Law enforcement agencies, at home and abroad,
    work around the clock to uproot terror networks
    and disrupt potential attacks

13
Launching The War on Terror
  • Financial regulators and law enforcement combine
    forces to deprive terrorists of sources of
    financial support
  • Reserves and the National Guard patrol US skies
    and bolster the security of airports and other
    public places
  • US intelligence community redoubles efforts to
    gain needed intelligence and prepare for a series
    of covert actions

14
Launching The War on Terror
  • Global Perspective
  • Broader than just Afghanistan
  • The Philippines
  • Bosnia
  • Africa
  • Introduction of Doctrine of Preemption

15
OEF Military Operations
  • US began military operations in Afghanistan on 7
    Oct 2001
  • US air assets achieved air superiority within 3
    days
  • Taliban government fell within two months

16
OEF Military Operations
  • US Objectives for OEF
  • Make clear to the Taliban leaders and their
    supporters that harboring terrorists is
    unacceptable and carried a price
  • Acquire intelligence to facilitate future
    operations against al Qaeda and the Taliban
    regime that harbored the terrorists
  • Develop relationships with groups in Afghanistan
    that oppose the Taliban regime and the foreign
    terrorists that they support

17
OEF Military Operations
  • US Objectives for OEF (contd)
  • Make it increasingly difficult for terrorists to
    use Afghanistan freely as a base of operation
  • Alter the military balance over time by denying
    the Taliban the offensive systems that hamper the
    progress of the various opposition forces
  • Provide humanitarian relief to Afghans suffering
    truly oppressive living conditions under the
    Taliban regime

18
OEF Military Operations
  • A new style of warfare
  • Special Operations Forces anti-Taliban Afghani
    forces long-range airpower
  • ISR assets provided US forces with persistent
    surveillance
  • Special Op Forces provided indispensable HUMINT
    while manned and unmanned surveillance aircraft
    patrolled the skies
  • Radar systems, electro-optical and infrared
    cameras, and signals intelligence systems guided
    attacks against al Qaeda and Taliban targets

19
Air and Space Power and OEF
  • Strategic Attack Targets
  • Taliban headquarters and leadership
  • Al Qaeda training camps
  • Electrical power systems
  • Counterair Targets
  • Airfields
  • Air defense nodes
  • Communication nodes

20
Air and Space Power and OEF
  • Information Operations by C-130 Commando Solo
    aircraft
  • Transmitted radio broadcasts
  • Assured Afghani people that coalition forces
    there to help
  • Key effort to ensure support of the populace

21
Air and Space Power and OEF
After approximately two weeks of bombing,
application shifted from air supremacy to
supporting surface forces. 
22
Air and Space Power and OEF
  • Airlift
  • C-130s delivered Special Ops forces to remote
    areas
  • C-17 and C-130 airdrops resupplied them
  • Special Ops Employment
  • USAF Special Ops troops traversed the backcountry
    on horseback
  • Located enemy forces
  • Sent recon information to command
    centers by satellite link and to loitering
    aircraft

23
Air and Space Power and OEF
  • Counterland Bomber aircraft like the B-52 and
    B-1 realized evolved interdiction and close air
    support (CAS) roles
  • AC-130 Gunships
  • F-15/16 strafing runs
  • CAS was deciding factor in several later battles
    including Roberts Ridge

24
Air and Space Power and OEF
  • Intelligence, Surveillance, and
    ReconnaissanceRemotely piloted vehicles (RPV)
    technology saw increased employment
  • Global Hawk, Predator, and Shadow RPV
  • Predator drones equipped with Hellfire missiles
    and laser target designators

25
Air and Space Power and OEF
Airpower used across the entire spectrum, in
conjunction with ground forces, enabled the
Taliban to be removed from power and forced al
Qaeda to flee.
26
OEF Lessons Learned
  • Lessons about warfare in the new age
  • The potential of highly networked joint
    operations
  • The lethality of Special Ops forces on the ground
    when combined with sophisticated overhead
    reconnaissance systems
  • Modern communications systems dramatically
    shortened the kill chain time

27
OEF Lessons Learned
  • Joint and Combined Operations Technology worked
    well
  • Combined forces interaction with Afghani
    forces was positive
  • Joint Command structure took too long to
    establish
  • Once established, Command and Control
    (net-centric warfare) was highly successful

28
OEF Lessons Learned
  • RPV capability to operate and provide real time
    intel in any weather was a plus
  • New ordinance developed specifically for
    Afghanistan worked well
  • Strategic Airlift and Air Refueling worked
    exceptionally well but were stretched too thin
  • ISR in all aspects worked well, but more
    bandwidth was needed for communications
  • HUMINT was very weak

29
OEF Lessons Learned
  • Strategic airlift, supported by Air Refueling,
    enabled the United States to conduct
    expeditionary operations in the most remote areas
    of the world
  • More intratheater airlift was needed
  • Aircraft range and endurance capabilities
    improved to ease the strain on limited
    refueling assets and crews
  • Advances in ISR and communications technology
    afforded the US military the capability to link
    ground and air forces to ISR information

30
OEF Lessons Learned
  • The combination of technologies and advancements
    applied in OEF provided unprecedented C4ISR
    capabilities
  • Integrated Common Operating Picture enabled
    commanders to view battlefield developments and
    direct operations from 7,000 miles away
  • Advancements in communications networks improved
    interoperability between the services by allowing
    information sharing
  • Additionally, increased bandwidth required to
    reduce sensor to shooter time

31
Video
Operation Anaconda The Battle of Roberts Ridge
32
OIF Background
  • After major combat operations in Afghanistan
    ended, the US shifted focus to Saddam Husseins
    regime
  • UN Resolution 687 codified Cease Fire Agreement
    for the Gulf War
  • Iraq was testing and breaking these agreements

33
OIF Background
  • Paragraph 8 stated that Iraq must
    unconditionally accept the destruction,
    removal, or rendering harmless, under
    international supervision of
  • All chemical/biological weapons
  • All ballistic missiles with range greater than
    150 km

34
OIF Background
  • Paragraph 12 addressed nuclear capabilities,
    stating that Iraq must agree not to acquire or
    develop nuclear weapons or nuclear weapon-usable
    material
  • Paragraph 32, with regards to terrorism, stated
    that Iraq will not commit or support any act
    of international
    terrorism

35
OIF Background
  • 12 Sept 2002 President Bush addressed the UN
    General Assembly to highlight observed violations
    and attempt to gather further international
    support for action against Iraq
  • 16 Oct 2002 President Bush signed the Iraq War
    Resolution  
  • 8 Nov 2002 The UN Security Council passed
    Resolution 1441

36
OIF Background
  • Dr. Blix (chief UN investigator) reported
    non-cooperation to the UN Security Council
    multiple times
  • In February 2003, Secretary Powell addressed the
    UN Security Council

37
OIF Background
  • 16 Mar 2003 President Bush demanded senior
    leaders leave Iraq within 48 hours
  • 19 Mar 2003 President Bush addressed the nation
    stating that military operations had begun in
    Iraq

38
OIF Campaign
  • OIF Air Campaign Operations NORTHERN WATCH and
    SOUTHERN WATCH
  • Not a single Iraqi Combat Sortie during OIF

39
OIF Campaign
  • ISR Of the 1,801 aircraft used during OIF, 80
    aircraft were dedicated to the ISR mission
  • 1,000 ISR sorties collected
  • 3,200 hours of streaming video
  • 2,400 hours of SIGINT
  • 42,000 battlefield images
  • ISR managed from the CAOC located at PSAB under
    the command of the CFACC, Lt Gen Moseley

40
OIF Campaign
  • Strategic Attack On 5 Apr 2003, coalition
    forces attacked General Ali Hassan Majids
    (Chemical Ali) home 
  • 7 Apr 2003 Strategic Attack operations
    continued as US planes attacked a building,
    targeting Saddam and sons

41
OIF Timeline
  • Counterair 21 Mar 2003, Special Ops Forces took
    control of two airfields
  • Numerous Counterair and Interdiction missions
    were conducted throughout OIF  

42
OIF Timeline
  • Counterland
  • 24 Mar 2003 B-52 aircraft interdict Republican
    Guard positions South of Baghdad
  • CounterlandHistorical Perspective
  • Battle of the Bulge
  • Battle of Baghdad

43
OIF Timeline
  • Counterspace
  • SCA
  • OIF Roles
  • Weather
  • ISR
  • GPS

44
OIF Timeline
  • Airlift/Refueling 24,196 sorties during initial
    phase of OIF
  • 6,193 refueling sorties
  • 376.4 million pounds of fuel
  • OIF/OEF airlift one of the most extensive in
    history
  • Airlift Shortfall Issues
  • Short 10 million ton miles per day

45
OIF Lessons Learned
  • Joint Operations have matured
  • Conventional forces/ Special Ops forces
    integrated well
  • Precision munitions continued to improve

46
OIF Lessons Learned
  • Areas for improvement
  • Fratricide prevention and combat identification
    systems
  • Cumbersome deployment planning and execution
    processes
  • Information sharing at all levels
  • More bandwidth
  • HUMINT capabilities to meet new GWOT challenges

47
USAF GWOT Lessons Learned
  • USAF strategic planners must develop new concepts
    of deterrence to counter a wide range of
    non-traditional adversaries and asymmetric
    threats
  • New technologies are now widely available to
    potential adversaries
  • USAF is first line of homeland defense
  • USAF should continue to refine its expeditionary
    culture and strategic agility

48
USAF GWOT Lessons Learned
  • Joint, allied, and coalition operations require
    precise real-time command and control
  • USAF must achieve decision cycle dominance to
    strike adversaries before they can mount an
    effective defense
  • Demand for precision in warfare will increase
  • USAF will require robust, effects-based
    information operations capabilities that can
    deny, manipulate, or significantly degrade
    adversary C4ISR

49
US National Lessons Learned from GWOT
  • Wars in the twenty-first century will
    increasingly require use of all elements of
    national power
  • Ability of forces to communicate and operate
    seamlessly on the battlefield will be critical to
    success in future wars
  • Wars best fought by coalitions of the willing,
    but should not be fought by committee.
  • Defending the United States requires prevention
    and sometimes preemption

50
US National Lessons Learned from GWOT
  • The US must rule out nothing in advance
  • Victory in the GWOT requires steady pressure on
    the enemy, leaving them no time to rest and
    nowhere to hide
  • The new and the high-tech have not totally
    replaced the old and conventional

51
US National Lessons Learned from GWOT
  • The US must link military operations directly
    with humanitarian assistance, radio broadcasts,
    rewards, and other efforts
  • American leaders must be honest with the American
    people

52
US National Lessons Learned from GWOT
The United States must not make the mistake of
believing that terrorism is the only threat of
the twenty-first century. Terrorism is a deadly
asymmetric threat but not the only possible one.
53
Review of CFD Model
  • Distinctive Capabilities Air and space
    expertise, capabilities, and technological
    know-how that produces superior military
    capabilities
  • Functions Broad, fundamental, and continuing
    activities of air and space power
  • Doctrine Fundamental principles that guide the
    actions of military forces in support of national
    objectives

54
Review of CFD Model
Time Period Distinctive Capabilities Functions (missions) Doctrinal Emphasis
GWOT Global Attack Agile Combat Support Precision Engagement Rapid Global Mobility Air/Space Superiority Information Superiority Strategic Attack, Counterair, Counterspace, Counterland, Countersea, Information Ops, Combat Support, Command and Control, Airlift, Air Refueling, Spacelift, Special Ops, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Combat Search and Rescue, Navigation and Positioning, Weather Services CONOPS Homeland Security Space, C4, ISR Global Mobility Global Strike Global Persistent Attack Nuclear Response Agile Combat Support
Air Force 2025 The Future Air Force 2025 (Students will fill in this area.)
55
Now and Beyond video
56
Summary
  • The Global War on Terror
  • Background
  • Launching a War on Terrorism
  • The Military Campaign
  • Operation ENDURING FREEDOM (OEF)
  • OEF Emerging Lessons Learned
  • Operation IRAQI FREEDOM
  • Background
  • The Military Campaign
  • OIF Emerging Lessons Learned
  • USAF GWOT Lessons Learned
  • US National Lessons Learned from GWOT
  • CFD Review

Expeditionary Medal
Service Medal
57
Final Thoughts
  • Final thoughts for you as future Air Force
    leaders
  • The GWOT is still very much a current event and a
    conflict we must win
  • How long will it take?
  • How vigilant do we need to be?
  • Are you ready?
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