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Water and Wastewater

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Water and Wastewater Water Quality Laws Water Treatment Wastewater Treatment Clean Water Act Goal is to restore the chemical, physical and biological integrity of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Water and Wastewater


1
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2
Water and Wastewater
  • Water Quality Laws
  • Water Treatment
  • Wastewater Treatment

3
Clean Water Act
  • Goal is to restore the chemical, physical and
    biological integrity of the nations waters

4
  • Requires reduction of pollutants entering all
    surface water
  • Strict requirements for wastewater treatment
    plants
  • Control of non-point source pollution
  • Tighter controls on toxic pollutants

5
  • In 1948 Congress passed a bill to provide federal
    funds for constructing wastewater treatment
    facilities
  • The 1972 amendments made significant changes

6
  • Mandated that by 1983 the nations waterways
    should be fishable and swimmable
  • By 1995 discharges to waterways should be
    eliminated

7
  • Standards defining the levels of pollutants
    acceptable for discharge were called effluent
    limitations
  • These were used when issuing National Pollution
    Discharge Elimination System, NPDES, permits

8
  • In 1989 there were 50,000 industrial and 16,000
    municipal facilities that had NPDES permits
  • SPDES permits are temporary discharge permits
    issued for short-term occurrences
  • Enforcement actions, including criminal action,
    are taken for noncompliance

9
  • The CWA provides for the EPA in conjunction with
    the Army Corp of Engineers to protect wetlands by
    limiting the discharge of dredged or fill
    material into surface waters
  • Estuaries are protected from activities such as
    landfilling, sewage outflow and industrial
    wastewater discharge

10
Safe Drinking Water Act
  • Written in 1974, amended in 1986
  • Protects drinking water resources
  • Requires adherence to established drinking water
    standards
  • Protects underground sources including a wellhead
    protection program

11
Basic Required Activities
  • Establish and enforce Maximum Contaminant Levels
    MCLs
  • Monitoring of contaminants
  • Filtration of water from surface water sources
  • Regulation of the use of lead materials in public
    water supply systems
  • Wellhead protection

12
National Drinking Water Regulations
  • Found in 40 CFR
  • Primary drinking water standard affecting public
    health
  • Secondary standards affect aesthetic qualities of
    public drinking water

13
Maximum Contaminant Levels
  • Based on an assumed human consumption of 2 liters
    per day
  • If monitoring for a contaminant is not feasible
    then treatment techniques must insure compliance

14
  • Primary MCLs
  • Arsenic
  • Barium
  • Chromium
  • Cadmium
  • Lead
  • Mercury
  • Nitrate
  • Selenium

15
Maximum Contaminant Level Goals MCLGs
  • Not enforceable health goals
  • The Reference Dose, RfD, is the amount of
    chemical a person can be exposed to without any
    adverse health effects
  • It is obtained from the NOAEL which is divided by
    an uncertainty factor
  • For carcinogens the MCLG is set at zero

16
Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act
(Title I)
  • Requires permits for ocean dumping which may
    limit the sites and times that dumping occurs
  • Radiological, chemical and biological warfare
    agents and radioactive wastes are prohibited from
    being dumped

17
  • The Army Corp of Engineers is responsible for
    permitting of dredged materials
  • The Coast Guard monitors activities
  • The EPA assesses penalties for violations

18
  • Sewage sludge, ash solid waste dumping has not
    lessened over the years
  • It has been moved further off shore
  • Persistence of plastics disposed at sea continues
    to be a threat to wildlife

19
Water Treatment (for Drinking Water)
  • A water supply is evaluated on its quality,
    quantity and proximity to where it is needed
  • A water supply system includes (Figure 7-7)
  • supply source
  • storage facility
  • treatment facility
  • transmission lines
  • final distribution facilities

20
  • Treatment plants generally remove disease causing
    microorganisms, trace organic compounds,
    suspended solids, minerals causing hardness, and
    substances causing disagreeable color, taste and
    odor.

21
  • Consumptive use in the US is about 22
  • This means that the majority of the water
    supplied ends up as waste water
  • The average American uses more than 180 gallons a
    day

22
Waterborne Disease
  • Typhoid
  • Dysentery
  • Cholera
  • Infectious hepatitis
  • Amoebic dysentery
  • Giardiasis
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Cryptosporidiosis

23
Chemical Contaminants
  • Minerals dissolved from rocks and soil
  • Pesticides and herbicides
  • Leaking underground storage tanks
  • Industrial effluents
  • Seepage from septic systems
  • Wastewater treatment plants
  • Landfills

24
  • The water itself may be corrosive, leaching lead
    into the water supply
  • The water treatment process itself may introduce
    trihalomethanes, a by-product of the reaction of
    chlorine with organic materials and other
    chemical contaminants

25
  • Water may be treated to improve its color, odor
    and taste
  • Iron and manganese may be removed to prevent
    staining of clothes and plumbing fixtures
  • Fluoride is added to improve dental health

26
Physical Treatment(for Drinking Water)
  • Does not produce a new substance
  • Types of Treatment
  • Screening
  • Adsorption
  • Aeration
  • Flocculation (when coagulants used)
  • Sedimentation
  • Filtration (including membranes)

27
Chemical Treatment(for Drinking Water)
  • Results in the formation of new chemical
    substances
  • Type of Treatment
  • Coagulation (for better filtration)
  • Disinfection (fig. 7-15)
  • Water softening (ion exchange for Na)
  • Oxidation (via aeration or ozone)

28
Biological Treatment(for Drinking Water)
  • Use living organisms to bring about chemical
    change

29
Waste Water Treatment
  • Individual Systems Septic Systems
  • Public/Municipal Treatment Systems
  • Primary Treatment
  • Secondary Treatment
  • Tertiary Treatment

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