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Title: HUMANITIES ART DESCRIPTION and APPRECIATION


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HUMANITIESART DESCRIPTION and APPRECIATION
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  • It is an 3-unit course where a student will learn
    how to value self-expression through art. This
    course will also guide the learners in the world
    of painting, music, theater, dance, literature,
    architecture, and interior design. This course
    will enlighten the students that art is not only
    for the chosen few but also for every individual,
    who wants to be well-rounded, matured and
    refined.

3
HUMANITIES
  • A versatile subject which consists of the seven
    arts painting, sculpture, architecture, music
    and dance, literature, theater and cinema. These
    seven arts are the branches of learning that will
    help you understand the study of humanities.
  • It comes from the word humanus meaning humane,
    cultured and refined. To be human is to posses
    the qualities and attributes of man and have the
    feelings and dispositions proper to man. It is
    also a study of the different cultural aspects
    analyzes mans frailties in life and how this can
    be improved.
  • Culture basically includes speech, knowledge,
    beliefs, arts, technologies, ideals and rules. To
    be cultured means to be refined and well-versed
    in the arts, philosophy and languages. It is also
    a means of misunderstanding man and his affairs.

4
ARTS
  • Art is very vital in our daily existence. The
    arts the concrete evidences in the study of
    humanities. The body of arts consists of ideas,
    beliefs and values of the past, present and even
    of the future. It comes from the Aryan root word,
    AR which means to join or to put together. The
    Latin terms ARS means everything that is
    artificially made or composed by man. According
    to Leo Tolstoy, art is a means of union among
    all men, a means of communication. To Aristotle,
    art has no other end but itself. All arts are
    patterned on nature. It is also the right reason
    for making things.

5
Scope of Humanities
  • The humanities is a many-faceted subject. It
    consists of the visual arts, literature, drama
    and theater, music and dance.

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1. The visual arts are those we perceive with our
eyes. They may be classified into two groups
  • Graphic arts-two-dimensional surface.
  • This term covers any form of visual artistic
    representation especially painting, drawing,
    photography, etc.
  • Plastic arts-three-dimensional surface.
  • This group includes all fields of visual arts in
    which materials are organized into
    three-dimensional forms like architecture,
    landscape architecture, interior design,
    sculpture crafts, industrial design, dress and
    costume design, theater design, etc

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2. Literature is the art of combining spoken or
written words and their meanings into forms which
have artistic and emotional appeal.
  • Drama - a story re-created by actors on stage in
    front of an audience.
  • Prose Fiction includes narratives created by an
    author as distinguished from true accounts.
  • the use of geometrical shapes and forms.
  • Ex. Pablo Picasso The Three Musicians
  • Nude in a Rocking Chair
  • George Brake Violet and Palette

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  • Essay a non-fiction expository writing ranging
    from informal, personal topics to closely
    critical treatments of important subjects.
  • Poetry highly expressive nature using special
    forms and choice of words and emotional images.
    Narratives includes epics, romance and ballads
    and lyric forms includes the sonnets, ode, elegy
    and song.
  • Miscellaneous are history, biography, letters,
    journals, diaries, and other works not formally
    classed as literature.

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3. Music an art of arranging sounds in rhythmic
succession generally in combination. Melody
results in this sequence and harmony from the
combinations. It is a creative and performing
art.
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  • Groups
  • Vocal Music composed primarily to be sung.
  • Instrumental Music is written for instruments
    of four general types
  • Keyboard (piano, keyboard, and organ)
  • Stringed (violin, cello, guitar, ukulele, banjo)
  • Woodwind (flute, clarinet, oboe, piccolo, English
    horn, bassoon)
  • Brass winds (saxophone, trumpet, French horn,
    trombone)

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Music combined with other arts
  • Opera - drama set to music. It is mostly or
    entirely sung with an orchestral accompaniment.
  • Operetta and Musical Comedy a drama set to
    music but is light popular romantic often
    humorous or comic. It uses spoken dialogues.
  • Oratorio and Cantata sacred musical drama in
    concert form based from biblical accounts and
    made of recited parts with orchestral
    accompaniment.

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4. Drama and Theatre A drama or play is a story
re-created by actors on a stage in front of an
audience.
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  • Types of Drama
  • Tragedy serious in nature in which the central
    character comes to some sad and disastrous ending
    and also portray.
  • Melodrama the emphasis is on the action rather
    on the character. Action is a happy ending.
  • Types of Melodrama
  • Romantic Comedy light amusing tales of lovers
    in some dilemma which is finally solved happily.
  • Farce light humorous play whose emphasis is on
    the jokes, humorous physical actions, ludicrous
    situations and impossible characters.
  • Comedy of Manners drawing room comedy is
    sophisticated and sometimes satirical. It uses
    witty dialogues and characters are usually high
    society types and situations are unreal.

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5. Dance involves the movement of the body and
the feet in rhythm.
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  • Types of Dances
  • Ethnologic include folk dancing associated with
    national and cultural groups.
  • Social or Ballroom Dances popular type of
    dancing generally performed by pairs.
  • Ballet a formalized type of dance which
    originated in the royal courts of the middle
    Ages. They may be either solo or concerted dances
    and generally built around a theme or story.
  • Modern are sometimes called contemporary
    interpretative dances and represents rebellion
    against the classical formalism of ballet. It is
    a personal communication of moods and themes.
  • Musical dances dances performed by soloists,
    groups, choruses in theatres, nightclubs, motion
    pictures, and television. It combines various
    forms of ballet, modern, tap, and acrobatics.

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Methods in Presenting Art Subject
  • 1. Realism presentation of subjects as it is.
    It is also the portrayal of objective reality.
  • Ex. Audrey Flack Queen
  • Gustace Courbet The Stone-Breaker
  • 2. Abstraction it means to move away or to
    separate. The artist is more concerned about the
    presentation of a part or a portion of a subject.

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Types of Abstraction
  • Elongation subjects are lengthened or stretched
    out.
  • Ex. El Greco the Resurrection
  • St Martin and the Beggar
  • Distortion subjects are in a mishappen
    condition
  • Ex. Henry Moore Recumbent Figure
  • Cubism the use of geometrical shapes and forms.
  • Ex. Pablo Picasso The Three Musicians
  • Nude in a Rocking Chair
  • George Brake Violet and Palette

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3. Fauvism emphasis on pleasure the artists are
non-conformists. Colors are not realistic and are
mostly bright.
  • Ex. Henry Matisse The Joy of Life
  • The Dance

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4. Dadaism from the French word DADA which
means hobby-horse and a movement meant to shock
the public.
  • Ex. Marcel Duchamp Fountain
  • Idealistic and subscribed to the ideas of
    liberty, freedom, justice, and equality.
  • Ex. Juan Luna Spollarium

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5. Romanticism rich and filled with emotion.
  • Ex. Eugene Delacroix Liberty Leading the
    People

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6. Impressionism is concentrated on the artists
impression of the moment.
  • Ex. Claude Monet Sunrise
  • Eduord Manet The Beat Waitress

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7. Espressionism based on non-rational and
emotional concepts
  • Harsh, morbid, brutal, introspective
  • Free distortion of form color through which the
    painter gives visual form to inner sensations or
    emotion.

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8. Surrealism based from the Freudian Theory
Psychoanalysis aimed to bring the elements of
subconscious to the surface.
  • Ex. Salvador Dali Persistence of Memory

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Kinds of Subjects
  • Landscapes, seascapes, cityscapes these are
    artworks that show the physical environment.
  • Still Life groups of inanimate objects arranged
    in an indoor setting such as objects as dishes of
    food on a dining table, pots and pans on a
    kitchen table, etc...
  • Animals the earliest known paintings are
    representations of animals.
  • Portrait is a realistic likeness of a person in
    sculpture, painting, drawing, or print.
  • Figures is the traditional chief subject of
    artists showing the human body, nude or clothed.
  • Everyday Life this is the artists observation of
    people going about their usual ways, performing
    their usual tasks.
  • History and Legend shows a significant scene in
    the past legend pictures the mysteries behind
    the folk stories.
  • Religion and Mythology arts are used to instruct,
    to inspire feelings of devotion and to convert
    non-believers many artists have been inspired by
    the beauty and magic of mythological characters.
  • Dreams and Fantasies a dream may be of lifelike
    situation it may be realistically represented,
    but if the figure suggests the strange, and the
    absurd, we would right away classify it a dream
    picture.

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Painting
  • The art of applying color or other organic or
    synthetic substances to various surfaces to
    create a representational, imaginative or
    abstract picture or design.
  • The earliest known paintings were executed on the
    walls of caves and rock shelters some 30,000
    years ago during Paleolithic period. Some may be
    seen in Western Europe, Southern and Saharan
    Africa and Australia.

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Elements of Painting
  • Line it is a mans own invention extension of
    a point.
  • Vertical lines power, stability, strength
  • Horizontal lines relaxation, calmness, at
    peace, laziness
  • Diagonal lines movement
  • Curve lines graceful movements, fluidity,
    flexibility
  • Shape it is an area of flat surface enclosed by
    a line.
  • Texture it refers to the feel or tactile
    quality of a surface of an object the roughness
    or smoothness of an object.
  • Size it is smallness or largeness of an object.
  • Color it a series of wave lengths which strike
    our retina. Spectrum consists of different
    colors red, orange, blue, indigo and violet.

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Physical Property of Colors
  • Hue is a quality which gives color its name. the
    color of the spectrum are therefore called hues.
  • Value is the lightness or darkness of color.
  • Intensity is the strength of the colors hue.
    Brightness or dullness of color.

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Classification of Colors
  • The Primary Colors are the original colors which
    cannot be derived from any color combination.
    They are red, blue and yellow.
  • The Secondary Colors are the combination of two
    primary colors. They are green, orange, and
    violet.
  • The Tertiary Colors are the combination of both
    the primary and secondary colors. They are yellow
    green, yellow orange, blue green, blue violet,
    red orange, and red violet.
  • The Complementary Color scheme is composed of one
    of the primary colors and the combination of two
    others. For example, the complementary color of
    red is green, made by mixing yellow and blue.
  • Analogous colors are three neighboring colors in
    the color wheel one distinct color among them.

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Color interpretation
  • Cold colors winter, spring, not aggressive in
    hue
  • Warm colors summer. Fall, friendly in character
  • Red excitement, danger, war, heat, anger,
    aggressive
  • Orange autumn, warmth, movement, can be
    disagreeably hot in effect
  • Green spring, summer foliage, safety, coolness,
    restful and pleasant
  • Yellow sun, warmth without heat
  • Blue coolness, happiness, pleasure, popular
    with men
  • Purple coolness, royalty
  • Cool colors dignity, formality
  • Warm colors informality, excitement
  • Pink femininity
  • Black mourning, sorrow, death
  • White purity, innocence
  • Brown humbleness, nobility

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Mediums of Painting
  • Pigment is that part of the paint which
    supplies the color, is fine powder ground from
    some clay, stone, or mineral extracted from
    vegetable matter.
  • Encaustic a medium that combines dry pigments
    with the heat-softened wax and in modern times.
    Resin
  • Tempera earth or mineral pigments mixed with
    egg yolk and egg white. Since the paint dries
    quickly, corrections are difficult to make.
  • Fresco is the application of earth pigments
    with water on a plaster wall while the plaster is
    still damp. Color then sinks into the surface and
    becomes an integral part of the wall.
  • Watercolor is tempered paint made of pure
    ground pigment bound with gum Arabic. It gives a
    delicate luminous texture to the painting.
  • Oil the pigment is mixed with linseed oil
    applied to primed canvas. It is flexible. Oil
    paints are slow to dry and the painting can be
    changed and worked over a long period of time.
  • Acrylic synthetic paint using acrylic polymer
    emulsions as binder are the newest mediums and
    the ones that are widely used by todays
    painters. They dry quickly like the watercolor
    and also flexible like the oil. They do not tend
    to crack, turn yellow or darken with age.

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Art Related to Painting
  • Mosaic it is related to painting only because
    it creates pictures on flat surfaces. They are
    wall or floor decorations made of small cubes of
    irregularly cut pieces of colored stones or glass
    called tesserae.
  • Stained Glass a translucent glass colored by
    mixing metallic oxides into the molten glass or
    by fixing them onto the surface of the clear
    glass. The glass is then cut into shapes and
    assembled into the desired image and held
    together by strips of lead.
  • Tapestry are fabrics into which colored designs
    have been woven.

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Paintings in Lascaux Cave
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Hieroglyphics idea of Frontalism
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SCULPTURE
  • it is a three-dimensional artwork, an art of
    producing objects in relief or in the round out
    of hard materials by means of chisel, carved
    work, art of molding In clay or other paste
    materials, figures or objects to be later cast in
    bronze or other metals or plaster of Paris.
  • Sculpture (Latin sculpere, to curve),
    three-dimensional art concerned with the
    organization of masses and volumes. The art or
    practice of shaping figures or designs in the
    round or relief

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Mediums of Sculpture
  • Clay a very fine-grained soil that is plastic
    when moist but hard when fired.
  • Ice is the name given to one of the 14 known
    solid phases of water. It is a crystalline solid
    which can appear transparent or opaque bluish
    white color.
  • Marble a metamorphic rock resulting from
    regional or rarely contact metamorphism of
    sedimentary carbonate rocks, either limestone or
    dolostone.
  • Ivory is ideal for decorative art because it is
    hard, close grained, and takes carving and dyes
    well. its durable, many specimen survive and
    provides clues into the art.
  • Wood can make many forms, from a tree to a
    house, from a piece of furniture to a door, from
    something functional to something sculptural.

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ICE
CLAY
MARBLE
IVORY
WOOD
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Kinds of Sculpture
  • Relief these are the sculptures which are
    identifies as embossed sculptures in which images
    are set against a flat background.
  • Alto relievo (Italian for high relief) the
    figures are sculptured partly or wholly in the
    round, that is, they project entirely, or almost
    entirely, from the surfacr of the block in which
    they are cut.
  • Basso-relievo(Italian for low-relief French,
    bas-relief) is a form of surface-ornamentation in
    which the projection is very slight.
  • Free-Standing this is the kind of sculpture in
    the round such as statues and monuments which are
    either scaled or done in life size.
  • Kinetic or Mobile Sculptures these are
    identified as moving sculptures which in some
    cases are suspended in air to move.
  • Processes in Sculpture
  • Molding this is the additive wherein the
    building up of form is done to complete the
    artwork.
  • Carving this is the subtracting method wherein
    the removal of the unnecessary portions of the
    material used is done.
  • Fabrication this is the putting-together-process
    wherein welding is an example.
  • Casting this is setting up the negative mold in
    order to produce the positive mold.

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Historical Background of Sculpture
  • Pre-Historic Sculpture
  • the primitive people produced the so called
    fertility statues. It has been described as
    giving emphasis on the female sexual attributes.
    It emphasizes the womens wide hips and opulent
    breasts. Primitive men made this for fear of
    extinction and it will remind them to go on and
    on to produce more offspring.

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  • Egyptian Sculpture
  • the sphinx is the most popular piece in Egypt.
    It is a huge sculpture which is described as the
    human head with a body of a croaching lion. The
    head of the Sphinx is symbolic of the pharaoh,
    the mighty reler of Egypt, and the body of the
    croaching lion is symbolic of the mighty country
    Egypt. Therefore it symbolizes the mighty
    strengths and protective power of Egypt.

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  • Greek Sculpture
  • the Golden Age of Athens was the complete
    fulfillment of the term classic for it was the
    culmination of the ideals of the time and of the
    ancient world as well. It falls into four
    classes
  • Sculptures created without regard to their
    ultimate location or method of display. Free
    standing.
  • Statues identified as kore otherwise known as
    female standing sculpture.
  • Statues identified as kouros otherwise known a
    male standing sculpture.
  • Sculptures designed as ornaments for specific
    positions.

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  • Roman Sculpture
  • Given the Etruscan descendant of naturalism,
    Roman portraiture set an early standard of
    excellence that became the model for the whole
    Western tradition. It falls into two classes
    portraits and historical relief. Both reflect the
    highly developed Roman taste of realism.

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  • Baroque Sculpture
  • A restless, dynamic style with its diagonals and
    floating curved lines, its striking chiaroscuro,
    and its sensuous textural effects. Gian Lorenzo
    Bernini was the Baroque artist par excellence.
    His known sculpture is the Ecstasy of St.
    Therese.

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Ecstasy of St. Therese
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  • Byzantine Sculpture
  • Sculptured relief during the Byzantine was used
    to adorn magnificent palaces and churches. It is
    the richest expression of Christian dogma.

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  • Renaissance Sculpture
  • It showed some traces of classical influence in
    the pulpits of the Cathedrals of Pisa and Sienna.
    The great master of this period is Michaelangelo.
    His masterpiece was the Pieta today a treasure
    of St. Peters in Rome.

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Pieta
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ARCHITECTURE The art and science of building and
erecting buildings.
  • History of Architecture
  • When did man start building houses?
  • From caves, to branches, to wigwarms, huts,
    concrete houses, etc.

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The Stonehenge
  • Stonehenge, a circular arrangement of large
    stones located near Salisbury, England, was a
    ritual monument for prehistoric peoples. It was
    built between 3000 and 1000 BC. Little is known
    about Stonehenges function, but many scholars
    believe that its structure allowed its builders
    to predict solstices, equinoxes, eclipses, and
    other events of the solar calendar.

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The Roman Colosseum
  • Colosseum, largest and most famous ancient Roman
    amphitheater. The structure was originally called
    Flavian Amphitheater. Modifications and
    restorations necessitated by fires and
    earthquakes were made to the Colosseum until the
    early 6th century. In succeeding centuries the
    Colosseum suffered from neglect, earthquakes, and
    damage done by builders. Still, slightly more
    than one-third of the outer arcades, comprising a
    number of the arches on the north side, remain
    standing. The seating capacity of the Colosseum
    is believed by modern scholars to have been about
    50,000.

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The Pyramids of Giza
  • The ancient Egyptians built more than 90 royal
    pyramids, from about 2630BC until about 1530 BC.
    During that time, the pyramid form evolved from a
    series of stepped terraces that resembled the
    layers of a wedding cake to the better known,
    sloped pyramidal shaped. The first pyramid, the
    Step Pyramid at Saqqarah, was constructed during
    the reign of King Djoser (2630 BC-2611 BC). The
    largest pyramid is the one built for King Khufu,
    at the site of modern Giza. Khufus pyramid,
    known as the Great Pyramid, is the only one of
    the Seven Wonders of the World that still
    survives.
  • Egyptian pyramids served as tombs for king and
    queens, but they were also places of ongoing
    religious activity. After a ruler died, his or
    her body was carefully treated and wrapped to
    preserve it as a mummy. According to ancient
    Egyptian belief, the pyramid, where the mummy was
    placed, provided a place for the monarch to pass
    into the afterlife. Encarta

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The Parthenon
  • Stands at the very heart of the Acropolis of
    Athens, Greece. It was built in honor of the
    Goddess of Wisdom, Athena.

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The Greek Architecture
  • The Greek Orders

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The Doric order
  • The Doric order originated on the mainland and
    western Greece. It is the simplest of the orders,
    characterized by short, faceted, heavy columns
    with plain, round capitals (tops) and no base.
    With only four to eight diameters in height, the
    columns are the most squat of all orders. The
    shaft of the Doric order is channeled with 20
    flutes. The Ionic order came from eastern Greece,
    where its origins are entwined with the similar
    but little known Aeolic order. It is
    distinguished by slender, fluted pillars with a
    large base and two opposed volutes (also called
    scrolls) in the echinus of the capital. The
    echinus itself is decorated with an egg-and-dart
    motif. The Ionic shaft comes with four more
    flutes than the Doric counterpart (totaling 24).
    The Ionic base has two convex moldings called
    tori which are separated by a scotia.

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The Corinthian order
  • Is the most ornate of the Greek orders,
    characterized by a slender fluted column having
    an ornate capital decorated with acanthus leaves.
    It is commonly regarded as the most elegant of
    the five orders. The most distinct
    characteristics is the striking capital. The
    capital of the Corinthian order is carved with
    two rows of leaves and four scrolls.

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The Composite order
  • Is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the
    Ionic order with the leaves of the Corinthian
    order.

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The Architecture Design
  • Byzantine
  • The Golden Age of Byzantine Architecture was
    under the rule of Justian in 527-565. It was
    during the period that the most famous examples
    of all Byzantine Architecture was built, the
    Hagia Sophia. The Hagia Sophia was rebuilt from
    532 to 537 after the previous church was
    destroyed by riots. This church has some unique
    features which became the patterns for Byzantine
    Architecture for years after.
  • The style of the Hagia Sophia or Church of Divine
    Wisdom was to have a large dome in the middle of
    the structure. The dome has a unique form in that
    it rest on 4 massive pillars which are arranged
    in a square. The dome remained the main focus of
    the Byzantine.

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  • The Romanesque
  • Romanesque Art and Architecture, arts and
    architecture of western Europe from about AD 1000
    to the rise of the Gothic style, in most regions
    by the latter half of the 12th century, in
    certain regions somewhat later.

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  • Gothic
  • Gothic Architecture is a style of architecture,
    particularly associated with cathedrals and other
    churches, which flourished in Europe during the
    high and late medieval period. Beginning in
    twelfth century France, it was known as the
    French Style (Opus Francigenum) during the
    period, with the term Gothic first appearing in
    the Reformation era as a stylistic insult.
  • The Gothic style emphasizes verticality and
    features almost skeletal stone structures with
    great expanses of glass, ribbed vaults, clustered
    columns, sharply pointed spires, flying
    buttresses. In Gothic Architecture the pointed
    arch is utilized in every location where a
    vaulted shape is called for, both structural and
    decorative. Gothic openings such as doorways,
    windows, arcades and galleries have pointed
    arches.
  • Another distinctive feature of Gothic
    Architecture especially in churches and
    cathedrals is the Rose Window (Notre dame). The
    North Rose Window of the Notre Dame Cathedral in
    Paris (1240-1250) was built by Jean de Chelles.
    It is designed in the Rayonnant style, named for
    the radiating spokes in this type of window. The
    center circle depicts the Virgin and Child,
    surrounded by the figures of prophets. The second
    circle shows 32 Old Testament kings, and the
    outer circle depicts 32 high priests and
    patriarchs.

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  • Baroque
  • Baroque churches were larger in scale that their
    predecessors and their interiors more richly
    decorated with sculpture and paintings.
  • Long narrow naves are replaced by broader,
    occasionally circular forms. Dramatic use of
    light, either strong light-and-shade contrasts,
    chiaroscuro effects or uniform lighting by means
    of several windows.
  • Opulent use of ornaments (puttos made of wood
    (often glided), plaster or stucco, marble of faux
    finishing).
  • Large-scale ceiling frescoes the interior is
    often no more than a shell for painting and
    sculpture (especially in the late baroque).

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  • Rococo Style
  • Rococo Style, style of 18th-century painting and
    decoration characterized by lightness, delicacy,
    and elaborate ornamentation.
  • The word rococo is derived from rocaille,
    meaning rock work or shell work, a favorite
    motif of the time. It stresses purely ornamental,
    light, casual, irregular design.
  • The Rococo style is characterized by pastel
    colors, gracefully delicate curving forms,
    fanciful figures, and a lighthearted mood
    (visually and physically). The essence of Rococo
    art is light. Extreme highlights are placed on
    the subject matter and the overall work is light
    in color, effect, and emotion. Artists paid
    special attention to fine detail. Form is
    characterized by delicacy of color, dynamic
    compositions, and atmospheric effects.
  •  
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