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THE ELIZABETHAN WORLD

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Feast of Fools. Held between Christmas and Epiphany, particularly on New Year's Day ... or History Plays. Comedies. Romantic. Pastoral. Feast of Fools. Social ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE ELIZABETHAN WORLD


1
THE ELIZABETHAN WORLD
  • The World of William Shakespeare

2
INTRODUCTION
  • The Elizabethan period refers to that time under
    which Elizabeth I ruled England
  • It was also the period into which Shakespeare was
    born and in which he lived much of his life

3
THE CITY OF LONDON
  • In Elizabethan times, London was very much like
    it is today
  • The city was crowded, noisy and the people were
    very dependent on the Thames for transport around
    the city
  • The streets were narrow, cobbled and slippery
    with the slime of refuse
  • Houses were crammed together
  • People were often drunk! No one drank water and
    tea was not in England yet, so they drank alcohol
    and lots of it!

4
LANGUAGE
  • Some Elizabethan expressions
  • How art thou? How are you?
  • What wouldst thou have of me? What would you
    like me to do?
  • I like thy face I think you are good
    looking
  • I will go with thee I will go with you
  • Thou art a rogue You are an awful person

5
MONEY AND COINAGE
  • All coins in Elizabethan times were gold or
    silver
  • There is no copper money or paper money
  • The basic denominations are pounds, shillings and
    pence
  • Some common coins
  • A sovereign is worth one pound (gold)
  • An angel is a common gold coin (worth ten
    shillings)
  • The crown is the most common coin (both gold and
    silver)

6
RELIGION
  • Everyone in Elizabethan times has a religion
  • They are all Christians of one type or another
  • The Puritans a type of Christian with a
    Calvinist attitude
  • There are some who are Roman Catholics, this is
    not a crime however, Elizabeth was against the
    Catholics and people could be fined for not
    conforming to Protestant ways
  • Everyone must attend an Anglican service once a
    month

7
THE ELIZABETHAN HOUSEHOLD
  • Bills are due and servants paid on traditional
    Quarter Days
  • Celebrated Feast Days
  • Lady Day, March 25 Feast of the Annunciation
  • St. Johns Day, June 24 St. John the Baptist.
    Also called Midsummers Day
  • Christmas Day, December 25 The birth of Christ
  • In the country some services were paid in kind ie
    swapping goods
  • Even noble ladies were responsible for many
    household duties

8
FOOD
  • Breads Manchet (fine white bread), Raveled
    (whole wheat bread), Carters bread (bran bread)
  • Drinks Perry (slightly alcoholic pear cider),
    wines (Malmsey, Canary, Rhenish)
  • Sugar and spice cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg and
    clove

9
FASHION
  • Fashion, for the wealthy was very elaborate
  • Clothing was made using lace, gold, furs and
    silks
  • The noble people would wear hoods, jewelry,
    sashes, and robes

10
CHILDREN AND CHILDHOOD
  • Dress Little boys are dressed in skirts until
    the age of six or seven when they begin wearing
    breeches event is called breeching
  • Infants are wrapped in swaddling bands (6 to 12
    months)
  • Children must
  • Honor their parents, be holy, healthy and
    wealthy, say their prayers

11
SCHOOL AND EDUCATION
  • Generally, only boys went to school, girls only
    education was at home
  • Noble children had their education from tutors at
    home
  • The school day begins at 700am in winter, 600am
    in summer. The day ends at 500 or 530
  • Students have their education beaten into them,
    like their manners and deportment!

12
GAMES
  • A common pass-time was drinking in taverns,
    alehouses or tippling houses
  • People played games with dice ie Hazard
  • Backgammon and card games were also popular
  • Tennis was played indoors and was also a popular
    pass-time

13
ELIZABETHAN THEATRE
14
Development of the Elizabethan Theatre
  • Protestant Reformation
  • Tudor Pageantry
  • Medieval Stagecraft
  • Renaissance Learning and Ideas

15
1588 Defeat of the Spanish Armada
  • The disgrace to Spain greatly damaged its
    prestige
  • England's star was on the rise.
  • Elizabeth took the defeat of the Armada as a sign
    of divine blessing
  • English patriotism and devotion to the Queen
    soared to its greatest heights, shown in part by
    a profusion of literature that included
    Shakespeare's first plays--patriotic histories of
    the English monarchy.

16
Tudor Pageantry
  • A hybrid dramatic form of literature, ritual, and
    politics,
  • Royal entries and aristocratic entertainments --
    fashionable literary forms were turned to the
    service of national propaganda
  • Pageants
  • Parades
  • Masques
  • Composed by the bright young men who haunted the
    court in hopes of securing political office.

Full of spectacle music, dance,
elaborate staging, fireworks
17
Influence of Medieval Theatre
  • Eager audience
  • Established tradition of theatre and actors
  • MYSTERY AND MORALITY PLAYS
  • Mixing of high seriousness and low comedy
  • FOLK PLAYS
  • Pagan remnants fairies and sprites
  • Feast of Fools
  • INTERLUDES
  • Humanistic debates

18
Medieval Concepts of Tragedy De casibus
tragedies of fortune
  • Tragedy is less the result of individual action
    than a reflection of the inevitable turning of
    Fortune's wheel.
  • Fortune, traditionally female because of the
    association of women with the moon and
    changeability, has two faces, one benign, one
    severe.

19
Feast of Fools
  • Held between Christmas and Epiphany, particularly
    on New Year's Day
  • The ruling idea of the feast was the reversal of
    status.
  • The celebrations were relics of the ancient
    ceremonies of birth and renewal which took place
    at New Year and involved a temporary overturning
    of all values.
  • The Ass, a widespread feature of the festival,
    was a mixture of Celtic, Roman and Christian
    traditions, for the Ass is at once a relic of
    ancient magical cults, a fertility symbol, a
    symbol of strength and the epitome of stupidity.

20
Renaissance
  • Rebirth of Classical knowledge and ideals
  • Roman theatre as model
  • Humanistic Ideas
  • Universities
  • Oxford
  • Cambridge
  • Inns of Court

21
Influence of Roman Theatre
  • 5 act structure
  • Comedy Plautus and Terence
  • Plots
  • Stock characters
  • Tragedy Seneca
  • Revenge motif
  • Irony
  • Use of ghosts
  • Violent spectacle

22
Elizabethan Stock Characters
  • Senex old man in authority
  • Miles gloriosus braggart soldier
  • Shrew sharp-tongued woman
  • Clever servant
  • Machiavel political schemer
  • Calumniator believed a liar who is believed
  • Idiotes a malcontent
  • Pedant in love with the sound of his own
    didactic voice
  • Fools and clowns

23
Humanismfrom Morality to Chronicle
  • It was the aim of the humanists to educate those
    who ruled in wise and virtuous government.
  • How do you teach a king? Very tactfully . . .
  • The effectiveness of the morality play was
    attractive to humanists, who changed the nature
    of the moral from religion to political virtue
    without changing the techniques of the drama.
  • A natural medium for the humanists to use in
    educating the king, for plays were frequently
    performed at Court.

24
Chronicle or History Plays
  • Explore the workings and legitimacy of kingship
  • What is a good King?
  • Historical exemplars (Lear, Macbeth, Julius
    Caesar)
  • Often turn into tragedies

25
Acting Companies
  • 1590 -- 1642 approximately 20 companies of
    actors in London (although only 4 or 5 played in
    town at one time)
  • More than a hundred provincial troupes.
  • Companies usually played in London in the winter
    and spring and to travel in the summer when
    plague ravaged the city
  • Members
  • Shareholders
  • Apprentices
  • Hired men

26
Boy Actors
  • No women on the English stage in Shakespeare's
    day.
  • The parts of women were acted by child
    actors--boys whose voices had not yet changed.
  • Whole acting companies were created with child
    performers the Children of the Chapel Royal, and
    the St. Paul's Boys. The children's companies
    played regularly at Court.
  • The Puritans, who disapproved of the theatre in
    general, were particularly scandalized by boys
    cross-dressing as women.

27
Censorship
  • Largely Puritan leaders of the City of London
    disapproved of the theatres.
  • The Privy Council was wary of the political
    comment often present in topical plays.
  • Censorship under the direction of the Master of
    Revels was strict.
  • In 1596 the City Corporation ordered the
    expulsion of players from London and the closing
    of the inn-theatres.
  • Theatres moved across the River

28
Types of Plays
  • Tragedies
  • Senecan Revenge
  • De casibus -- turn of Fortune
  • Fatal flaw
  • Romances
  • far-away adventures
  • Any combination of the above
  • Chronicle or History Plays
  • Comedies
  • Romantic
  • Pastoral
  • Feast of Fools
  • Social
  • Humors

The best actors in the world, either for
tragedy, comedy, hisotry, pastoral,pastoral-comica
l, histoircal-pastoral, tragical historical,
scene individable or poem unlimited. -- Hamlet
29
William ShakespeareApril 23, 1564-April 23, 1616
  • Born in Stratford-upon-Avon
  • Married Anne Hathaway in 1582 at age of 18
  • 3 children Susanna (1583) and Hamnet and Judith
    (1585)
  • 1585-92 the lost years
  • 1595 record of membership in Lord Chamberlains
    Men

30
Lord Chamberlains Men
  • Originally formed under the patronage of Lord
    Strange, but when he died in 1594, the players
    found a patron in Henry Carey, the Lord
    Chamberlain.
  • Performed at the Theatre and the Curtain
  • 1599 moved to the newly built Globe. By 1600 they
    had emerged as the leading theatrical company in
    London
  • 1603 became the King's Men under a royal patent
    from James I. The company continued successfully
    until the Puritans closed the theatres in 1642.

31
The Globe
  • Built by the Burbages in 1598 for the Lord
    Chamberlains Men
  • Burned down in 1613 during production of Henry
    VIII
  • Rebuilt 1614

32
Theatre Interiors
Blackfriars Theatre
Sketch of the Swan Theatre
33
Shakespeare was buried on April 25, 1616, in Holy
Trinity Church, Stratford, where he had been
baptized just over 52 years earlier Good friend
for Jesus sake forbearTo dig the dust enclosed
here!Blest be the man that spares these
stones,And curst be he that moves my bones
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