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Human anatomy

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Title: Human anatomy


1
Human anatomy
  • ??????? ?????
  • ???

2
Basic Concepts of Anatomy
  • Definition human anatomy, the oldest science
    dealing with the structures and functions of body
  • Gross anatomy
  • systematic anatomy
  • regional anatomy
  • Applied anatomy
  • Clinical anatomy

3
?????????
Hippcrates
Hippocrates----?????(???460377)????????????
4
Galen
Galen-------- ??(130200)??????????,???,????????
???????????????
5
Vesalius------(15141564) ?????????,1543????????
????????????
Vesalius
6
Harvey
Harvey------(15781657) ??????,??????????,????????
??????????????????????????????????????
7
????????????
  • ???300200???????????????
  • ?????????????????????
  • ???(17681831)?????????????????????
  • 19492003???????????????,???????????????????????,?
    ???????????????????

8
????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?,??????,????????,???????????????,??????????????,?
    ???????????,??????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????,???????????????????????,???
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????

9
Descriptive anatomical terms
  • The anatomical position
  • (?????)
  • The body is upright, legs together, and
    directed forwards. The palms are turned forward,
    with the thumbs laterally.

10
The terms of the direction (????)
  • superior ?, inferior ?
  • anterior (ventral) ? ( ?? ) posterior (dorsal) ?
    ( ?? )
  • medial ??, lateral ??
  • internal ?, external ?
  • superficial ?, profound ?
  • proximal ??, distal ??
  • ulnar ??, radial ??
  • tibial ??,fibular ??

11
Anatomical axes and planes (???)
  • Axis ?
  • Vertical axis ???
  • Sagittal axis ???
  • Coronal axis ???
  • Plane?
  • Sagittal plane ???
  • Coronal plane ???
  • Horizontal plane ???
  • ?transverse plane ???

12
The Locomotor System ????
  • ?????bone ??joints???muscles ?????,?????60
  • ??????
  • ????????
  • ????????
  • ??
  • support ??
  • Protection ??
  • Locomotion ??

13
Introduction of the osteology ????
  • Bones in adult are 206 in number.
  • Classification of bone
  • Bones are classified according to their
    position and shape
  • The position can be
  • skull ??
  • bones of trunk ???
  • appendicular skeleton ???
  • Types of shape include
  • long bone ??
  • short bone ??
  • flat bone ??
  • irregular bone????

14
  • Long bones (found in limbs)
  • Diaphysis or shaft ??,
  • which is hollow (called medullary cavity
    ???), filled with bone marrow
  • Two ends-epiphysis ? articular surface ???,
    metaphysis???, epiphysial cartilage ???, and
    epiphysial line ??
  • Short bones cuboidal in shape, e.g. carpal bones

15
  • Flat bones thin,
  • Irregular bones have any irregular or mixed
    shape, e.g. vertebrae, pneumatic bones???
  • Sesamoid bones?? develop within tendon

16
General structures of bone????
  • Bone substance ??
  • compact bone ???
  • spongy bone ???
  • ????,?trabeculae?????
  • ?In the flat bones of the skull, the layers of
    compact bone are called the outer plate and inner
    plate?????, while the layer of spongy bone is
    called the diploë ??

17
  • Periosteum ??
  • Outer or fibrous layer
  • Inner layer is vascular and provides the
    underlying bone with nutrition. It also contains
    osteoblasts(????)
  • Endosteum??? is a single-cellular osteogenic
    layer lining the inner surface of bone.
  • Bone marrow ??
  • Red marrow ??? haematopoietic ??
  • Yellow marrow??? fatty

18
Chemical composition and physical
properties?????????
  • Organic material???
  • ????????????????????,??????????
  • Inorganic salts???
  • ?????????????????

Organic material Inorganic salts
Children 1 1
Adult 3 7
Old 1 4
19
Bones of trunk ???
  • Composition vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, sternum
    and ribs
  • Vertebrae ??
  • There are 33 vertebrae in children, arranged as
    follows
  • Cervical vertebrae ?? C.7
  • Thoracic vertebrae ?? T.12
  • Lumbar vertebrae ?? L.5
  • Sacral vertebrae ?? S.5 sacrum ??
  • Coccygeal vertebrae ?? Co.34 coccyx??

20
General features of vertebrae
  • Vertebral body ??
  • Vertebral arch ??
  • pedicle of vertebral arch ??? sup. and inf.
    Vertebral notch
  • ??????
  • lamina of vertebral arch ???
  • process (7)
  • spinous process ??
  • transverse process ??
  • sup. and inf. articular processes
  • ??????
  • Vertebral foramen ??
  • Vertebral canal ??
  • Intervertebral foramen ???

21
Regional variations of vertebrae
  • Cervical vertebrae
  • Vertebrae Body small
  • Vertebral foramen larger and triangular
  • Spinous processes
  • short and bifid in C3 to C5, long in C6,and
    longer in C7
  • Transverse processes
  • short and bifid, transverse foramen???
  • Articular processes horizontal

22
Atypical vertebeae
  • Atlas?? (C1)
  • Body and spinous process absent, consists of
    anterior and posterior arches, and two lateral
    masses
  • Groove for vertebral artery ????

23
  • Axis?? (C2) distinguished by dens?? which
    articulates with dental fovea of anterior arch of
    atlas

24
  • Carotid tubercle ????? anterior tubercle of
    transverse process of C6
  • Vertebra prominens ??(C7)contains long and
    non-bifid spinous process, it is visible with
    neck flexed, used as clinical landmark in
    counting cervical and thoracic spinous processes

25
Thoracic vertebrae
  • Vertebrae Body
  • heart-shape, superior and inferior costal
    fovea ?????
  • Vertebral foramen
  • smaller, rounder
  • Spinous processes
  • long, point obliquely downward
  • Transverse processes
  • transverse costal fovea ????
  • Articular processes coronal

26
Lumbar vertebrae
  • Vertebrae Body
  • larger, kidney-shape
  • Vertebral foramen
  • larger and triangular
  • Spinous processes projects horizontally
  • Transverse processes
  • long
  • Articular processes sagittal

27
Sacrum
  • Anterior surface
  • promontory?, anterior sacral foramina ???(four
    pairs)
  • Posterior surface
  • median sacral crest ????, posterior sacral
    foramina (four pairs), sacral hiatus????,sacral
    cornu ??
  • Lateral part
  • auricular surface???, sacral tuberosity???

28
Cornua
Sacral hiatus
palpation
Transsacral (epidural) anasthesia
29
Sternum
  • Manubrium sterni ??? jugular notch ?????,
    clavicular notch ???
  • Body of sternum ???
  • Xiphoid process
  • ? Sternal angle ???
  • the junction of manubrium and body, which
    connects 2nd costal cartilage laterally, and lies
    opposite lower border of T4 posteriorly

30
? Sternal angle ???
  • which connects 2nd costal cartilage laterally,
    and lies opposite lower border of T4 posteriorly

31
Ribs? 12 pair
  • General features
  • Ribs 17 called true ribs??
  • Ribs 810 called false ribs ??
  • Ribs 1112 called floating ribs ??

32
Characteristics of typical rib
  • Posterior end costal head ??, costal neck??,
    costal tubercle???
  • Shaft costal angle??, costal groove ??
  • Anterior end

33
Atypical rib
  • First rib tubercle for scalenus
    anterior??????, sulcus for subclavian artery and
    vein ????????
  • 11th and 12th ribs lack costal necks, tubercles
    and angles

34
The Bones of Limbs
  • ??????? ?????
  • ???

35
Bones of upper limbs
  • Composition
  • Should girdle ????clavicle??,scapula???
  • Bones of free upper limb
  • ?????
  • Humerus?? in arm
  • Radius?? and ulna?? in forearm
  • Carpal??, metacarpals?? and phalanges?? in hand

36
Clavicle ??
  • S shaped, medial 2/3 convex forward and lateral
    1/3 convex backward
  • Sternal end??? medially and acromial end???
    laterally

37
Scapula ???
  • Three borders
  • Superior coracoid process ?? ,
  • scapular notch ????
  • Lateral (axillary) border??
  • Medial (vertebral) border???
  • Three angles
  • Superior opposite to the 2nd rib
  • Inferior opposite to the 7th rib or 7th
    intercostals space
  • Lateral glenoid cavity???,
  • supra- and infraglenoid tubercles ??????
  • Two surfaces
  • Anterior surface concave
  • subscapular fossa????
  • Posterior surface supra- and infraspinous
    fossae?????, spine of scapula ???, acromion ??

38
Humerus ??
  • Upper end head of humerus???, anatomical
    neck???, greater and lesser tubercles?????,
    crests of greater and lesser tubercle,
    ??????,intertubercular groove????, surgical
    neck???
  • Shaft deltoid tuberosity?????on lateral surface,
    and a groove for radial nerve???? on posterior
    surface
  • Lower end lateral and medial epicondyles?????,
    capitulum ????, trochlea ????, coranoid fossa
    ???and radial fossa ?? (anteriorly) and olecranon
    fossa??? (posteriorly), and sulcus for ulnar
    nerve ????

39
Radius
  • Upper end head of radius???, neck of radius???,
    radial tuberosity ????, and articular
    circumference?????
  • Shaftinterosseous border???
  • Lower end styloid process ??laterally, ulnar
    notch??? medially, and carpal articular
    surface???? inferiorly

40
Fracture of the distal end pf the radius
41
Ulnar
  • Upper end
  • olecranon??
  • coronoid process ??
  • trochlear notch????
  • radial notch ???
  • ulnar tubersity????
  • Lower end
  • styloid process ????
  • head of ulna ???

42
  • Carpal bones ??
  • Proximal row ? (lateral to medial) scaphoid???,
    lunate??, triquetral??? and pisiform???
  • Distal row ? (lateral to medial) trapezium????,
    trapezoid????, capitate??? and hamate??
  • Metacarpal bones??
  • Numbered one to five from thumb to little finger
  • Structure of each?base (proximally), shaft, and
    head (distally)
  • Phalanges of fingers ??
  • Consist of 14 ?two for first digit (thumb) and
    three for each of other four digits
  • Structure of each ?base (proximally), shaft, and
    trochlea of phalanx (distally), tuberosity of
    distal phalanx??????

43
Bones of Lower Limb
  • Composition
  • Pelvic girdle
  • hip bone??
  • Bones of free lower limb
  • Femur?? in thigh ( patella??)
  • Tibia?? and fibula?? in leg
  • Tarsals??, metatarsals??, phalanges of toes?? in
    foot

44
Hip bone
  • Consisting of three fused bones,
  • ilium, ischium, pubis
  • Ilium??
  • Body of ilium ???
  • to form superior 2/5 of acetabulum??
  • Ala of ilium ??? iliac crest ??, anterior
    superior iliac spine ????, anterior inferior
    iliac spine ????, tubercle of iliac crest???,
    posterior superior iliac spine ????,posterior
    inferior iliac spine ????, greater sciatic notch
    ?????, gluteal surface ??,iliac fossa ??, arcuate
    line???, auricular surface ???, iliac tuberosity
    ???,

45
  • Ischium ??
  • Body of ischium ????to form posterior and
    inferior 2/5 of acetabulum, ischial spine???,
    lesser sciatic notch ?????
  • Ramus of ischium ???, ischial tuberosity ????
  • Pubis ??
  • Body of pubis ????to form anterior and inferior
    1/5 of acetabulum, iliopubic eminence ????
  • Superior ramus of pubis ???? pecten of pubis
    ???, pubic tubercle ????, pubic crest ???,
    symphysial surface?????
  • Inferior ramus of pubis???? obturator foramen ??
  • Acetabulum ???formed by bodies of ischium, ilium
    and pubis
  • Lunate surface???, acetabular fossa???,
    acetabular notch????

46
Femur ??
  • Upper end femoral head???, fovea of femoral head
    ????, neck of femur ???, greater trochanter
    ???,lesser trochanter ???, intertrochanteric line
    ????, intertrochanteric crest ????
  • Shaft linea aspera ??, gluteal tuberosity ????,
    pectineal line???? ,popliteal surface ??
  • Lower end medial and lateral condyles?????,
    medial and lateral epicondyles?????, adductor
    tubercle ????, intercondylar fossa???, patellar
    surface??

47
Fracture of the femoral neck
48
Tibia ??
  • Upper end medial and lateral condyles ?????,
    intercondylar eminence ????, fibular articular
    surface ????, tuberosity of tibia????
  • Shaft interosseous border ???, soleal line ?????
  • Lower end fibular notch???, medial malleolus ??

49
Fibula ??
  • Upper end fibular head ???,
  • neck of fibula ???
  • Shaft
  • interosseous border???
  • Lower end lateral malleolus ??
  • Patella ??
  • triangular sesamoid bone

50
Tarsal bones ??
  • Consist of seven short bones arranged in three
    row
  • Posterior row ?talus ??, calcaneus ??
  • Intermediate row ?navicular bone ???
  • Anterior row ?medial, intermediate, and lateral
    cuneiforms ??????????, cuboid bone ??

51
Metatarsal bones ??
  • Consist of five elongated bones, numbered one to
    five medial to lateral
  • Structure of each ?base (proximally), shaft, and
    head (distally) in each
  • Phalanges of toes ??
  • Consist of 14?two for first toe (hallux) and
    three for each of other four toes
  • ?Surface landmarks
  • trochlea of talus????,
  • calcaneal tuberosity ????, tuberosity of
    navicular bone ????, and tuberosity of fifth
    metatarsal bone??????

52
Skull?
  • ????????????
  • ???

53
The skull is composed of 23 bones, which may be
divided into the cerebral cranium and facial
cranium
  • Cerebral cranium ??(8) ?larger, upper and
    posterior part, contains and protects the brain
  • Single bones include
  • frontal bone ??,
  • ethmoid bone ??,
  • sphenoid bone ??,
  • occipital bone ??
  • Paired bones include temporal bone ??
  • parietal bone ??

54
  • Bones of facial cranium ??(15) ?smaller, lower,
    and anterior part, contains bones that surrounded
  • the eye, nose and mouth
  • Single bones include
  • mandible???,
  • vomer ??
  • hyoid bone??
  • Paired bones include
  • maxilla ???,
  • nasal bone ??,
  • lacrimal bone ??,
  • palatine bone ??,
  • zygomatic bone ??,
  • inferior nasal concha ???

55
parietal bone
Frontal bone
Sphenoid bone
Temporal bone
Zygomatic bone
Occipital bone
Nasal bone
Maxilla
Mandible
56
???????,???,???,???????,????????
57
Mandible???
  • Body of mandible
  • Superior border alveolar arch ???
  • Inferior border base of mandible???
  • Outer surface mental protuberance ???,
  • mental foramen ??
  • Inner surface mental spine??,
  • digastric fossa????
  • Ramus has two vertical processes
  • separated by mandibular notch????
  • Coronoid process ??
  • Condylar process ??
  • head of mandible ???
  • neck of mandible ???
  • Mandibular foramen ???,
  • mandibular lingula????
  • Angle of mandible???
  • Masseteric tuberocity ????

58
The skull as a whole ?????
  • Skull viewed from above (superior view)
  • Bones frontal?, paired parietal?, occipital?
  • Sutures
  • coronal???,
  • sagittal ???,
  • lambdoid???
  • parietal tuber ???, parietal foramen??
  • Internal surface of the calvaria
  • sulcus for superior sagittal sinus?????
  • granular foveola ????
  • arterial grooves ???
  • Skull viewed from behind
  • external occipital protuberance
  • ????
  • superior nuchal line???

59
Internal view of base of skull ?????
  • Base of skull forms three fossae
  • Anterior cranial fossa
  • ???
  • Meddle cranial fossa
  • ???
  • Posterior cranial fossa
  • ???

60
Anterior cranial fossa ???
  • Formed by orbital part of frontal bone,
    cribriform plate of ethmoid, and lesser wings of
    sphenoid
  • Structures
  • frontal crest??
  • foramen cecum ??
  • crista galli ??
  • cribriform plate ??
  • cribriform foramina ??

61
Meddle cranial fossa ???
  • Formed by the body and greater wings of sphenoid,
    petrous part of temporal
  • Structures
  • body of sphenoid bone
  • ???
  • hypophysial fossa ???
  • optic canal ????
  • anterior clinoid process
  • ???
  • tuberculum sellae ???
  • dorsum sellae ??
  • posterior clinoid process
  • ???
  • sella turcica ??

62
Meddle cranial fossa ???
  • carotid sulcus ????
  • superior orbital fissure ???
  • foramen rotundum ??
  • foramen ovale ???
  • foramen spinosum ??
  • sulcus for middle meningeal
  • artery ??????
  • foramen lacerum ???
  • internal opening of carotid
  • canal ?????
  • trigeminal impression
  • ??????
  • tegmen tympani ???

63
Posterior cranial fossa ???
  • Formed by occipital and the petrous part of
    temporal
  • Structures
  • foramen magnum ????
  • clivus ??
  • internal opening of
  • hypoglossal canal ???????
  • internal occipital protuberance
  • ????
  • internal occipital crest???
  • sulcus for transverse sinus ???
  • sulcus for sigmoid sinus ????
  • jugular foramen ????
  • internal acoustic pore ???
  • internal acoustic meatus ???

64
Skull seen from below (inferior view)
  • alveolar arch ???
  • bony palate ??
  • median palatine suture ????
  • incisive foramina ???
  • incisive canal ???
  • greater palatine foramen ???
  • posterior nasal apertures ???
  • pterygoid process ??
  • occipital condyle ??
  • external opening of hypoglossal canal ???????
  • external opening of carotid canal ??????
  • styloid process ??
  • stylomastoid foramen ???
  • mandibular fossa ???
  • articular tubercle ????

65
Lateral view of the skull ????
  • external acoustic pore
  • ???
  • mastoid process ??
  • zygomatic arch ??
  • temporal fossa ??
  • pterion ??
  • pterygomaxillary fissure
  • ????
  • pterygopalatine fossa ???
  • sphenopalatine foramen ???

66
Skull viewed from the front (anterior view)?????
  • Frontal region
  • frontal squama ??
  • frontal tuber ???
  • superciliary arch ??
  • glabella ??

67
Orbit ?
  • pyramid-shaped paired cavities
  • Base supraorbital notch ???? infraorbital
    foramen ???
  • Apex optic canal ????
  • Walls
  • Superior
  • fossa for lacrimal gland ???
  • Medial
  • fossa for lacrimal sac ???
  • Inferior
  • infraorbital fissure ???
  • infraorbital groove ???
  • infraorbital canal ???

68
Bony nasal cavity ????
  • Roof cribriform plate of ethmoid
  • Floor bony palate
  • Lateral wall
  • Three nasal conchae (superior,
  • middle and inferior) ???????
  • Nasal meatus underlying each concha (superior,
    middle and inferior)
  • ???????
  • Sphenoethmoidal recess????
  • above superior nasal concha
  • Anterior ?piriform aperture ???
  • Posterior ?posterior nasal aperture ???
    communicates with pharynx

69
Paranasal sinuses ???
  • Frontal sinus ??
  • Lies in frontal bone, deep to superciliary arch
  • Drain to anterior part of middle meatus

70
  • Maxillary sinus ???
  • Largest paired sinus, lie in the body of maxilla
  • Opening into middle nasal meatus

71
  • Ethmoidal cellules ??
  • Lie in ethmoidal bone, contains large number of
    air cells, divided into anterior, middle and
    posterior groups
  • Anterior and middle groups drain into middle
    nasal meatus, while posterior group drains into
    superior nasal meatus
  • Sphenoidal sinus ??
  • Lies in body of sphenoid bone
  • Drain into sphenoethmoidal recess

72
General characters of the skull at birth
  • The skull at birth is large in proportion to rest
    of the skeleton ?1/4 (adult 1/7)
  • The facial portion equals about one eight that of
    the cranium in size, whereas in adult it is one
    half (1/4)
  • Many bones consist of more than one piece
  • Cranial frontanelles ?unossified membrane between
    the bones at the angles of parietal
  • Anterior frontanelle ?closes during middle of 2nd
    year
  • Posterior frontanelle ?closes by the end of 2nd
    month after birth
  • Mastoid fontanelle
  • Sphenoidal fontanelle
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