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Sub-Saharan Africa

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Sub-Saharan Africa Introduction Cultural complexity Language, religion, ethnicity, colonialism The world s fastest growing region 45% of population is younger than ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sub-Saharan Africa


1
Sub-Saharan Africa
2
Introduction
  • Cultural complexity
  • Language, religion, ethnicity, colonialism
  • The worlds fastest growing region
  • 45 of population is younger than 15 years old
  • Low economic output
  • 1 of global output with 11 population
  • Mounting debt ? structural adjustment programs

3
Environmental Geography
4
  • Elevated landmass

5
Plateaus
  • Escarpment
  • Forms when plateau abruptly ends (eg. falls)
  • ? impedes river navigation ? low connectivity in
    this region
  • Great Escarpment refers to coastal escarpment in
    south
  • ? narrow coastal plane ? few human settlement in
    the coast
  • Mountain range
  • Volcanic mountains in southern half of the Great
    Rift Valley (eg. Killimanjaro, Mount Kenya)
  • ? created in divergent plate boundary

6
Divergent plate boundary
The Rift Valley
  • In the Eastern Africa, this geological forces
    produce gash along the boundary (eg. Lake Nyasa,
    Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria)
  • ? fertile soil, abundant water ? dense settlement
    in eastern Africa

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8
Watersheds
  • Congo River (or Zaire)
  • The Second largest river
  • Bndry. betw. Rep. of Congo and Demo. Rep. of
    Congo
  • Nile River
  • The Longest river
  • Lifeblood of Egypt, Sudan
  • Connects between North and Sub-Saharan Africa

9
Watersheds
  • Niger River
  • Critical source of water for the arid countries
  • Mali, Niger, Nigeria
  • Historic city Tombouctou (11th century)
  • Zambezi River
  • Major supplier of commercial energy
  • Kariba Res, Cabora Bassa Res.
  • Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique

10
Soils
  • Relatively infertile
  • ? cant support intensive agriculture
  • Soil fertility explains patterns of settlement
  • Rift valley
  • Rwanda, Brundi, Ethiopia, Kenya
  • Nigeria

11
Climate
Mostly tropical climates (Af, Aw, BSh, BWh)
except for South Africa
12
Tropical forests (Af)
  • Warm to hot temperature year-round precipitation
  • Relatively intact (cf. SE Asia, Latin America)
  • Low population
  • Oil exports
  • Political chaos

13
Savannas (Aw)
  • Wrapped around rain forest
  • Mixture of trees and tall grasses
  • Critical habitat for large fauna
  • Eg. Masai Mara Natl Park, Kenya

14
Deserts
  • Sahara Desert, Namib Desert, Kalahari Desert

15
Midlatitude climates
  • South Africa
  • Southwestern
  • Mediterranean climate (Csb)
  • ? wine production
  • Eastern coast
  • subtropical climate (Cfa)

16
Highland
  • Exhibits altitudinal zonation
  • Montane zones
  • Rift Valley zone
  • Drakensberg Range

17
Desertification in the Sahel
  • Sahel
  • Between Sahara Desert and Savanna southward
  • Transhumance
  • Movement of animals between wet-season and
    dry-season pasture ? adequate precipitation is
    essential for livelihood
  • Drought (1968-74)
  • Desert-like condition began to move south
  • Threaten the livelihoods of farmers and
    pastoralists

18
What causes the Sahelian drought?
  • Human-induced environmental degradation
  • Expansion of agriculture
  • ? loss of natural vegetation, declines in soil
    fertility
  • eg. peanuts production during the French colonial
    rule
  • Overgrazing
  • Expansion of animal production after WWII
  • eg. wells digging to supply water
  • Climatic fluctuation

19
Deforestation
  • Often occurs in Savanna rather than rain forest
  • ? shortage of biofuel Green Belt Movement

20
Deforestation
  • Central Africas Ituri rain forest
  • Deforested for logging
  • Madagascars eastern rain forest
  • ? endangered biodiversity

Lemur
21
Wildlife conservation
  • Diseases kept people and livestock out of the
    areas ? Survival of wildlife
  • Wildlife reserves are in
  • East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania)
  • Southern Africa (Zimbabwe)
  • Poaching (eg. ivory trade) is a problem

22
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23
Population and Settlement
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26
  • Overall, not densely populated
  • Similar to that of U.S.
  • Young population, large families
  • ? population growth
  • ? family planning policies in the 1980s
  • High child mortality, low life expectancy
  • ? low access to basic health services

27
Population density
  • Crude population density
  • Population / area
  • Physiological density
  • people per unit of arable land
  • Agricultural density
  • farmers per unit of arable land

Even though Sub-Saharan Africa has low crude
population density, it has high agricultural
density
28
Family size
  • Large families are encouraged by
  • Rural lifestyle
  • Seen as a source of labor, and social security
  • Ethnic rivalries
  • More number is affiliated with high political
    influence
  • High child mortality rates
  • Limited education to women

29
Family size
  • Recently growth rate has weaken due to
  • Government policies
  • Urbanization
  • AIDS

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32
Population concentration
  • West Africa, Highland East Africa
  • ? Fertile soil, permanent agriculture
  • Eastern half of South Africa
  • Urbanized economy based on mining
  • Forced relocation of black South Africans into
    eastern homelands

33
Subsistence crops
  • Poor tropical soils ? shifting cultivation (or
    swidden) ? cant support high population density
  • Staple crops (millet, sorghum, corn, and tubers)
    all over the region
  • Yam in West Africa (eg. Ibo southeastern
    Nigeria)
  • Irrigated rice in West Africa, and Madagascar

34
Plantation crops
  • Coffee Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Brundi, Tanzania
  • Peanuts Sahel
  • Cotton Sudan, Central African Republic
  • Cocoa Ghana, Ivory Coast
  • Rubber Liberia
  • Palm oil Nigeria

35
Herding and livestock
  • Extremely important in semiarid zones
  • Camel, goats in Sahara cow father south of
    Sahara
  • Symbiotic relationships with neighboring farmers
  • Manure of stocks can fertilize the soil
    exchanged for grain
  • But often pastoralists independent of agriculture
    (eg. Masai)
  • Difficult environment for raising livestock
    because of infestation of tsetse flies (eg.
    Central Africa)

36
Historic cities
  • Axum, Ethiopia (1st century)
  • Capital of ancient empire
  • Tombouctou, Gao in the Sahel (11th century)
  • Trans-Saharan trader centers
  • Zanzibar(Tanzania), Mombasar(Kenya) (12th
    century)
  • established by Arab traders
  • Rooted in Swahili language

37
West African cities
  • Ibadan, Nigeria settled by Yoruba (12th
    century)
  • Lagos, Nigeria 12 million, Yoruba

Lagos
38
  • Accra, Ghana settled by Ga (16th century)
  • Colonial administrative center in the late 1800s
  • Division along income lines

39
South African cities
  • Colonial origin unlike that of west Africa
  • eg. Lusaka (Zambia), Harare(Zimbabwe), and
    metropolitan areas in South Africa ? rich
    minerals
  • South Africa
  • eg. Johannesburg, Durban, and Cape Town
  • Reflects the legacy of apartheid

40
Racial segregation in Cape Town
41
Cultural Coherence and Diversity
42
  • No institutionalized form of religion
  • No widespread unified language
  • Many of African are multilingual
  • Lacks a history of widespread political union
  • Common history of slavery and colonialism

43
African language groups
  • Can be divided into two types
  • (1) Associated with other parts of the world
  • Afro-Asiatic (North Africa, Ethiopia, Somali) ?
    Islam
  • Austronesian (Madacascar) ? indonesian settlement
  • Indo-European (French, English, Afrikaans) ?
    colonialism
  • (2) Unique to the region
  • Nilo-Saharan (Southern Sudan, Sahel)
  • Khoisan (Kalahari)
  • Niger-Congo ? Bantu migration

44
Bantu Migration
45
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46
Religion
  • Combine animist practices and ideas with their
    observances of Christianity and Islam

47
Introduction of Christianity
  • A.D. 200
  • Northern Ethiopia Coptic form of Christianity
  • 1600s
  • South Africa European settlers and missionaries
    (1600s)
  • Dutch settlers
  • Mid 1800s
  • Former British colony Protestant Christianity
  • Former French, Belgian, Portuguese colony
    Catholicism
  • U.S. Pentecostal, Evangelical, Mormon

48
Introduction of Islam
  • 1000 years ago introduced to Sahel from North
    Africa
  • Later, southward spread from Sahel

49
Interaction between religious traditions
  • Unlike other regions, religion is not a source of
    political conflict in the Sub-Saharan Africa with
    the exception of Sudan
  • Coexistence
  • Nigeria Hausa (north) Igbo, Yoruba (south)
  • Eritrea Half Christian, half Muslim
  • Eastern coast Eastern Islam Hinterland Animist
  • Conflict
  • Sudan Muslims in north vs non-Muslims in south

50
African music tradition
  • Slave trade ? melding of African cultures with
    Amerindian and European ones
  • eg. Rumba, jazz, bossa nova, the blues, rock
    roll

51
Congos Authenticity Movement
  • Introduced by President Motutu
  • Subsidies to musical groups
  • Francos OK Jazz band rumba Congolese folk
    music
  • Soukous dance step music style
  • eg. Papa Wemba

52
Music as political conscience
  • Singer Fela Kuti was voice of political
    conscience for Nigerians struggling for democracy
  • Lyrics critical of military government

53
Geopolitical Framework
54
  • Long duration of human settlement
  • Ethnic conflicts after the colonial era

55
Indigenous kingdoms
  • Influenced by Egypt and Arabia
  • B.C. 2000 Nubia (northern Sudan)
  • A.D. 200 Axum (northern Ethiopia, Eritrea)
  • The first Indigenous African states in the Sahel
  • Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Kanem-Bornu
  • City-states in the Gulf of Guinea
  • Ife/Oyo, Benin, Dahomey, Ashanti
  • Later profit from the slave trade in the 16th,
    and 17th century

56
Early Sub-Saharan states and empires
57
European colonization
  • Failed/limited due to diseases until mid 1800s
  • Portuguese in Angola and Mozambique
  • Dutch in South Africa
  • Quinine made colonization possible
  • Scramble for Africa in the 1880s
  • British seizure of Egypt (1882)
  • Empire-building

58
Berlin Conference
  • Gathering of 13 countries in 1884 in which
    Sub-Saharan Africa was carved up and traded
    around
  • No Africans participated
  • Borders drawn with disregard for African cultures

59
European colonization in 1913
60
Establishment of South Africa
  • Dutch settlement (1652) in Cape Town
  • Became Afrikaner or Boer
  • Slowly expanded towards north and east
  • Developed social system based on racism
  • British seizure of Cape district (1806)
  • Afrikaner migration (1835-43?)
  • Afrikaner establishment of two republics (1850s)
  • British incorporated the Zulu (1900)

61
Establishment of South Africa
62
Establishment of South Africa
  • Boer War (1899-1902)
  • British-Afrikaner tension over mineral wealth in
    Transvaal (South African Republic)
  • The British annexed two republics to form the
    union of South Africa
  • South Africas independence (1910)
  • Afrikaners National Party gained control (1948)
  • Introduced apartheid
  • Construction of black homelands by ethnic group

63
Establishment of South Africa
64
Establishment of South Africa
  • Townships
  • segregated neighborhoods for nonwhites, located
    on outskirts of cities
  • Opposition to apartheid during 1960s 1980s
  • Free election (1994)
  • ? Elimination of Homelands

65
Establishment of South Africa
66
Decolonization and independence
  • Beginning in 1957, smooth transition
  • Organization of African Unity (OAU) (1963)
  • Continent-wide organization
  • Mediate disputes between neighbors
  • Former Portuguese colonies Angola, Mozambique
  • ? armed resistance
  • Socialist-oriented rebel movement during Cold War

67
Enduring political conflict
  • Lack of institutional framework for independent
    government lack of higher education
  • Difficult to establish cohesive states because of
    legacy of Berlin Conference
  • European colonial powers have drawn boundaries
    without regard for cultural and political
    geographies

68
Enduring political conflict
  • Refugees
  • People who flee their state because of a
    well-found fear of persecution based on race,
    ethnicity, religion, or political orientation
  • 3 million Africans (2000)
  • Internally displaced persons
  • People who flee from conflict but still reside in
    their country of origin
  • 13 million Africans (2000)

69
Ethnic conflicts
  • Rwanda (1994)
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (1996)
  • Liberia (1989-96)
  • Sierra Leone (2000)
  • Somalia (early 1990s)

70
Secessionist movements
  • Republic of Katanga (1960), Congo
  • State of Biafra (1967), Nigeria
  • Eritrea (1993), Ethiopia
  • Province of Equatoria, Sudan

71
Postcolonial conflicts
72
Big man politics
  • Occurred when presidents refuse to let go of
    reigns of power
  • Military governments, one-party states, and
    presidents-for-life are the norm
  • Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia
  • Corruption of political institutions
  • Disproportionate spending on the military
  • 1990s saw growth in multi-party states and free
    elections

73
Economic and Social Development
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76
Roots of African poverty environmental factors
  • Infertile soil
  • Erratic patterns of rainfall
  • Paucity of navigable river
  • Virulence of tropical diseases

77
Roots of African poverty historical and
institutional factors
  • Slave trade ? depopulation, flee into refuges
  • Colonization
  • little investment in infra., rather interested in
    natural extraction
  • ? Impedes internally dynamic economy
  • Failed development policies
  • economic nationalism ? less competitive
    industries
  • Agricultural and food policies
  • low prices of crops ? opted for subsistence
    agriculture
  • Focus on export crops ? failure to meet staple
    food needs
  • Corruption kleptocracy

78
Links to the world economy
  • Major export import E.U., U.S.
  • Low connectivity
  • But expansion of mobile telephone
  • More aid than investment
  • Little foreign investment ? too poor and unstable

79
Debt relief program
  • Given to countries that are determined to have
    unsustainable debt burdens
  • States qualify for different levels of debt
    relief provided they present a poverty reduction
    strategy
  • Uganda, Tanzania, Mozambique

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81
South Africa
  • Largest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Well-developed, well-balanced industrial economy
  • Healthy agricultural sector
  • Worlds mining superpowers
  • Gold production
  • Worst distributions of income in the world

82
Oil and mineral producers
  • Oil
  • Nigeria, Gabon, Cameron
  • Republic of Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Mineral resources
  • Diamond - Namibia, Botswana

83
Leaders of ECOWAS
  • Nigeria
  • Second largest economy
  • Oil money ? urban growth
  • Ivory Coast, Senegal
  • Commercial centers
  • Economic downturn in the 1980s
  • Ghana
  • Economic recovery in the 1990s
  • Debt relief negotiation (2001)

84
East Africa
  • Kenya
  • Good infrastructure by African standars
  • 1 million foreign tourists
  • Agricultural exports of coffee dominate economy
  • Tanzania
  • Built African form of socialism Ujaama
  • Worlds largest per capital recipient of foreign
    aid

85
Poorest states
  • Sahel
  • Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Chad
  • Horn of Africa
  • Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia
  • Conflict-afflicted states
  • Burundi, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Angola,
    and the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Etc.
  • Malawi, Guinea Bissau, Gambia, and Zambia

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88
Low life expectancy
  • High child mortality rate ? paucity of health
    care
  • Extreme poverty
  • Environmental hazards (drought)
  • Environmental and infectious diseases (malaria,
    cholera, SIDS, and measles)

89
Women and development
  • Invisible contributors to local and national
    economies
  • Dominates informal sector which accounts for 30
    to 50 of GDP

90
Status of women
  • No social liabilities
  • cf. South Asia, SW Asia, North Africa
  • Discrimination
  • Prevalence polygamy, practice of bride-price,
    denial of property inheritance
  • Practice of female circumcision, or genital
    mutilation
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