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Nixon Years 19681974


... (e.g. Libya & Syria) and those backed by the West (e.g. Saudi Arabia) ... Region: military aid to Iran & Saudi Arabia (so these US allies could undertake ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nixon Years 19681974

Nixon Years 1968-1974
1968 Election
  • Nixon,
  • Humphrey,
  • G. Wallace
  • Nixon appealed
  • to Silent Majority
  • Peace with honor
  • Narrow Victory

Like Ike, goes to Nam Vietnamization
Secret Bombing of Cambodia Laos
War Powers Act Kent State Jackson State Univers
US-Vietnam War Ends Paris Accords 1973 Ceasefire
Foreign Policy Themes
  • Détente relaxation of tension
  • Kissinger is EVERYWHERE
  • Nixon believed US could play Sino-Soviet split to
    its advantage
  • Realpolitik
  • Keep balance of power

China Visit, 1972
  • Nixon Kissinger meet Mao
  • Shuttle Diplomacy
  • Recognize China support Chinas admission to

Why could only Nixon visit Red China?
Cold War Détente
  • Czechoslovakia invaded (Prague Spring crushed,
    1968) US preoccupied with Vietnam did nothing
  • Visit Moscow (1972) --Played China card
  • SALT I ABM Treaties

Background to Energy Crisis, 1973
Causes Yom Kippur War Big surprise attack by
Egypt Syria but Israel wins Arab countries divi
ded between those backed by the Soviets (e.g.
Libya Syria) and those backed by the West (e.g.
Saudi Arabia). Like 6-Day War, again saw the supe
riority of Western-backed Israel over the
Soviet-backed Arab states. Kissinger negotiates p
eace settlement
U.S. President Richard Nixon and Israeli Prime
Minister Golda Meir meeting on November 1, 1973.
Nixon's National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger
is directly behind Nixon.
Response to this Arab defeat OPEC issued
oil embargo! War galvanized Arab opinion furi
ous at the emergency re-supply effort that had
enabled Israel to withstand Egyptian and Syrian
forces, the Arab world imposed the 1973 oil
embargo against the US, W Euro, Japan. By the
early 1970s the great Western oil conglomerates
suddenly faced a unified bloc of producers.
Energy Crisis
Gas prices doubled inflation HIGH
No gas rationing at first shortages
Then ration according to license plate
Shah of Iran (2nd largest exporter of oil
closest ally of the US in ME)
"Of course the world price of oil is going to
rise Certainly! And how... You Western
nations increased the price of wheat you sell us
by 300 , and the same for sugar and cement...
You buy our crude oil and sell it back to us,
redefined as petrochemicals, at a hundred times
the price you've paid to us... It's only fair
that, from now on, you should pay more for oil.
Let's say 10 times more."
Nixon Doctrine peace thru partnerships
Central to the Nixon policy toward the Third
World was the effort to maintain a stable status
quo without involving the US too deeply in local
disputes. In 1969 and 1970, in response to the
height of the Vietnam War, Nixon stated US would
"participate in the defense and development of
allies and friends" but would leave the "basic
responsibility" for the future of those "friends"
to the nations themselves. The Nixon Doctrine
signified a growing contempt for the United
Nations, where undeveloped nations were gaining
influence through their sheer numbers, and
increasing support to authoritarian regimes
attempting to withstand popular challenges from
within. Applied to Persian Gulf Region milita
ry aid to Iran Saudi Arabia (so these US allies
could undertake responsibility of ensuring peace
stability in region).
Nixon Doctrine Implications in ChilePinochet
coup in 73
  • The CIA poured LOTS into Chile to support the
    established government against a Marxist
    challenge. When the Marxist candidate for
    president, Salvador Allende, was elected, the
    United States began funneling more money to
    opposition forces to help "destabilize" the new
  • In 1973, a U.S.-backed military junta seized
    power from Allende. The new, repressive regime of
    Gen. Augusto Pinochet received warm approval and
    increased military and economic assistance from
    the United States as an anti-Communist ally.
    Democracy was re-established in 1989.

Domestic Policy New Federalism
Shortly after taking office, Nixon proposed a
dramatic restructuring of American government. He
argued that bloated federal bureaucracies buried
creative entrepreneurship under mountains of red
tape and fostered dependency on handouts.
He called instead for a "New Federalism" -- a sy
stem which directed money and power away from the
federal bureaucracy and toward states and
municipalities. This system, Nixon said, could
respond more efficiently to the needs of the
Civil Rights a mixed record
  • Supportive of civil rights as a senator, but now
    mindful of alienating southern voters
  • Tried to block renewal Voting Rights Act
  • Supreme Court ordered busing Nixon proposed
    anti-busing blocked by Congress.
  • Philadelphia Plan furthered Affirm. Action
    Required potential federal contractors to submit
    affirmative action goals and timetables as a
    pre-condition to having their bids considered.

Domestic Economy
  • Inflation increased to 5.3 by 1970, due to
    Vietnam War deficits
  • Gradualism" of Nixon cut budget, raised
    interest rates, caused 1969 recession.
  • GNP declined, deficit grew, unemployment doubled
    to 6 by 1971
  • Used troops to end postal strike 1970, allowing
    12 pay increase, not 22
  • Announced economic plan in August 1971
  • Phase I froze wages and prices and rents for 90
    days, devalued dollar in Dec.
  • Phase II eased controls on profits and dividends
    and fresh produce
  • Unemployment remained high but inflation began to

Culture of Nixon Years
  • Pepsi Generation era of restoration rather than
    protest, conservatism rather than reform,
    consumer culture rather than counterculture,
    detente rather than confrontation
  • Example Erich Segal's Love Story best
    seller of 1970, reflected commercialized emotion,
    political insensitivity, middle class consumer
    values, not the passion and idealism and liberal
    activism earlier.
  • Apollo 11 landed on the moon July 20, 1969, Neil
    Armstrong, Ed Aldrin, Mike Collins called the
    "triumph of the squares" according to Eric Hoffer
  • Woodstock in 1969 celebrated love and music, not
    the antiwar protest of 1964 SDS marchers

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The Pentagon Papers
  • Daniel Ellsberg managed to get, copy return
    large number of classified papers regarding the
    execution of the war. The documents revealed the
    knowledge, early on, that the war would not
    likely be won and that continuing the war would
    lead to many times more casualties than publicly
    admitted. Further, the papers showed a deep
    cynicism towards the public and a disregard for
    the loss of life and injury suffered by soldiers
    and civilians.
  • Ellsberg knew that releasing these papers would
    most likely result in prison, so he secretly
    attempted to convince a few sympathetic senators
    to release the papers on the Senate floor (b/c
    senators cant be prosecuted for statements on
    floor) but no takers.
  • Finally, Ellsberg leaked the Pentagon Papers to
    The New York Times. On June 13, 1971, the Times
    began publishing the first installment of the
    7000 page document. For 15 days, Nixon
    administration prevented NYT from publishing but
    the Supreme Court soon ordered publication to
    resume freely (New York Times v. US). Ellsberg
    went into hiding from FBI.
  • Signif 1st time govt attempted PRIOR (to
    publication) restraint of press traditionally a
    major hallmark of authoritarian regimes.
  • Public opinion waned EVEN MORE against
  • Faith in govt falling ?

1972 Election
  • Nixon Agnew (R) again v.
  • George McGovern Shriver (D)
  • George Wallace (American Independent Party) shot
    replaced by John Schmitz of mega-conservative
    isolationist John Birch Society (got 1.1 mil
  • McGovern associated with Amnesty, Abortion,
  • Kissinger promised peace is at hand
  • Benjamin Spock (People's Party --Marxist, not
    Farmers!) gained only 74,000 votes from extreme
  • Nixon won landslide victory with 60.7 popular
    vote, 520 to 17 electoral votes

BUT during the 1972 Campaign
  • Watergate Burglary by plumbers paid directed
    by CREEP
  • Nixon inner circle kept enemies list
  • How can we maximize the fact of our incumbency
    in dealing with the persons known to be active in
    their opposition to our administration? Stated a
    bit more bluntly, how can we use the available
    federal machinery to screw our political

  • Woodward Bernstein
  • Deep Throat
  • 18 ½ minute gap
  • Saturday Night Massacre

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In sum,