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Non Verbal Communication

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Non Verbal Communication What does the following sign mean to you? In most of Europe and in the USA, the previous sign symbolises the word ok . – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Non Verbal Communication


1
Non Verbal Communication
2
What does the following sign mean to you?
3
  • In most of Europe and in the USA, the previous
    sign symbolises the word ok.
  • However, in other cultures it means something
    different.
  • For example, in Japan it can mean money.
  • In countries such as Germany, it is used
    offensively (in the same way 2 fingers are in the
    UK).
  • In Brazil the sign has a sexual meaning.

4
Cross-Cultural Differences in Non Verbal
Communication
  • In the same way that different cultures may
    interpret hand gestures differently, they may
    also interpret facial expressions differently.
  • Not all psychologists agree with this. Some argue
    that facial expressions are universal. By this,
    they mean facial expressions are perceived in the
    same way by everybody around the world.

5
Testing Universialities
  • Look at the following faces.
  • Can you decide what kind of emotion each one is
    expressing?

6
Universialities in NVC
  • You should find that you interpreted the emotions
    similarly to other people. Indeed, research
    suggests that you would interpret them similarly
    to people from other cultures too.
  • However, there may be more differences when you
    have to decide on the degree of emotion.

7
Testing Universialities
  • Look at the following faces.
  • Can you decide who is the angriest?

8
Differences in NVC
  • You may have just found some differences between
    how you interpreted the previous faces and how
    others did.
  • Differences in interpretation can be even more
    marked between cultures. In other words,
    different cultures may be socialised to interpret
    faces differently.

9
Differences in Emotional Expression
  • - )
  • Many people use the above symbols when signing of
    texts or e-mails because they represent a happy
    face.
  • Interestingly, this symbol is not used worldwide.

10
  • For example, in Japan, the following symbols are
    used to denote a happy face
  • (ˆ-ˆ)
  • The point being, that in Japanese culture eyes
    are more important when expressing (and
    interpreting) emotions.

11
Core Study In Non Verbal Communication
  • Yuki, Maddux Masuda (2007)
  • Are the windows to the soul the same in the East
    and West?
  • Cultural differences in using eyes and mouth as
    cues to recognize emotions in Japan and the
    United States.

12
Aim
  • Yuki et al wanted to show that how we interpret
    facial expressions is a product of our culture
    and socialisation.

13
Hypothesis
  • They predicted that Japanese people would read
    the emotions of faces by using the eyes whereas
    American people would read the emotions of faces
    by using the mouth.

14
Method
  • A cross cultural study was conducted using
    students from Japan and comparing them with
    students from the USA.

15
Method
  • The participants were shown a set of six
    emoticons.
  • Emoticons are simple computer generated faces.
  • The emoticons used a different combination of
    happy/neutral/sad eyes and mouths.

16
Method
9
  • Participants were given a questionnaire.
  • They had to rate each of the six faces (between 1
    and 9) for how happy it was.
  • The researchers then worked out the average
    rating for each face within each culture.

1
17
Results
Japan
9
USA
average rating
0
18
Results
  • As the graph showed, Japanese participants gave
    higher ratings to faces with happy eyes than
    American participants did. This was especially
    true when the mouth was sad.
  • American participants gave their highest ratings
    when the mouths were happy (even when the eyes
    were sad). This was not true of Japanese
    participants.
  • Japanese participants gave their lowest ratings
    when eyes were sad (and the mouth neutral)
    whereas American participants gave their lowest
    ratings when mouths were sad (even though eyes
    were neutral or even happy).

19
Conclusion
  • Japanese and American people do interpret facial
    expressions differently. Japanese people pay more
    attention to the eyes and American people pay
    more attention to the mouth.
  • Yuki et al suggested that this was a result of
    socialisation. They argued that Japanese people
    are brought up to hide their emotions more so
    have to use the eyes as an indicator of feelings.

20
Evaluation
  • Yuki et al used computer generated faces to test
    participants these are not realistic so findings
    may lack ecological validity.
  • Participants knew they were being tested on so
    may have responded to demand characteristics and
    not given true responses.
  • Emotional expression and interpretation are
    complex ideas and the researchers may have
    over-simplified them by just scoring them on a
    simple rating scale.
  • In both countries, the sample was made up of
    students who may not have represented younger
    and older generations.
  • The researchers only tested one dimension of
    emotion (happy/sad) so their findings may not
    generalise to other emotions e.g. anger,
    surprise, disgust.
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