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The Age of Reason 1687 - 1789

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Baglione: Sacred Love Versus Profane Love: Chiaroscuro and ... Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 1835. Deism --- Voltaire 'Is Jesus the Word? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of Reason 1687 - 1789


1
The Age of Reason 1687 - 1789
  • The Enlightenment
  • The Neoclassic Age
  • Augustan Age

2
The Age of Reason 1687 - 1789
  • FORERUNNERS
  • Galileo
  • Bacon
  • Descartes
  • Hobbes
  • The Age of Reason is dated from 1687, when Issac
    Newton published his work on gravity, Principia
    Mathematica

3
The Age of Reason -- The Enlightenment 1687 -
1789
  • Immanuel Kant Enlightenment is mans leaving
    his self-caused immaturity. Immaturity is the
    incapacity to use ones intelligence without the
    guidance of another. Such immaturity is
    self-caused if it is not caused by lack of
    intelligence, but by lack of determination and
    courage to use ones intelligence without being
    guided by another. Sapere Aude! Dare to know!
    Have the courage to use your own intelligence!
    is therefore the motto of the enlightenment.

4
The Age of Reason -- 1687 - 1789
  • Through laziness and cowardice a large part of
    mankind, even after nature has freed them from
    alien guidance, gladly remain immature. . . . It
    is so comfortable to be a minor! If I have a
    book which provides meaning for me, a pastor who
    has conscience for me, a doctor who will judge my
    diet for me and so on, then I do not need to
    exert myself. . . .Therefore there are only a few
    who have pursued a firm path and have succeeded
    in escaping from immaturity by their own
    cultivation of the mind. (Immanuel Kant)

5
The Age of Reason Characteristics
  • Art Literature Order, Regularity, and Harmony
  • Autonomy of Reason, Progress, Perfectibility
  • Assaults on Authority
  • Deism religion is living justly with decency and
    decorum
  • Humankind -- The rejection of the doctrine of
    original sin.
  • Political theory -- governments derive authority
    from people in a social contract
  • Nature restrained and organized is best
    Newtonian analysis is applied everywhere.

6
Baroque Art and Architecture (Late Renaissance
Early Enlightenment)
  • C. 1600-c. 1770 (Part of Catholic
    Counter-Reformation Aims to build faith)
  • Characteristics
  • Highly ornamental
  • Curved lines
  • Dramatic lighting and color
  • Chiaroscurodramatic light and dark contrasts
  • Tenebrismmany shadows (a dark manner)
  • Exaggerated dramatic gestures
  • Theatricality

7
Baroque -- Rubens
8
Baroque -- Rembrandt
9
Gerrit Honthorst The Denial of St. Peter
10
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11
Baroque -- Vermeer
12
Baroque--Bernini
13
Baroque--Caravaggio
14
Baglione Sacred Love Versus Profane Love
Chiaroscuro and Theatricality
15
Baroque Church--Vienna
16
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18
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19
Baroque in Vienna Theatricality
20
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23
The Age of Reason Order and Harmony
24
Davids Oath of the Horatii
25
The Age of Reason in Literature Order and
Harmony
The Heroic Couplet Vice is a monster of so
frightful mien, As to be hated, needs but to be
seen Yet seen too oft, familiar with her
face, We first endure, then pity, then
embrace. Alexander Pope Dictionary of the
English Language, by Samuel Johnson
(1755).brought order to spelling and
definitions, the standard for 150 years. Samuel
Richardson Pamela (1740) First novel. The novel
aims at moral instruction. Literature is often
pedantic.
26
The Age of Reason PROGRESS
  • For the first time, we see an optimistic view
    that humans can use reason to create a new and
    better world than had existed before. In the
    field of science in particular, there was a
    clear break from the past traditions and a belief
    that the best was yet to come, that scientific
    progress was possible.

27
Diderots Encyclopedie (28 volumes)
28
A New Religious Perspective Deism
  • Deism was a natural religion. Its adherents
    were convinced that Nature gave evidence that
    there must be a Creator-God. However, they were
    skeptical that it could be proved that Christ was
    the Son of God or that our spirits would continue
    beyond the grave. Deists tried to humanize
    religion.

God with a compass creating the world. (William
Blake)
29
  • I believe in one God, and no more and I hope
    for happiness beyond this life. I believe in the
    equality of man and I believe that religious
    duties consist in doing justice, loving mercy,
    and endeavoring to make our fellow-creatures
    happy. . . . I do not believe in the creed
    professed by the Jewish Chuch, by the Roman
    Church, . . .by the Protestant Church, nor by any
    church that I know of. My own mind is my own
    church. . . .Thomas one of Jesus disciples did
    not believe the resurrection, and as they say,
    would not believe without having ocular and
    manual demonstration himself. So neither will I,
    and the reason is equally as good for me, and for
    every other person, as for Thomas. (Thomas
    Paine, The Age of Reason, 1794-5)

30
Deism -- Thomas Jefferson
  • The day will come when the mystical generation
    of Jesus, by the Supreme Being as his father, in
    the womb of a virgin will be classed with the
    fable of the generation of Minerva in the brain
    of Jupiter.

31
DeismThomas Jefferson
  • I have recently been examining all the known
    superstitions of the world, and do not find in
    our particular superstition Christianity one
    redeeming feature. They are all alike, founded
    upon fables and mythologies. Millions of innocent
    men, women and children, since the introduction
    of Christianity, have been burnt, tortured, fined
    and imprisoned. What has been the effect of this
    coercion? To make one half the world fools and
    the other half hypocrites to support roguery and
    error all over the earth.

32
DeismThomas Jefferson
  • The establishment of the innocent and genuine
    character of this benevolent moralist Jesus,
    and the rescuing it from the imputation of
    imposture, which has resulted from artificial
    systems, invented by ultra-Christian sects,
    unauthorized by a single word ever uttered by
    him, is a most d desirable object -- e. g. The
    immaculate conception of Jesus, his deification,
    the creation of the world by him, his miraculous
    powers, his resurrection and visible ascension,
    his corporeal presence in the Eucharist, the
    Trinity original sin, atonement, regeneration,
    election, orders of Hierarchy, c. (Jefferson,
    Thomas. Letter to William Short, 31 Oct. 1819)

33
Religious Duties for Deists
  • As everybody likes to be honoured, so people
    imagine that God also wants to be honoured. They
    forget that the fulfilment of duty towards men is
    the only honour adequate to him. . . . .
  • Apart from moral conduct, all that man thinks
    himself able to do in order to become acceptable
    to God is mere superstition and religious folly
    (Immanuel Kant).

34
Jefferson, the Infidel
  • During Jeffersons campaign for the presidency,
    the Gazette of the United States published the
    following . . . the only question to be asked
    by every American, laying his hand on his heart,
    is shall I continue in allegiance to GOD-AND A
    RELIGIOUS PRESIDENT John Adams or impiously
    declare for JEFFERSON--AND NO GOD!!!

35
DEISM -- JOHN ADAMS
  • The doctrine of the divinity of Jesus is made a
    cover for absurdity.
  • The Government of the United States is not in
    any sense founded upon the Christian religion.

36
DEISM -- JOHN ADAMS
  • The United States of America marks the first
    example of governments erected on the simple
    principles of nature. The architects of American
    government never had interviews with the gods or
    were in any degree under the inspiration of
    Heaven more than those at work upon ships or
    houses. Government is contrived merely by the
    use of reason and the senses. . . . The
    government was founded on the natural authority
    of the people alone, without a pretense of
    miracle or mystery.

37
Madison Religion and Government
  • What influence, in fact, have ecclesiastical
    establishments had on society? In some instances
    they have been seen to erect a spiritual tyranny
    on the ruins of the civil authority on many
    instances they have been seen upholding the
    thrones of political tyranny in no instance have
    they been the guardians of the liberties of the
    people. Rulers who wish to subvert the public
    liberty may have found an established clergy
    convenient auxiliaries. A just government,
    instituted to secure and perpetuate it, needs
    them not. (used in the same sense as the 1st
    amendment, i.e., official, government-recognized
    and perhaps supportedreligion)

38
DEISM--Benjamin Franklin
  • I was scarce fifteen, when, . . . I began to
    doubt of Revelation itself. Some books against
    Deism fell into my hand . . . They wrought an
    effect on me quite contrary to what was intended
    by them for the arguments of the Deists, which
    were quoted to be refuted, appeared to me
    stronger than the refutations in short, I soon
    became a thorough Deist. (Franklin,
    Autobiography, 65)
  • Lighthouses are more helpful than churches.

39
United States Prized Religious Tolerance
  • "They all attributed the peaceful dominion of
    religion in their country mainly to the
    separation of church and state. I do not hesitate
    to affirm that during my stay in America I did
    not meet a single individual, of the clergy or
    the laity, who was not of the same opinion on
    this point"
  • . -Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America,
    1835

40
Deism --- Voltaire
  • Is Jesus the Word? If He be the Word, did He
    emanate from God, is He co-eternal and
    consubstantial with Him, or is He of a similar
    substance. . . .Is the Holy Ghost made? or
    begotten? or produced?. . .Assuredly, I
    understand nothing of this no one has ever
    understood any of it, and that is why we have
    slaughtered one another. The Christians tricked,
    caviled, hated, and excommunicated one another,
    for some of these dogmas inaccessible to human
    intellect. . . .The most detestable example of
    fanaticism is that exhibited on the night of St.
    Bartholomew1572, when the people of Paris
    rushed from house to house to stab, slaughter,
    throw out of the window and tear in pieces their
    fellow citizens who did not go to
    massProtestants. (Voltaire, Treatise on
    Tolerance, 1763)

41
Human Worth The Rejection of the Doctrine of
Original Sin
  • Christianity had long held that from Adam, humans
    had inherited a fallen state of corruptibility
    and an inclination to do evil. Catholicism and
    early Reformers both held this doctrine.
  • During the Age of Reason, this doctrine was being
    challenged and rejected by many. The view of
    human possibility became more optimistic (and a
    little snobbish).

42
Medieval View of Gods Power on Earth
  • With the Catholic Church holding pervasive power,
    the church authorities had all religious and
    secular power. Dr Johnson describes Cardinal
    Bellarmines position the Pope is invested with
    all the authority on heaven and earth. That all
    princes are his vassals, and that he may annul
    their laws at his pleasure. That he may depose
    kings if the good of the Church requires it. . .
    .That the Pope is God upon earth.
    (Georgio de Santillana)

43
Renaissance view of the Divine Right of Kings
  • Renaissance view Because there are none on
    earth, after God, greater than sovereign princes,
    whom God establishes as His lieutenants to
    command the rest of mankind, . . . we must
    respect and revere their majesty in all due
    obedience, speak and think of them with all due
    honour. He who contemns his sovereign prince,
    contemns God whose image he is. . . . If the
    prince can only make law with the consent . . .
    of an inferior, whether it be a council of
    magnates or the people, it is not he who is
    sovereign (Bodin, 1576)

44
New View Rational, Educated People hold the
Power Social Contract Theory
  • (New ideas) all men are created equal, that
    they are endowed by their Creator with certain
    unalienable Rights, that among these are Life,
    Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to
    secure these rights, Governments are instituted
    among Men, deriving their just powers from the
    consent of the Governed. (Decl. of Ind., 1776)

45
PROGRESS!
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