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The Book of Zephaniah

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Title: The Book of Zephaniah


1
History of the Catholic Church A 2,000-Year
Journey
2
Church History
Part 3 The Church of the Early Middle Ages
3
Changing the Face of Europe
  • Islamic threat grows Northern Africa falls
    along with much of East. Invasions stopped in
    Spain.

4
The Koran(Quran) on Infidels
  • Allah is an enemy to unbelievers. - Sura 298
    On unbelievers is the curse of Allah. - Sura
    2161
  • Slay them wherever ye find them and drive them
    out of the places whence they drove you out, for
    persecution is worse than slaughter. - 2191
    Fight against them until idolatry is no more and
    Allah's religion reigns supreme. (different
    translation ) Fight them until there is no
    persecution and the religion is God's entirely. -
    Sura 2193 and 839 Fighting is obligatory
    for you, much as you dislike it. - 2216
    (different translation ) Prescribed for you is
    fighting, though it is hateful to you. .....
    martyrs.... Enter heaven - Surah 3140-43 If
    you should die or be killed in the cause of
    Allah, His mercy and forgiveness would surely be
    better than all they riches they amass. If you
    should die or be killed, before Him you shall all
    be gathered. - 3157-8 You must not think that
    those who were slain in the cause of Allah are
    dead. They are alive, and well-provided for by
    their Lord. - Surah 3169-71 Let those fight in
    the cause of God who sell the life of this world
    for the hereafter. To him who fights in the cause
    of God, whether he is slain or victorious, soon
    we shall give him a great reward. - Surah 474
    Those who believe fight in the cause of God, and
    those who reject faith fight in the cause of
    evil. - 476 But if they turn renegades, seize
    them and slay them wherever you find them. -
    489 Therefore, we stirred among them enmity and
    hatred, which shall endure till the Day of
    Resurrection, when Allah will declare to them all
    that they have done. - 514 O believers, take
    not Jews and Christians as friends they are
    friends of each other. Those of you who make them
    his friends is one of them. God does not guide an
    unjust people. - 554 Make war on them until
    idolatry is no more and Allah's religion reigns
    supreme - 839 O Prophet! Exhort the believers
    to fight. If there are 20 steadfast men among
    you, they shall vanquish 200 and if there are a
    hundred, they shall rout a thousand unbelievers,
    for they are devoid of understanding. - 865 It
    is not for any Prophet to have captives until he
    has made slaughter in the land. - 867 Allah
    will humble the unbelievers. Allah and His
    apostle are free from obligations to
    idol-worshipers. Proclaim a woeful punishment to
    the unbelievers. - 92-3 When the sacred
    months are over, slay the idolaters wherever you
    find them. Arrest them, besiege them, and lie in
    ambush everywhere for them. - 95 Believers!
    Know that idolators are unclean. - 928 Fight
    those who believe neither in God nor the Last
    Day, nor what has been forbidden by God and his
    messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth,
    even if they are People of the Book, until they
    pay the tribute and have been humbled. - 929
    (another source ) The unbelievers are impure and
    their abode is hell. (another source ) Humiliate
    the non-Muslims to such an extent that they
    surrender and pay tribute.Whether unarmed or
    well-equipped, march on and fight for the cause
    of Allah, with your wealth and your persons. -
    941 O Prophet! Make war on the unbelievers and
    the hypocrites. Be harsh with them. Their
    ultimate abode is hell, a hapless journey's end.
    - 973 Allah has purchased of their faithful
    lives and worldly goods, and in return has
    promised them the Garden. They will fight for His
    cause, kill and be killed. - 9111 Fight
    unbelievers who are near to you. 9123 (different
    translationBelievers! Make war on the infidels
    who dwell around you. Let them find harshness in
    you. (another source ) Ye who believe! Murder
    those of the disbelievers....
  • As for those who are slain in the cause of Allah,
    He will not allow their works to perish. He will
    vouchsafe them guidance and ennoble their state
    He will admit them to the Paradise He has made
    known to them. - 104-15
  • Allah has cursed the unbelievers and proposed for
    them a blazing hell. - 3360
  • Unbelievers are enemies of Allah and they will
    roast in hell. - 4114
  • When you meet the unbelievers, smite their necks,
    then when you have made wide slaughter among
    them, tie fast the bonds, then set them free,
    either by grace or ransom, until the war lays
    down its burdens. - 474
  • (different translation ) When you meet the
    unbelievers in the battlefield, strike off their
    heads, and when you have laid them low, bind your
    captives firmly.
  • Those who are slain in the way of Allah - he will
    never let their deeds be lost. Soon will he guide
    them and improve their condition, and admit them
    to the Garden, which he has announced for them. -
    475
  • Muslims are harsh against the unbelievers,
    merciful to one another. - 4825
  • Muhammad is Allah's apostle. Those who follow him
    are ruthless to the unbelievers but merciful to
    one another. Through them, Allah seeks to enrage
    the unbelievers. - 4829
  • Prophet! Make war on the unbelievers and the
    hypocrites and deal sternly with them. Hell shall
    be their home, evil their fate. - 669

5
End of the Dark Ages
Jihad translates as ___ Islam view of state?
  • Islam on the move armies of Arabs on jihad
    devastated North Africa
  • Mediterranean becomes a Muslim lake
  • Italy and other coastal areas constantly attacked
    by fierce raiding parties who even raid inland

Moorish Chieftain
  • Constantinople, capital of Byzantium, is attacked
  • Spain overrun by Arabs and Berber allies, but one
    small area is held by the Christians

6
Muslim nations
What are some Mulsim nations at this time?
  • Muslim Population chart

7
Arab Spring current events
  • Tunisia fruit stand man
  • UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Symbol of Muslim Brotherhood
8
Saving Europe Tours (Poitiers)
  • Moors (Arab/Berbers) stormed into France
  • Pepins son, Charles Martel scraped together a
    Franksh army to meet the Moors as they rode north
  • Clash at Tours a turning point in European
    history Franks soundly defeated the Moors and
    turned them back from Europe

Battle of Tours
  • Wake-up call for do-nothing Merovingian kings
  • Charles prestige passed to his son, Pepin the
    Short

9
Pepin the Shortand Strong
  • Pepin wrote to the Pope Who should rule, he who
    inherited a title, or he who actually rules?
  • Pepin crowned king
  • Pepins concept of kingship To us the Lord has
    entrusted the care of government.
  • Very different from tribal concept of kingship
    state personal possession of the king

Pepin the Short
10
Divine Right of Kings
Once you get past the divine right of kings, Im
not much into theology"
11
Pepin and St. Boniface
  • Pepin also established Papal States
  • Invited St. Boniface to reform whole of Western
    Frankish Church
  • St. Boniface very successful converting German
    tribes
  • Everywhere he promoted the authority of the
    papacy and the need for Catholic rulers to defend
    it
  • Boniface died a martyr, June 5, 754
  • Pepin overshadowed by his son, Charles the Great
    who inaugurated the Carolingian era

St. Boniface
12
Irish Monks Saving Civilization
  • Toward the end of Merovingian rule in the kingdom
    of the Franks, learning had nearly disappeared
  • Ignorance was widespread and writing itself had
    greatly deteriorated
  • The Irish missionaries saved the day (and the
    civilization) by
  • Reforming monastic life and discipline
  • Restoring ascetic ideals, even among the laity
  • Focusing on literacy among the Franks and others

St. Columbanus
13
Charlemagne, King of the Franks
  • Unlike Pepin, Charles was super-sized (over 6
    with red beard)
  • 1st concern order throughout Frankish realm
    defend borders
  • In 30 years he waged 60 campaigns, half of them
    personally
  • He fought Muslims in Spain, Basques in the
    Pyrenees, wild Avars in Hungary, and pacified
    northern Italy
  • Biggest headache pagan Saxons
  • Forced conversion on Saxons resettled them
    within his realm

Charlemagne King of the Franks
14
Charlemagne, Holy Roman Emperor
  • Turning point Christmas Day, 800
  • Pope St. Leo III crowned Charles as Roman Emperor
  • Coronation represents two important developments
  • Restoration of the Western Roman Empire dream
    of European unity under a Catholic ruler would
    survive the empires demise
  • Shift in geographical focus of Western
    civilization from Mediterranean (Mare nostrum)
    to the North

What is significant about 800ad?
Charlemagne
15
Charlemagnes Reforms
  • Economic reforms under Charlemagne
  • Agricultural innovations produced a true
    agricultural revolution
  • Issued standardized coins to facilitate local
    trade
  • Muslim conquests hindered foreign trade, but
    Charlemagne achieved increase in foreign trade by
    using Jewish merchants who moved in both
    Christian and Muslim worlds

The Caliph and Charlemagne
  • Charlemagne even corresponded with the legendary
    Caliph of Bagdad, Harun al-Rashid.

16
Carolingian Renaissance Education
  • Charlemagne also began a great educational and
    cultural revival
  • Great need, particularly among clergy
  • Opened school at Aachen, his capital, to
    promising students of all classes included girls
  • Same occurred throughout the country
  • Schools used ingenious methods and specified
    humane treatment of students with playtime
    exercise
  • Recruited Alcuin, English deacon

Charlemagne receiving Alcuin
17
Alcuin
  • Alcuin recruited the best and the brightest
    scholars of Europe
  • Unlocked what had been preserved for centuries in
    the monasteries
  • Stressed the mastery of Latin, the need for
    books, and careful copying of texts
  • These scholars also contributed much original
    work of their own

18
Carolingian Renaissance Art
  • Charlemagne also supported a revival of the arts
    and architecture
  • One of his greatest works was his palace chapel
    built in the Byzantine style with a design and
    mosaics modeled after a Byzantine church he had
    visited in Ravenna
  • Charlemagne had numerous other building projects
    (many of wood perished in the barbarian waves
    late in the 9th century

Charlemagnes Palace Chapel in Aachen (Aix-la-
Chapelle)
19
Books Writing
  • Our whole knowledge of ancient literature is due
    to the collecting and copying that began under
    Charlemagne, and almost any classical text that
    survived until the eighth century has survived
    till today. Kenneth Clark

Few people today realize that only three or four
original antique manuscripts of the Latin authors
are still in existence.
20
Books Writing
  • Even in the 6th Century scribes were busy copying
    the Scriptures
  • Alcuins zeal for books and libraries was echoed
    throughout the Carolingian world
  • Carolingian miniscule a new form or writing,
    tremendous improvement clearly formed letters,
    upper and lower case, spaces between words
  • Charlemagne demanded homilies be translated into
    common languages so all people could benefit from
    them

21
Agricultural Revolution
  • Beginning with Charlemagne, many improvements in
    how land was farmed in Europe an true
    agricultural revolution
  • Rediscovery of Roman farm technology (waterwheel)
  • Development of the heavy plow, horseshoe, new
    horse harness
  • Dense forests cleared for farming

3 Whippletree Set
  • Dikes created to hold back the sea and enclose
    fertile soil
  • Three-field system of crop rotation increased
    output to support larger population
  • Moved beyond subsistence farming more people
    could take up trades villages grew

22
Alfred the Great (849-899)
  • English king who, like Charlemagne, strongly
    encouraged education
  • Ensured classics of previous centuries were
    translated into Anglo Saxon
  • Personally translated for his people works on the
    Church, geography and other subjects in simple
    and popular style, often adding simple material
    of his own composition

23
Chaos in Rome, Barbarians Again
  • After Charlemagnes death in 814 his empire was
    divided in two with a Middle Kingdom in between
  • Barbarian and Muslim attacks continued, battering
    Europe
  • Papacy too (with a few exceptions) reached an
    all-time low
  • Manipulated elections popes deposed and replaced
  • Decline of royal political control feudal lords
    gobbled up Church land with impunity
  • Viking raiders from Scandinavia Magyars from
    Eastern Europe

Viking
24
Feudalism what do you know?
25
Serf and Turf
Its for whacking peasants. I call it a serfboard.
26
Feudalism
  • Complex roots in Roman times Germanic customs
    -- by the 800s invaders and ineffective rulers
    had splintered the Carolingian Empire
  • Feudalism a kind of coping mechanism
  • Only a strong local warlord could maintain order
    public safety needed support of fighting men
    loyal to him (vassals)
  • Feudal pyramid Cavalry (vassals) required horses
    and land which the lord would give in return for
    loyalty
  • Meanwhile, who farmed the land? The fighting men
    needed farmers, and the farmers (non-warriors)
    needed protection manorialism
  • Peasants (serfs) lived on lords vassals
    manors cared for the land produced the food
    received a place to live, protection

27
Feudalism
  • Serfs made up the bottom lever of feudalisms
    pyramid, vassals the middle and overlords and
    kings the top.
  • Feudal/manorial system at top bottom could be
    brutal with thugs fighting each other and
    brutalizing peasants and would have been much
    worse without the Church
  • Early on relationships between lords vassals
    were ingeniously Christianized
  • Lords liegemen swore solemn oaths before clergy
    to defend support each other

Roland giving fealty
  • Knights swore to protect the clergy, poor weak
    and not to harm their property (the Peace of God)
  • Truce of God limited times when fighting could be
    done and finally eliminated most private wars
    altogether

28
Feudalism a Way of Life for Christendom
  • Bishops and abbots often had large landholdings,
    and monasteries reflected feudal estates in
    organization, management, and self-sufficiency.
  • Feudalism offered stability and protection and
    became a way of life.
  • Hard work, warfare and primitive living
    conditions prevailed for all levels.

Cluny
29
Feudalism what are other effects
  • Is instrumental in strengthening secular control
    of the clergy hence the beginning of abuses
    such as
  • Lay Investiture appointment of leaders by
    secular rulers
  • simony buying and selling of Church offices
  • Nepotism favoritism of family for Church
    positions

What is Lay Investiture simony nepotism?
30
Early Middle Ages
  • Early form of Divine Right of Kings
  • Lay Investiture Controversy
  • Popes many bishops function as Territorial
    Rulers
  • Inheritance Disputes
  • Simony

31
Renewals Reforms in the Early Medieval Church
  • Carolingian Reform (9th Century)
  • Cluniac Reform (10th Century)
  • Reforms started by Pope St. Leo IX (11th Century)
  • Gregorian Reform Pope St. Gregory VII (11th
    Century)

32
1,000 A.D. A New Sprit
  • The early springtime of Christendom
  • Invasions has ceased (except for Norman raids)
  • Badly needed reforms had begun in the Church
  • Nations were being organized under competent
    Christian kings
  • Standard of living on the rise
  • Church architecture reflected these changes
  • One chronicler wrote
  • One might have said that the whole world was
    shaking off the robes of age and pulling on a
    white mantle of churches.

Abbaye aux Dames, Caen, 1050 AD
33
From the Ground Level
  • Theologians denying the deposit of faith
  • Heretical sects spreading
  • Priests discarding celibacy
  • Bishops buying their offices
  • Popes either morally deficient or were met with
    indifference
  • Lay interference

34
The Move Toward Reform
  • Wealth political importance caused
    ecclesiastical positions to be regarded as
    desirable sources or prestige power
  • Spiritual character of offices obscured kings
    filled offices with unqualified laymen to gain
    favor or payment
  • Vows of chastity poverty forgotten
  • Growth of general sentiment among monks, rulers
    laity of what was wrong and a desire to root
    out evil
  • This groundswell of indignation came to a head
    just as the papacy was ready to act
  • Some outstanding, fearless figures rose up to
    demand reform and condemn the sins of both clergy
    and laity

A Cistercian (11th Century)
35
Reform the Beginnings
  • Monasteries too had fallen under the influence of
    the age -- 1st Step was a renewal of monastic
    fervor
  • Reorganization of Benedictine life Cluny
    established (910) by William, Duke of Acquitane
  • Camaldolese hermits by St. Romuald (1012)
  • Vallumbrosan hermits by St. John Gualbery (1038)
  • Alpine hospices by St. Bernard of Menthon (1008)
  • Exerted a profound influence on Church life
  • Rules reserved an ideal of law order during a
    period of civil wars social unrest
  • By their austerities they made reparation for
    widespread sin
  • They brought about a return to deeper spiritual
    life among both clergy and laity
  • Prepared the way for the faithful to receive the
    grace needed to enact real reform based on prayer
    self-denial

36
Councils Preachers
  • Councils and preachers attached the evils of
    simony, breaches of vows of celibacy, and
    clerical worldliness
  • The push, however, was to ensure only worthy
    candidates would be accepted into the priesthood
    and hierarchy
  • 1st top-level reforms begun by Pope Leo IX (d.
    1054) and his immediate successor, Pope Nicholas
    II (d. 1061)

Pope St. Leo IX
37
Growth of Papal Power Pope St. Gregory VII
  • To free the Church from political control, Pope
    St. Gregory VII (1073-85) attacked 3 evils
  • Simony buying and selling of ecclesiastical
    offices/spiritual goods
  • Alienation of property the passing of Church
    property into the private hands of a bishops or
    priests offspring
  • Lay investiture

Pope St. Gregory VII
38
Growth of Papal Power Pope St. Gregory VII
  • To restore the authority of the pope over the
    Church he
  • Clarified how all bishops and abbots subject to
    him declared his powers of absolution and
    excommunication were absolute. Dictatus Papae.
  • Asserted papal authority over Emperor Henry IV.
  • Established Roman Curia as the central organ of
    church government

Pope St. Gregory VII
39
What do you know
  • East West Schism - 1054

40
East-West Schism 1054 A.D.
  • Remote causes Disagreements on Doctrine
    Authority
  • Beginning Nicaea (325) Church formally defined
    important doctrines
  • Disagreements often came from the East
    (Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, Constantinople)
  • Although Eastern Church (through Bishop of
    Constantinople) recognized Pope as successor of
    Peter and head of the whole Church, resentment
    arose sense that West dictated to East and
    there were often temporary estrangements

41
East-West Schism 1054 A.D.
  • Remote causes National Churches
  • Effects of various Eastern heresies and the
    consequent rise of national churches
  • From the 5th Century Arianism, Nestorianism,
    Monophysitism initiated the separation and
    subdivision into more Eastern churches
  • These became the national churches quite early
    on, preceding the Great Schism to come
  • Coptic Churches of Egypt and Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
  • Jacobite Churches if Syria and Armenia
  • Nestorian Churches of Mesopotamia and Persia
    (Iraq Iran)

42
East-West Schism 1054 A.D.
  • Remote Causes Iconoclast Crisis
  • Icons stylized paintings of Christ, Mary the
    saints generally on wood (except for hands and
    face) and covered with a relief of pearls, silver
    gold
  • Opposition to the veneration of icons initiated
    by Eastern emperors had two phases
  • Begun by Emperor Leo the Isaurian in 728 ended
    in 787 when 2nd Council of Nicaea condemned the
    heresy allowed veneration of sacred images
  • Began under Leo V in 814 ended in 842 when the
    Feast of Orthodoxy was established by Empress
    Theodora

43
East-West Schism 1054 A.D.
  • Remote Causes Opposing Ecclesiologies
  • Deeper level opposing views on the nature and
    structure of the Church
  • Easts view incorporated into its view of the
    Church's union with the Empire saw, for example,
    relationships between bishops merely as
    administrative problems
  • Over time Eastern Church focused on its autonomy
    within borders of Eastern Empire
  • Western Church further defined its concept of the
    Primacy making it even more catholic (universal)
    and absolute

44
East-West Schism 1054 A.D.
  • Prelude to the Schism
  • Mid 9th Century St. Ignatius, Bishop of
    Constainople, denounced immorality of emperor.
    Ignatius was deposed and Photius replaced him
  • 867 Photius summoned a synod attacked errors
    of Western Church excommunicated pope
  • One of the errors was inclusion of words, and
    from the Son (Filioque) in Nicene Creed
  • Council of Constantinople (381) had left question
    open Eastern Church preferred and through the
    Son.
  • 10-year estrangement when Ignatius died in 877,
    Pope John VIII appointed Photius to vacant see
    (878) if Photius agreed to submit to Holy See in
    all matters and make reparations for his past
    errors. Photius remained faithful to the pope
    until his death.

Photius
45
East-West Schism 1054 A.D.
  • The Schism
  • In 1043 the Patriarch of Constantinople, Michael
    Cerularius, rivived Photius old charges and
    added some new ones
  • He began a major anti-Roman campaign, closing
    Latin-rite churches and attacking the papacy
  • Pope Leo IX sent delegates to Constantinople
    without success.
  • On July 16, 1054 Michael Celularius was solemnly
    excommunicated
  • Celularius responded by calling an Eastern synod
    and excommunicated the Pope and the entire Latin
    Church
  • This began the schism that still divides the East
    from Rome

Michael Cerularius
46
East-West Schism 1054 A.D.
  • The Aftermath
  • After the schism, relations between the two
    Churches continued to disintegrate
  • Despite the split Pope Urban II sought to help
    free Byzantine territory from the Muslim Turks
    and then regain the Holy Land from the Saracen
    Muslims by launching the first Crusade in 1096
  • By the Fourth Crusade 1202-1204 the sack of
    Constantinople by Christian knights dealt the
    death blow to East-West unity
  • Reconciliation attempts were made in 1274 at the
    Council of Lyons and again in 1438-49 at the
    Council of Florence -- both were unsuccessful

Pope Urban II
47
East-West Schism 1054 A.D.
  • The Aftermath
  • Church of Constantinople other Eastern Churches
    banded together in a group known as the Orthodox
    Eastern Church in which the Patriarch of
    Constantinople held a kind of precedence
  • The term Orthodox had originally been applied
    to Churches that accepted the Council of
    Chalcedon against the Nestorian and Monophysite
    heretics now it applied to Eastern Churches in
    schism with Rome
  • After the fall of Constantinople (1453) Eastern
    Churches broke up into autonomous national
    Churches
  • Grave consequences Church unity in the East
    suffered and gave rise to splintered Churches
    missionary work in Asia and Africa stopped the
    Church was confined to Europe until the 16th
    century
  • In 1964 Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras
    met in Jerusalem and lifted the mutual
    excommunication orders of 1054. Dialogue
    continues.

48
The Crusades Truth Fiction
  • Much has been stated about the Crusades that is
    far from accurate
  • There were both good and bad aspects to the
    Crusades we will address both
  • The Crusades were a concerted effort to rescue
    the Holy Land from the hands of infidels
  • Their results were mixed at best although some
    achieved considerable victories
  • They did, however, unify Christians of different
    countries under a common banner and with a common
    sacred goal

49
Crusade Controversy
  • The Crusades are generally viewed today as a
    Western jihad against Islam holy wars instigated
    by power-crazed popes and fought by religious
    fanatics. They are thought to be the epitome of
    Western arrogance, self-righteousness, and
    intolerance a shameful skeleton in the closet
    of the Catholic Church and the Western world.
    Crusaders are supposed to have introduced
    proto-imperialist Western aggression and
    barbarism into the peaceful Middle East and
    debased the enlightened Islamic culture, leaving
    it in shambles.
  • Historians such as Jonathan Riley-Smith
    (Cambridge), Edward Peters (University of
    Pennsylvania), Donald E. Queller (University of
    Illinois, ret.), and Thomas Madden (St. Louis
    University), have corrected the more egregious
    distortions. In some respects the Crusades were
    defensive wars in direct response to Muslim
    aggression, and there is little question that the
    colossus of the medieval world was Islam, not
    Christendom. The Crusades were clearly attempts
    to meet the challenge of the Muslim conquests of
    Christian lands in the East. Furthermore, recent
    studies have shown that Crusading, far from being
    a lucrative undertaking, was a notoriously bad
    economic investment. Wealthy noblemen were
    practically bankrupted by mounting a Crusading
    expedition. Rather, a spiritual purpose animated
    Crusaders While killing was normally wrong,
    avenging the deaths of fellow Christians as
    instruments of Gods justice came to be seen as a
    positively redemptive undertaking. Crusading was
    understood in this light as an act of love
    articulated as a self-sacrificial ideal in
    Christs words, Greater love than this hath no
    man, that he lay down his life for his friends
    (Jn. 1513). In Maddens view, the two primary
    goals of the Crusades were, first, to rescue
    Christians of the East who had been conquered by
    Muslim invaders and, second, to liberate
    Jerusalem and the Holy Land, which had been made
    holy by the Incarnation and earthly life and
    ministry of Jesus Christ.

50
Just War Doctrine CCC 2309
List 4 conditions of Just war. Yes.
  • 2309 The strict conditions for legitimate defense
    by military force require rigorous consideration.
    The gravity of such a decision makes it subject
    to rigorous conditions of moral legitimacy. At
    one and the same time
  • - the damage inflicted by the aggressor on the
    nation or community of nations must be lasting,
    grave, and certain
  • - all other means of putting an end to it must
    have been shown to be impractical or ineffective
  • - there must be serious prospects of success
  • - the use of arms must not produce evils and
    disorders graver than the evil to be eliminated.
    The power of modem means of destruction weighs
    very heavily in evaluating this condition.
  • These are the traditional elements enumerated in
    what is called the "just war" doctrine. The
    evaluation of these conditions for moral
    legitimacy belongs to the prudential judgment of
    those who have responsibility for the common
    good.

51
The Crusades Remote Causes
  • The Crusades finally began nearly five centuries
    after Muslim armies had set out to conquer the
    Christian world
  • By the time the Crusades began (1095), Muslim
    armies had conquered two-thirds of the Christian
    world
  • The Crusades began
  • 457 years after Jerusalem was conquered
  • 453 years after Egypt was taken
  • 443 years after Italy was first plundered
  • 380 years after Spain was conquered
  • 363 years after France was attacked
  • 249 years after Rome was sacked
  • Only after centuries of church burnings,
    killings, enslavement and forced conversions of
    Christians

52
Present attitudes that distort much of todays
thinking on the Crusades
  • An attitude of condescending historical
    snobbery that dismisses our ancestors as less
    educated, less refined, more brutal, credulous,
    and hypocritical than we are today an attitude
    born of ignorance.
  • Presuming direct causal connections between
    atrocities committed by Crusaders and terrorist
    acts committed by Muslim jihadists today, or
    direct parallels between U.S. strategies today
    and the medieval Crusades. We cannot excuse the
    Crusaders slaughter or exonerate Christendom for
    its sanctification of it but neither can we
    vilify medieval Christianity.

53
1st Crusade 1095 AD
54
The Seven Crusades
  • 1st Crusade 1095 Pope Urban II
  • 2nd Crusade 1147 -- Pope Eugene III
  • 3rd Crusade 1190 Richard Lionhearted
  • 4th Crusade 1202 Sack of Constantinople
  • 5th Crusade 1217-1221 Lateran Counsil
  • 6th Crusade 1248 1248) St. Louis IX
  • 7th Crusade 1270 St. Louis IX

55
The Siege of Jerusalem
  • 1000s died during the siege, many innocents
  • Yes there were Crusader atrocities no excuse but
    there were far greater ones by the Turks
  • Crusaders were at the limit of their endurance,
    starving and dehydrated, and forced to endure
    systematic mockery of Christianity and murders of
    Christians by Muslims on the walls
  • When siege broke, several commanders tried to
    restrain their men, but without unified command
    little could restrain the besiegers
  • As bad as it was, it paled compared to what 1000s
    of Christians suffered at the hands of Muslim
    armies

56
The Crusades Providential Role
  • Crusades played a providential role in the life
    of the Church even though sometimes diverted
    from their sacred purpose and misused by some
    participants
  • Revealed the extraordinary spirit of faith that
    prevailed throughout Christendom in the Middle
    Ages
  • At the Popes request, hundreds of thousands left
    all they had to face danger and death in distant
    lands in a noble effort to recover the sacred
    places where Jesus walked
  • Crusades brought West back into contact with the
    Easts science, literature and art, opening up
    new worlds of thought for Western scholars
  • Opened trade routes to the Orient, stimulated
    commerce
  • Preserved the Church in the West from Islamic
    conquest, allowing Christian medieval culture
    time to develop in peace

57
The Crusades Orders of Knights
  • Presence of Crusaders in the East led to the
    formation of religious orders of knighthood
  • Knights Templars founded 1119 in Jerusalem
    lived under the Rule of St. Bernard took vows of
    poverty, chastity and obedience, plus a vow to
    protect pilgrims white mantle red cross
  • Knights Hospitallers founded 1137 from the
    hospital of St. John at Jerusalem took the 3
    religious vows plus vow to care for sick became
    known as Knights of Malta black mantle white
    cross
  • Teutonic Order of Knights founded 1190 at Acre
    took 3 religious vows plus another to care for
    sick white mantle black cross

58
New Religious Orders
  • The Church was faced with the growing spiritual
    needs of an ever increasing number of members
  • As people began to live in cities and towns, the
    mendicant orders became for them a means of
    salvation foremost were the Franciscans
    Dominicans
  • Contemplative orders also grew substantially and
    it was in this period that the Carthusians and
    Cistercians came on the scene

59
New Religious Orders Contemplatives
  • Carthusians
  • Founded by St. Bruno of Cologne end of 11th
    century
  • Prayer, manual work, study, perpetual silence,
    abstinence from meat
  • Cistercians
  • Founded by St. Bernard of Clairvaux in 1112
  • Bernard considered the last Father of the Latin
    Church
  • Canons Regular
  • Combined the cloister with parish life

60
New Religious Orders Mendicants
  • Franciscans
  • Founded by Francis of Assisi (d. 1226)
    determined to follow ideal of evangelical poverty
  • St. Clare Poor Clares in prayer and strict
    seclusion
  • Approved by Pope Honorius III in 1223
  • Dominicans
  • Founded by St. Dominic (d. 1221) Friars
    Preachers conversion of heretics
  • Approved by Pope Honorius III in 1216
  • Carmelites Augustinians
  • Other mendicant orders began to adapt rules to
    new modes of religious life
  • Mendicants lived among faithful
  • Friars made contemplation overflow into works of
    charity

61
Canon Law
  • Canon Law had existed in various codes since
    Churchs beginning
  • Their sources included Scripture church
    councils texts of the Church Fathers (patristic
    writings) Roman Law papal documents.
  • During the 9th Century numerous codes were
    published based on forged documents designed to
    support certain corrupt behaviors
  • The Church-wide reforms of the 11th Century also
    led to reforms in Canon Law to counteract
    corruption and abuses

62
Canon Law
  • As they struggled to justify their vision of the
    Church, reformers realized that the Church needed
    a body of law that would be recognized throughout
    Christendom.
  • They also realized there should be a central
    authority with the power to modify and change law
    when needed. Ultimately they recognized that the
    papacy should be the center of that reform
  • The eleventh-century canonists emphasized papal
    judicial and legislative primacy as it had never
    before in the canonical tradition. They created a
    new Petrine ecclesiology.

63
Canon Law
  • Gratian of Bologna d. 1170? Father of Canon
    Law
  • Gratian's Decretum quickly became the standard
    textbook of medieval canon law

Gratian
64
Canon Law
  • Pope Gregory IX d. 1241 summoned Raymond of
    Pennafort to Rome in 1230 and asked him to
    compile a new codification that would replace all
    earlier collections of decretals with one volume
  • Gregory promulgated the new collection in 1234
    and, along with Gratians Decretum, it became the
    most important collection of papal decretals in
    the schools and in the courts of Europe
  • These codifications strongly supported papal
    authority
  • Legalism within the Church was firmly established
    by the middle of the 13th century

Raymond of Pennafort
65
Rise of the University 1000 A.D.
  • Cathedral Schools Monasteries were established
    mostly for the education of clerics and monks
    sometimes also open to sons of nobles.
  • Preservation/copying of ancient manuscripts
    liturgical books Cluny Gregorian Reforms

Bologna
66
Abelard Flawed Superstar
  • Teacher in Cathedral schools of Paris
  • Students came from all over to study under him
    theology philosophy
  • New approach in using principles of Greek logic
    dialectics to study matters of faith
  • Wrote books on ethics, logic and universals
  • Controversial in his approach to Scripture and
    theology, he was nevertheless the first of the
    great teachers of the 2nd millennium
  • Scandal with his young student, Heloise, and
    their son, Astrolobus secret marriage. Later he
    became a monk and she a nun. Buried together.

Abelard
67
Bernard of Clairvaux
  • Wanted to remain in his monastic cell, but kept
    encountering wrongs to right
  • Revitalized the Cistercians sorted out a painful
    papal schism preached the 2nd Crusade advised
    Popes bluntly wrote wonderful works of mystic
    theology
  • Accused of being puritanical, he strived for
    austerity in the Cistercians no distractions
  • Called Abelards theology foolology secured
    Abelards condemnation at Counsil of Sens (1141)
  • Was reconciled with Abelard by Abbot Peter the
    Venerable of Cluny

Bernard of Clairvaux
68
Intellectual Life in the High Middle Ages
  • Rediscovery of the writings of Aristotle
    (monasteries Arabic sources)
  • Slow/gradual process many church leaders
    resisted newer methods -- truth comes from God's
    revelation, not human reason
  • Foundation of independent Universities in Bologna
    (1088), Paris (1150), Oxford (1167), Cambridge
    (1208), Salamanca (1218), etc.
  • Establishment of four separate/specialized
    faculties theology, philosophy, law, and
    medicine

69
The Scholastics (Schoolmen)
  • These medieval intellectuals presupposed the
    compatibility of faith reason, uniting
    philosophy theology thereby unifying the
    accummulated knowledge up to this time
  • St. Bonaventure, OFM (1221-74), thought that the
    human will was more important than the human
    intellect
  • Thomas Aquinas, OP (1225-74), the most
    influential of all Christian theologians
    comprehensive systemic "Thomism"

St. Bonaventure
St. Thomas Aquinas
70
St. Thomas Aquinas (Dominican)
  • Aristotlereason and faith
  • Summa Contra Gentiles
  • Summa Theologica
  • Objection 1
  • Objection 2
  • I answer that
  • Reply to obj 1
  • Reply to obj 2

What is St. Thomas contribution?
71
The Scholastics (Schoolmen)
  • Examples of applying scholastic thinking to
    religious questions
  • What is a sacrament? How do they convey grace?
    How many are there?
  • How can one explain the "real presence" of Jesus
    in the Eucharistic bread wine?
    (transubstantiation)
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