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Responder Safety Awareness Training Aid

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Title: Responder Safety Awareness Training Aid


1
Responder Safety AwarenessTraining Aid
  • For All-Hazards Response

2
(No Transcript)
3
Table of Contents
  • Health Hazards 49
  • Standing water 50
  • Trench foot 52
  • Mold 54
  • Water-borne disease 55
  • Food-borne disease 57
  • Sanitation/hygiene 58
  • Blood-borne disease 59
  • Animals insects 62
  • Snakes 63
  • Poisonous plants 64
  • Traumatic stress 65
  • Wildfires 69
  • FIRE Orders 70
  • FIRE Watch Outs 71
  • LCES and Checklist 72
  • Fire Environment Factors 75
  • Credits/Resources 76
  • Introduction 1
  • Physical Chemical Hazards
  • Falls 4
  • Driving traffic 7
  • Electrical 12
  • Chainsaw operation 14
  • Eye injuries 16
  • Confined spaces 17
  • Structural integrity/collapse 19
  • Debris piles/unstable surface 31
  • Overhead hazards 33
  • Heavy equipment 34
  • Flash floods 35
  • Temperature stress 36
  • Noise 42
  • Chemical exposure 43
  • Dusts 45
  • Carbon monoxide 47
  • Hazard Communication 48

4
Employer and Worker Responsibilities
  • Employers and workers have responsibilities under
    the
  • Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act.
  • The OSH Act requires employers to provide a safe
    and healthful workplace, free of recognized
    hazards, and follow Occupational Safety and
    Health (OSHA) standards. Employers'
    responsibilities also include providing training,
    medical examinations, and recordkeeping.
  • Workers must follow the employer's safety and
    health rules and wear or use all required gear
    and equipment follow safe work practices for
    their job, as directed by their employer report
    hazardous conditions to a supervisor and report
    hazardous conditions to OSHA if employers do not
    fix them.

5
Introduction
  • History has shown physical injuries are primary
    contributors to responder morbidity during major
    weather events.
  • Many hazards created by natural disasters are
    similar or identical to those created by man-made
    events, i.e. structural collapse.
  • Injuries may result from
  • Vehicle accidents
  • Struck by
  • Falls
  • Contusions
  • Lacerations

6
Introduction General Considerations
  • Walking over and handling debris that is unstable
    can cause cuts, scrapes, bruises, sprains, etc.
  • Remain current with tetanus vaccination.
  • Revaccinate for a dirty wound if current
    vaccination is over 5 years old.
  • If you will be performing direct patient care or
    otherwise expected to have contact with bodily
    fluids, get the Hepatitis B vaccine series.
  • Avoid contact with stagnant water.
  • Wash and sanitize immediately if exposed.
  • Consider steel toe/shank non-slip footwear if
    available.
  • Use durable gloves when handling debris.
  • Use hearing protection for noisy environments.
  • Know your medicines, allergies, and blood type.

7
Introduction Emergency in the Field
  • If there is an emergency field
  • Consult the Medical Plan (ICS Form 206).
  • Follow your agency Standard Operating Procedures.
  • Notify your supervisor immediately!

8
Falls
  • Responders must be protected from potential falls
    when working more than six feet above next lower
    level.
  • Fall protection such as guardrails, coverings
    over floor holes, or personal fall arrest systems
    shall be installed conforming to 29 CFR 1926
    Subpart M.

9
Falls - Ladders
  • Ladders can create a falling hazard. Make sure
    your ladder is heeled secured
  • Position portable ladders so the side rails
    extend at least 3 feet above the landing with a
    75 angle.
  • Use only ladders that comply with OSHA or NFPA
    standards.

10
Falls - Aerial Apparatus Lifts
  • Only trained and authorized people may operate
    the lift. Read and understand the safety and
    operating instructions including all warning
    decals or labels.
  • The lanyard should be properly attached to the
    workers harness and designated anchor point on
    the lift as per manufacturers recommendations for
    all equipment involved.
  • Check for overhead obstructions before driving or
    elevating the platform.
  • Never use near electric lines unless they are
    deenergizied or adequate clearance is maintained.
  • Refuel tanks only when the unit is off and charge
    batteries in a well ventilated area away from
    open flames.
  • Conduct a visual inspection and a function test
    prior to use.
  • Elevate the lift only when it is on a firm and
    level surface.

11
Driving
  • Every year in the U.S. there are 15,000 fire
    apparatus accidents. Accidents range from open
    doors being knocked off to incidents that have
    resulted in 5,500 lost-time firefighter injuries.
    Cost gt 7 billion.

12
Traffic Issues
  • Be prepared for delays.
  • Watch for other drivers.
  • Flaggers may be hidden or obstructed by larger
    vehicles.
  • Potential Hazards
  • Congestion
  • Power lines
  • Multiple entrances/exits to roadway
  • Hidden entrances/exits
  • 2 way traffic
  • No signage entering the zone
  • Limited visibility for traffic
  • Worker with multiple tasks
  • Flagging truck loading

13
Work Zone Safety
  • High visibility garments While such garments
    may make a worker m conspicuous to approaching
    drivers, they do not offer any actual protection
    from traffic. Such garments must be used in
    conjunction with other traffic safety means.
  • Before work begins in the vicinity of vehicular
    or pedestrian traffic that may endanger
    employees, warning signs and/or flags or other
    traffic control devices shall be placed
    conspicuously to alert and channel approaching
    traffic. Where further protection is needed,
    barriers shall be utilized. At night, warning
    lights shall be prominently displayed, and
    excavated areas shall be enclosed with protective
    barricades.
  • Any crossed or fallen wires which create or may
    create a hazardous situation at the work area
    must be identified and reported.
  • Signs and symbols shall be visible at all times
    when work is being performed, and shall be
    removed or covered promptly when the hazards no
    longer exist.
  • If work exposes energized or moving parts that
    are normally protected, danger signs shall be
    displayed and barricades erected, as necessary,
    to warn other personnel in the area.

14
Component Parts of aTemporary Traffic Control
Zone
  • When operations are such that signs, signals, and
    barricades do not provide the necessary
    protection on or adjacent to a highway or street,
    flagmen or other appropriate traffic controls
    shall be provided.
  • Hand signaling by flagmen shall be by use of red
    flags at least 18 inches square or sign paddles,
    and in periods of darkness, red lights.
  • Flagmen shall be provided with and shall wear a
    yellow or orange warning garment while flagging.
    Warning garments worn at night shall be of
    reflectorized material.

Termination Area
Transition Area
Advance Warning Area
15
Minimum Signs Recommended in the Manual on
Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD)
16
Downed Power Lines and Cables
  • Treat all down lines as energized.
  • Verifying that a power line is not energized may
    not ensure safety.
  • Lines on both the load and supply sides must be
    grounded.
  • Generators must be grounded to protect from
    feedback electrical energy.
  • Ground fault interrupters (GFI) must be used.

17
Downed or Exposed Power Lines
  • Look for overhead power lines and buried power
    line indicators. Post warning signs.
  • Contact utilities for buried power line
    locations.
  • Stay at least 10 feet away from overhead power
    lines.
  • Unless you know otherwise, assume that overhead
    lines are energized.
  • Get the owner or operator of the lines to
    de-energize and ground lines when working near
    them.
  • Other protective measures include guarding or
    insulating the lines.
  • Use non-conductive wood or fiberglass ladders
    when working near power lines.
  • All electrical equipment, including generators,
    extension cords, lighting, and power tools, shall
    meet applicable OSHA, NFPA, and NEC standards.
    Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) shall be
    installed on all 15A and 20A temporary wiring
    circuits.

18
Chain Saws
  • Operate, adjust, and maintain per manufactures
    instructions.
  • Keep chain properly sharpened and lubricated.
  • Periodically check chain tension.
  • Choose the the right saw for the right job.
  • Wear appropriate PPE
  • Hard hat, gloves, eye protection,
    chaps, hearing protection, and boots.

19
Chain Saws
  • Avoid all contact with power lines until verified
    to be de-energized by power company.
  • Always work with saw at waist level or below.
  • When felling a tree, no one closer than 2 tree
    lengths away (min. 150).
  • When cutting a fallen tree, no one should be
    closer than 30 feet.

20
Eye Injuries
  • Use safety glasses with side shields as a
    minimum.
  • An eye wear retainer strap is suggested.
  • Consider safety goggles for protection from fine
    dust particles or for use over regular
    prescription eye glasses.
  • Any worker using a welding torch for cutting must
    have special eye wear to protect against welding
    flash.
  • Welding flash causes severe burns to the eyes and
    surrounding tissue.
  • Use only protective eyewear that has an ANSI Z87
    mark on the lenses or frames.

21
Confined Spaces
  • What is a Confined Space (CS)?
  • What is a Permit-Required CS?
  • Limited access egress
  • Large enough to enter
  • Not designed for occupancy
  • O2 deficiency/enrichment
  • Entrapment
  • Engulfment
  • Hazardous atmosphere
  • Any other recognizable hazardous environment

Your Safety Officer Must Approve Confined Space
Entry!!!!
22
Confined Space
  • Questions to ask
  • Entrant attendant trained?
  • Monitor ventilate?
  • Lock-out tag-out?
  • Issue appropriate PPE?
  • Establish traffic barriers?
  • Provide means of entry egress?
  • Communication alarm systems?
  • Rescue equipment/personnel on-call or stand-by?

23
Structural Collapse
  • Collapse may be the result of earthquakes, wind,
    or flooding.
  • Specific hazards and effects may include
  • Aftershocks
  • Damage to utilities
  • HazMat releases
  • Landslides
  • Avalanches
  • Fires

24
What is an Earthquake?
  • An earthquake is a sudden, rapid shaking of the
    ground caused by the breaking and shifting of
    rock beneath the earth's surface.
  • Earthquakes occur along fault lines.
  • Earthquakes have three different shifting
    patterns (illustrated to the left).
  • Earthquakes may occur at any time with little or
    no advanced warning.
  • An earthquakes magnitude or energy release is
    measured on the Moment magnitude (Mw) scale.

25
What is the Meaning of Earthquake Magnitude?
  • In 1935, while at the Seismological Laboratory,
    Charles Richter worked with Beno Gutenberg
  • to develop a rating scale for earthquakes. The
    scale has become known as the
  • Richter Scale. The scale had the following
    classifications for earthquakes and their
    severity
  • Felt by instruments only.
  • Felt by sensitive people and sensitive animals.
  • Felt by many people.
  • Felt by everyone pictures fall off of walls.
  • Damage.
  • Destructive earthquake in populated areas.
  • Major earthquake causing serious destruction.
  • Total destruction of nearby communities.
  • An earthquake more than one 100 million times
    more powerful than category one.
  • For decades, the Richter Scale proved to be the
    accepted measurement for earthquakes. In
  • recent years, scientists have begun to use the
    Moment Magnitude Scale, which is much more
  • precise than the Richter Scale.
    http//www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec26
    66

26
Where Is an Earthquake Most Likely to Occur in
the U.S.?
  • The greatest likelihood of a major earthquake is
    in
  • The western United States residents of
    California face the highest risk.
  • The New Madrid Fault Zone crosses Missouri,
    Illinois, Arkansas, Kentucky Tennessee four
    million people along the New Madrid Fault Zone
    are at risk.
  • A few pockets on the east coast for example,
  • Massachusetts, North Carolina, and South
    Carolina.
  • Fifteen percent of the U.S. population lives in
    zones of
  • potential major disaster.

San-Andreas Fault
27
High Risk Earthquake Zones
Source U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 017-03
28
What is an Aftershock?
  • An earthquake that occurs after a previous quake.
  • Occurs in the same area as the main quake.
  • Lesser magnitude.
  • May still cause damage and
  • instability.

29
Landslides and Avalanches
  • A landslide is an abrupt downhill movement of
    soil and bedrock.
  • They can be triggered by earthquakes, hurricanes,
    floods or other natural causes.
  • They can create ground movement from rock falls,
    deep failure of slopes, and shallow debris flows.
  • An avalanche is flow of snow or ice down a
    mountain.
  • Both may contain victims.

30
Structural Fires
  • Structural fires are often the leading cause of
    property damage and casualties in the aftermath
    of a natural disaster.
  • Debris left from a fire may smolder for days to
    weeks.

31
Structural Collapse Risk Factors
  • The following increase risk of structural
    collapse
  • Areas near fault lines
  • Structures built on unstable soil and rock
  • Structures not built to earthquake grade
    standards
  • Structures built on steep slopes and areas prone
    to landslides and liquefaction.

32
Structural Collapse Events
  • Structural Integrity
  • Earthquakes can severely damage structures, such
    as buildings, bridges, and dams.
  • Never assume that damaged structures or ground is
    stable.
  • Assume all stairs, floors, and roofs are unsafe
    until inspected.
  • Look up and be aware of hidden
  • and/or overhead risks.
  • Determine if any hazardous materials
  • have been on the property.

33
Structural Collapse
  • How to reduce injuries at structural collapse
  • Engineered shoring and bracing plans are
    required.
  • Ensure all workers are trained and authorized to
    be in the work area.
  • Create a limited access zone around the
    structure.
  • Height of structure (ft) 4(ft)
  • Be alert for signs of a secondary collapse.
  • Wear appropriate PPE
  • Steel toed boots, gloves, hard hat, and eye
    protection

34
Examples of Unstable Structures
35
Debris Piles and Unstable Surfaces
  • Do not walk on unstable surfaces.
  • Use other ways to get to work, such as bucket
    trucks or designated walk-ways.
  • Look for smoldering material on or beneath the
    surface.
  • Lookout for hazardous materials.
  • Wear personal protective equipment.
  • Wear fall protection with appropriate anchor
    points.

36
Handling Debris and Sharp Materials
  • Before disasters, always remain up-to-date on
    tetanus vaccinations.
  • Wear appropriate PPE
  • Hard hat, safety shoes, eye glasses, and heavy
    work gloves
  • Clean all/any wounds with soap and water and
    apply antibiotic ointment.
  • Contact doctor/medical aid to determine if
    additional medical assistance is necessary.

37
Overhead Hazards and Falling Debris
  • Injuries to disaster site workers are often the
    result of falling material and debris related to
    unstable structures.
  • Overhead falling hazards may include
  • loose debris,
  • building components, and
  • unsecure building contents such as
    bathtubs, refrigerators,
    furniture, and HVAC units.

Take extra precaution when working in these
areas. Follow safe work practices and wear
appropriate PPE, such as hard hat, work clothes,
safety shoes, gloves, safety glasses, and
respirator.
38
Heavy Equipment
  • Be alert to the activities around you.
  • Do not exceed the load capacity of cranes and
    other lifting equipment.
  • Do not walk under or through areas where cranes
    and other heavy equipment are lifting objects.
  • Do not climb onto or ride loads being lifted or
    moved.
  • Use outriggers when
  • operating equipment
  • on unstable ground.
  • Do not ride in or on buckets,
  • forks or blades of heavy
    equipment.

39
Flash Floods
  • Flash Floods
  • What to do
  • Rapid flooding of low-lying areas.
  • Flooding occurs in less than six hours.
  • Know the area you are working in.
  • Find higher ground.
  • Wear personal floatation device.
  • Do not cross rapid moving water.
  • Do not wear turnout gear.

40
Temperature Stress
41
Heat Illness Prevention
  • Drink lots of water (5 to 7 ounces every 15 -20
    minutes).
  • Know the signs of heat stress/illness.
  • Work in the shade when possible.
  • Use cooling fans or take breaks.
  • Wear lightweight, light colored, loose-fitting
    clothing.
  • Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and heavy meals.
  • Take shelter and remove PPE when safe.

42
Heat Illnesses Signs Symptoms
  • Heat Stress/Cramps
  • Headache, thirst, profuse sweating, muscle aches
    and cramps.
  • Heat Exhaustion
  • Dizziness, confusion, nausea, pale-clammy skin,
    rapid/weak pulse.
  • Heat Stroke
  • Hot, flushed dry skin, body temp greater than
    104F, disoriented or unresponsive or unconscious.

43
Cold Stress
  • Hypothermia
  • Fist Aid
  • Early Symptoms
  • Shivering
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of coordination
  • Confusion and disorientation
  • Late Symptoms
  • No shivering
  • Blue skin
  • Dilated pupils
  • Slowed pulse and breathing
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Alert the supervisor and request medical
    assistance.
  • Move the victim into a warm area.
  • Remove wet clothing.
  • Warm the core area first.
  • After body temp increases, keep the patient warm
    and dry.
  • If no pulse, begin CPR and request ALS treatment.

44
Cold Stress
  • Frost Bite Symptoms
  • First Aid
  • Reduced blood flow to hands and feet (fingers or
    toes can freeze)
  • Numbness
  • Tingling or stinging
  • Aching
  • Bluish or pail, waxy skin
  • Get into a warm room as soon as possible.
  • Unless absolutely necessary, do not walk on
    frostbitten feet or toes.
  • Immerse the affected area in warm - not hot
    water.
  • Warm the affected area using body heat.
  • Do not rub or massage the frostbitten area.
  • Do not use a heating pad, heat lamp, or the heat
    of a stove, fireplace, or radiator for warming.

45
Sunburn
  • Wear clothing to prevent overexposing skin.
  • Use protective eyewear.
  • Sunglasses, if used, must be ANSI approved for
    use as safety glasses.
  • Use sunscreen and lip balm.
  • Limit exposure time in sun.

46
Noise
  • Worksite is considered noisy if you have to
    shout to communicate within 3 feet.
  • Use hearing protection whenever around noisy
    equipment.
  • Saws, dozers, extrication tools, sirens, etc.
  • Hearing protection prevents
    temporary hearing loss so that
  • you can hear victims.

47
Chemical Releases
  • Hurricane Katrina 2005
  • A Chlorine tank found in downtown Gulfport, MS.
  • 78,000 barrels of oil released at two spills.
  • Diesel, gasoline, motor oil, chlorine, liquid
    oxygen, medical waste and corrosives encountered
    by crews.
  • 22,000 facilities in area had underground storage
    tanks.
  • Industrial and household
  • hazardous chemicals were everywhere!

48
Potential Chemical Exposures
  • Symptoms Eye, nose, throat, upper respiratory
    tract, and skin irritation flu like symptoms
    central nervous system depression, fatigue, loss
    of coordination, memory difficulties,
    sleeplessness, mental confusion. Chronic effects
    depend on the extent and the duration of
    exposure.
  • Jobs affected
  • Debris removal
  • Site clean-up
  • Protection
  • Hazard specific as identified by supervisor or
    safety officer.

49
Air Borne Dusts
  • Use only NIOSH-approved respirators.
  • Fit testing is required.
  • N-95 (or greater) respirators are typically
    suitable for most outdoor activities involving
    standard building materials.
  • If asbestos is present, use N,R,P-100 half masks.
  • If airborne contaminants are causing eye
    irritation, use full face APR with P100 OV/AG
    combination cartridge.
  • Replace filters or masks if breathing becomes
    difficult or chemical odors break through.

50
NIOSH Particulate Respirator Classification
Efficiency P Series Oil Proof R Series Oil Resistant N Series No Oil Present
99.97 P100 R100 N100
99 P99 R99 N99
95 P95 R95 N95
51
Carbon Monoxide from Equipment/Tools
  • Symptoms Include
  • Headache, dizziness, drowsiness, or nausea
    progressing to vomiting, unconsciousness,
    collapse, and ultimately leading to death.
  • Use CO sensors when using or working around
    combustion sources.
  • Shut off engines when not used.
  • Do not use engines in confined spaces.
  • Do not work in open areas near exhaust.

52
Hazard Communication
  • Employers must inform employees of the hazards
    they work with.
  • MSDS for materials provided by employer must be
    available.
  • Containers of chemicals shall be labeled with the
    contents, hazards, and target organs.

53
Health Hazards
  • Standing water
  • Trench foot
  • Mold
  • Water-borne disease
  • Food-borne disease
  • Sanitation/hygiene
  • Blood-borne disease
  • Animals insects
  • Snakes
  • Poisonous plants

54
Standing Water
  • After Katrina, standing water in New Orleans was
    found to have elevated levels of contamination
    from raw sewage and hazardous substances.
  • Avoid contact with standing water.
  • Workers should wear waders and waterproof gloves
    when coming in contact with standing water.

55
Standing Water
  • If your clothes get contaminated, wash them
    separately from other clothes or discard.
  • If skin contacts standing water, wash with soap
    and water.
  • If broken skin contacts standing water, wash with
    soap and water and apply antibiotic ointment.
  • Absolutely do not get standing flood water in
    your mouth.

56
Trench Foot
  • Trench Foot occurs when the feet are wet for long
    periods of time.
  • Symptoms
  • Tingling, itching, pain, swelling, cold and
    blotchy skin, and numbness.
  • Foot may be red, dry, and painful when warmed.
  • Blisters may form and necrosis can follow.

57
Trench Foot
  • To prevent trench foot
  • Elevate and air dry feet.
  • Exchange wet shoes and socks for dry ones.
  • To treat trench foot
  • Clean and dry feet.
  • Use clean socks.
  • Keep warm with packs or warm water for 5 minutes
    when removed from cold conditions.
  • Do not wear socks when sleeping.
  • Seek medical attention ASAP.

58
Mold
  • Exposure to mold can cause wheezing and severe
    nasal, eye, and skin irritation.
  • Avoid breathing dusts from wet materials.
  • Use NIOSH N-95 at a minimum (fit testing).
  • Wear protective gloves with gauntlets when using
    biocide (10 bleach.)
  • Wear goggles without vent holes.
  • Articles with visible mold should be discarded.
  • Wash or shower after work.

59
Water-Borne Disease
  • Communicable disease outbreaks of diarrhea and
    respiratory illness can occur when water and
    sewage systems are not working and personal
    hygiene is hard to maintain.
  • Look for posted Boil Water Notices or contact
    Incident Safety Officer or county/state public
    health officer if Boil Water Notices have been
    issued for tap water in disaster areas.
  • If tap water is not safe, use bottled water or
    boil/disinfect tap water.

60
Water-Borne Disease
  • Wash or disinfect your hands often.
  • Seek medical attention immediately if you develop
    any of these symptoms
  • High fever
  • Vomiting
  • Jaundice
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Flu-like symptoms

61
Food-Borne Disease
  • Do not eat food that has come in contact with
    flood water.
  • Throw food away if it has an unusual odor, color,
    or texture.
  • Throw away perishables after 2 hours if warmer
    than 40F.
  • Throw away food containers (open or not) if they
    come in contact with flood water.
  • Keep fridge/freezer doors closed as much as
    possible.
  • If the power is out for more than 4 hours, use
    block or dry ice to keep food cold.

62
Sanitation
  • Sanitation and personal hygiene
  • - Always wash your hands with soap.
  • - Use hand sanitizers frequently.
  • - Exercise good housekeeping.
  • - Only drink from proven potable water sources.

63
Blood-Borne Disease
  • Body Substance Isolation
  • Replace gloves if punctured or torn (double
    glove).
  • Do not handle human remains if you have skin cuts
    or punctures.
  • Use goggles or face shield and mask for handling
    or recovering bodies.
  • Transport human remains
    in closed, leak-proof,
    labeled
    containers.

64
Handling Bodies of Victims
  • There is no direct risk of infectious disease
    from being near human remains, but when directly
    handling bodies, precautions must be taken.
  • Human remains may/will contain blood-borne
    viruses and bacteria.
  • Wear gloves.
  • Eye protection, gowns, and masks .
  • Wash hands frequently.
  • Use body bags to reduce risk of contamination.

65
Insect-Borne Disease
  • Mosquitoes (West Nile and Dengue Fever)
  • Use screens on shelters.
  • Wear long pants and long sleeve shirts.
  • Use insect repellant with DEET or Picaridin.
  • Fire Ants
  • Ants will be disturbed by flood waters and very
    aggressive.
  • Protect skin with long sleeve shirts and long
    pants.
  • Treat stings with over-the-counter medicines.
  • Seek EMS care for any signs of sever reaction.

66
Animal-Borne Disease
  • Flood water and storm damage will displace wild
    and domestic animals.
  • Dead and live animals can spread diseases.
  • Avoid wild or stray animals.
  • Avoid contact with rats or rat-contaminated
    dwellings.
  • If contact with animals occurs, wash skin with
    soap and water and wash or decon PPE.
  • If bitten or scratched, wild or domestic, seek
    medical attention.

67
Snakes
  • Be on alert for snakes swimming in water trying
    to get to higher ground.
  • Do not approach any snake and back away slowly.
  • If you or someone else is bitten
  • Remember color and shape of snake.
  • Keep person calm.
  • Seek EMS.
  • Lay person down with bite below
    level of heart.
  • Cover bite with clean, dry dressing.

68
Poisonous Plants
  • Poison Ivy Oak
  • - Train workers on hazardous plant recognition
  • - Use gloves and wear long pants and
    long-sleeved shirts when possibility of
    contacting poisonous plants.

69
Traumatic Stress
  • Pace yourself and take frequent breaks.
  • Watch out for team mates.
  • Be aware of others around you, others are
    suffering too.

70
Traumatic Stress
  • Accept what you cannot change.
  • Talk to others when you feel like it.
  • If formal mental health support is offered, use
    it.
  • Flashbacks will occur and are normal, but will
    diminish over time.
  • Call home as much as possible.

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Traumatic Stress
  • What you can do at home
  • Reach out to others.
  • Reconnect with family.
  • Keep a journal.
  • Do not make big personal decisions.
  • Make as many small everyday decisions as needed
    to feel more in control.
  • Spend time with self or families to help unwind.

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Traumatic Stress
  • You may be hyper-protective of your family
    members - this will decrease over time.
  • Getting back to normal takes time, let others
    carry the load for a while.
  • Use humor to alleviate stress, but be careful.
  • Avoid use of alcohol or drugs, do not complicate
    your life with substance abuse.
  • Get back to normal rest and exercise routines.
  • Eat well-balanced, regular meals.

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Wildland Firefighting
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FIRE Orders
  • TEN STANDARD FIRE ORDERS
  • FIRE BEHAVIOR
  • Keep informed on fire weather conditions and
    forecasts.
  • Know what your fire is doing at all times.
  • Base all actions on current and expected behavior
    of the fire.
  • FIRELINE SAFETY
  • 4. Identify escape routes and safety zones and
    make them
  • known.
  • 5. Post lookouts when there is possible danger.
  • Be alert. Keep calm. Think clearly. Act
    decisively.
  • ORGANIZATIONAL CONTROL
  • Maintain prompt communication with your forces,
    your supervisor, and adjoining forces.
  • Give clear instructions and ensure they are
    understood.
  • Maintain control of your forces at all times.
  • IF YOU CONSIDERED 1 THROUGH 9, THEN
  • 10. Fight fire aggressively, having provided for
    safety first.

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75
FIRE Watch Outs
  • WATCH OUT SITUATIONS
  • Fire not scouted and sized up.
  • In country not seen in daylight.
  • Safety zones and escape routes not identified.
  • Unfamiliar with weather and local factors
    influencing fire behavior.
  • Uninformed on strategy, tactics, and hazards.
  • Instructions and assignments not clean.
  • No communication link with crewmembers or
    supervisor.
  • Constructing line without safe anchor point.
  • Building fireline downhill with fire below.
  • Attempting frontal assault on fire.
  • Unburned fuel between you and fire.
  • Cannot see main fire not in contact with someone
    who can.
  • On a hillside where rolling material can ignite
    fuel below.
  • Weather becoming hotter and drier.
  • Wind increases and/or changes direction.
  • Getting frequent spot fires across line.
  • Terrain and fuels make escape to safety zones
    difficult.

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Wild Land Fires
77
Wildland Fires
  • LCES must be established known to ALL
    firefighters BEFORE needed.

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LCES Checklist
  • 1. All personnel need to be informed
  • 2. Update throughout the shift
  • 3. Lookouts/Communications
  • Competent and trusted individuals?
  • Radio and frequencies?
  • Watch or time piece?
  • Map and communication plan?
  • Knowledge of crews location on division?
  • Good vantage and safe location
  • 4. Escape Routes
  • Scouted?
  • Walkable?
  • Timed?
  • Marked?
  • Away from fire head?
  • 5. Safety Zone (No Shelters Needed)
  • Clean burn / Natural / Man-made /Vehicles.
  • Scouted?
  • Timed?
  • Close enough?
  • Large enough? Consider number of people. Consider
    fuels / flame length.
  • Terrain? Avoid saddles Chutes box canyons.
  • Snags or rolling rocks?

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Fire Environment Factors
  • Terrain Scout
  • Steep slopes (gt50)
  • Chutes, box canyons, saddles, narrow canyons
  • Wind Observe
  • Surface winds above 10mph, lenticular clouds,
    High-fast moving clouds, approaching cold front,
    cumulonimbus development, sudden calm, and
    battling winds
  • Stability Observe
  • Good visibility, gusty winds and dust devils,
    cumulus clouds, castellatus clouds in the a.m.,
    smoke rising straight up, inversion beginning to
    lift, and thermal belt.
  • Fire Behavior Watch
  • Leaning column, sheared column, well developed
    column, smoke color changes, trees torching,
    smoldering fires picking up, small firewhirls
    beginning, and frequent spot fires.
  • Remember to Expect Diurnal Changes!
  • Relative Humidity
  • Temperature
  • Winds
  • Stability

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Credits/Resources
  • The content of this booklet was adapted from
    training tools entitled
  • Safety Awareness for Responders to Hurricanes
    Protecting Yourself While Helping Others
  • AND
  • NIEHS Earthquake Response Training Tool
    Protecting Yourself While Responding to
    Earthquakes
  • These tools were developed by by the National
    Clearinghouse for Worker Safety and Health
    Training. The National Clearinghouse is funded by
    the National Institute of Environmental Health
    Sciences Worker Education and Training Program.
    The National Clearinghouse is operated under
    NIEHS contract 273-05-C-0017 by MDB, Inc.
  • These and other helpful resources are available
    at http//tools.niehs.nih.gov/wetp

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Notes
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